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Full text of "NFPA 1 (2006): Fire Prevention Code"

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NOTICE OF INCORPORATION 

United States Legal Document 

i^ All citizens and residents are hereby advised that 
this is a legally binding document duly incorporated by 
reference and that failure to comply with such 
requirements as hereby detailed within may subject you 
to criminal or civil penalties under the law. Ignorance of 
the law shall not excuse noncompliance and it is the 
responsibility of the citizens to inform themselves as to 
the laws that are enacted in the United States of America 
and in the states and cities contained therein, "^^k 

* * 

NFPA 1 (2006), the Uniform Fire Code, as incorporated 
by and mandated by the States and Municipalities, 
including Hawaii, Kentucky, Maine, Vermont, 
et. alia. 




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IMPORTANT NOTICES AND DISCLAIMERS CONCERNING NFPA DOCUMENTS 

Notice and Disclaimer of Liability Concerining the Use of NFPA Documents 

NFPA codes, standards, recommended practices, and guides, of whicii the document contained herein is one, are de- 
veloped through a consensus standards development process approved by the American National Standards Institute. 
This process brings together volunteers representing varied viewpoints and interests to achieve consensus on fire and 
other safety issues. While the NFPA administers the process and establishes rules to promote fairness in the develop- 
ment of consensus, it does not independently test, evaluate, or verify the accuracy of any information or the soundness 
of any judgments contained in its codes and standards. 

The NFPA disclaims liability for any personal injury, property or other damages of any nature whatsoever, whether 
special, indirect, consequential or compensatory, directly or indirectly resulting from the publication, use of, or reliance 
on this document. The NFPA also makes no guaranty or warranty as to the accuracy or completeness of any information 
published herein. 

In issuing and making this document available, the NFPA is not undertaking to render professional or other services 
for or on behalf of any person or entity. Nor is the NFPA undertaking to perform any duty owed by any person or entity 
to someone else. Anyone using this document should rely on his or her own independent judgment or, as appropriate, 
seek the advice of a competent professional in determining the exercise of reasonable care in any given circumstances. 

The NFPA has no power, nor does it undertake, to police or enforce compliance with the contents of this document. 
Nor does the NFPA hst, certify, test or inspect products, designs, or installations for compliance with this document. 
Any certification or other statement of compliance with the requirements of this document shall not be attributable to 
the NFPA and is solely the responsibility of the certifier or maker of the statement. 

Important Notices and Disclaimers continued on inside back cover. 



10/03 



1-1 



Copyright © 2005, National Fire Protection Association, All Rights Reserved 

NFPAl 
Uimiform Fare Code'^^ 

2006 Editiom 

This edition of NFPA 1, Uniform Fire Code^'^, was prepared by the Technical Committee on 
Uniform Fire Code and acted on by NFPAat its June Association Technical Meeting held June 
6-10, 2005, in Las Vegas, NV. It was issued by the Standards Council on July 29, 2005, with an 
effective date of August 18, 2005, and supersedes all previous editions. 

This edition of NFPA 1 was approved as an American National Standard on August 18, 
2005. 

Origin amd Development of NFE^ 1 

This code was originally developed as a result of the requests of many members of the 
National Fire Protection Association for a document covering all aspects of fire protection 
and prevention that used the other developed NFPA codes and standards. NFPA staff initiated 
this work in 1971 upon a directive from the NFPA Board of Directors. 

The original code was written around a format that served as a guide for the development 
of a local fire prevention code. Prerogatives of local officials were excluded from the main 
text of the document but included within appendices as guidance for exercising desired 
prerogatives. 

In the late 1980s, the Fire Marshals Association of North America undertook the task of 
developing a code that was more self-contained, adding administrative sections and extract- 
ing heavily from other NFPA codes and standards. The draft was submitted to the Fire Preven- 
tion Code Committee. The Committee examined changes in the bulk environment as it is 
affected by fire and incorporated significant pordons of the Life Safety Code®. A special task 
group on hazardous materials examined technological changes in the handling, storage, and 
use of flammable and combustible materials. Chapters extracting hazardous material require- 
ments placed a greater emphasis on protection of life and property from chemical products 
made and used in the environment. A major rewrite resulted in the 1992 edition of the Fire 
Prevention Code. 

The 1997 edition updated the text extracted from other NFPA codes and standards and 
added compliance with additional NFPA codes and standards as part of the requirements of 
NFPAl. 

The 2000 edition of NFPA 1 was a complete revision that updated the text extracted from 
other NFPA codes and standards. Additional direct references from NFPA codes and stan- 
dards that are essential to a code official's use of the document were added. The Committee 
also added a new section on performance-based design as a valuable tool for code officials and 
design professionals. NFPA 1 was restructured to be more functional with respect to adminis- 
tration, code enforcement, and regulatory adoption processes. 

The 2003 edition of NFPA 1, Uniform Fire Cod^^, was a complete revision of the code. It 
incorporated provisions from the Western Fire Chiefs, Uniform Fire Code™, under a partner- 
ship between NFPA and Western Fire Chiefs, while it updated and expanded the provisions 
extracted from other key NFPA codes and standards. To emphasize the partnership, the 
document was renamed NFPA 1, Uniform Fire Cod^^. The Uniform Fire Code is a trademark of 
the Western Fire Chiefs Association. 

NFPA 1, Uniform Fire Code™, was restructured into parts to be more compatible wfith the 
regulatory adoption procedures, including administration and code enforcement, occupan- 
cies, processes, equipment, and hazardous materials provisions. The Committee included a 
newly expanded chapter on performance-based design as an enhanced tool for code officials 
and design professionals. Additional extracts and references from NFPA codes and standards 
that are essential to a code official's use of the document were added, bringing the number of 
referenced NFPA codes and standards to over 125. Additional chapters on hazardous materi- 
als were included that incorporate the provisions covered in the Uniform Fire Code™. 



1-2 UNIFORM FIRE CODE 



The 2006 edition of NFPA 1, UniformFire Code^^, is a complete revision of the Code that incorporates the provisions 
from NFPA 230, Standard for the Fire Protection of Storage. The Technical Committee on Uniform Fire Code was previously 
given responsibility for NFPA 230 and incorporated the requirements into NFPA 1 rather than maintain a separate 
standard. 

This edition also includes new chapters on classification of occupancy, motion picture studios, outdoor tire storage, 
and general storage, while updating and expanding the provisions extracted from other key NFPA codes and standards 
that were deemed essential to a code ofTicial's use of the document. The number of NFPA codes and standards 
referenced in this edition is 117. 

NFPA 1 reflects the technical knowledge of the committees who are responsible for the codes and standards that are 
referenced in and from which text is extracted and incorporated into the technical provisions of NFPA 1 . This Code is 
intended to provide state, county, and local jurisdictions with an effective fire code. 



2006 Edition 



COMMITTEE PERSONNEL 



Technical Coimmittee on Uniform Fii« Code 



Ronald R. Fair, Chair 

Kalamazoo Township Fire Department, MI [E] 

Rep. International Fire Marshals Association 



Scott W. Adams, Park City Fire Service District, UT [E] 
Anthony C. Apfelbeck, Altamonte Springs Building/Fire 
Safety Division, FL [E] 

Rep. NFPAArchitects, Engineers, & Building OSicials 

Section 
Carl F. Baldassarra, Schirmer Engineering Corporation, 
IL[I] 

John E Bender, Maryland State Fire Marshal's Office, 
MD [E] 

Lawrence Brown, National Association of Home Builders, 
DC[U] 

Rep. National Association of Home Builders 
Thomas T. Bulow, Tucson, AZ [U] 

Rep. NFPA Health Care Section 
Jeffif^ P. Collins, Palm Beach County Fire/Rescue, FL [E] 

Rep. NFPA Fire Service Section 
Brian |. Denk, Sara Lee Corporation, IL [U] 

Rep. NFPA Industrial Fire Protection Section 
Douglas S. Ericltson, American Society for Healthcare 
Engineering, VI [U] 

Rep. American Society for Healthcare Engineering 
Keith L. Farmer, The DuPont Company, DE [U] 
Robert Fash, Las Vegas Fire & Rescue, NV [E] 
Reinhamd Hanselka, Integrated Engineering Services 
Inc., FL [SE] 

Alfred J. Hogan, Reedy Creek Improvement District, 
FL[U] 

Howard Hopper, Underwriters Laboratories Inc., CA [RT] 
Thomas W.Jaeger, Gage-Babcock & Associates Inc., \A. [SE] 



Robert J. James, City of Bloomington Fire Prevention, 

MN [E] 

Richard S. Kraus, PSC Petroleum Safety Consultants, 

VA[U] 

Rep. American Petroleum Institute 
Michael J. Laderoute, MJL Associates, Inc., \A. [M] 

Rep. Fire Equipment Manufacturers' Association 
James K. Lathrop, Koffel Associates, Inc., CT [SE] 
Bart T. Massey, Charlotte Fire Department, NC [E] 

Rep. International Association of Fire Chiefs 
Wayne D. Moore, Hughes Associates, Inc., RI [M] 

Rep. Automatic Fire Alarm Associadon, Inc. 
Joseph L. Navarra, Pepco Holdings Inc., DC [U] 

Rep. Edison Electric Institute 
Kenneth R. Quick, Jr., City of Culver City Fire 
Department, CA [E] 

Rep. South Bay Section Fire Prevention Officer 

Association 
Robert Rowe, City of Downey Fire Department, CA [E] 

Rep. Western Fire Chiefs Association 
Jeffrey M. Shapiro, International Code Consultants, 
TX [M] 

Rep. The Chlorine Institute, Inc. 
Randolph W. Tucker, The RJA Group, Inc., TX [SE] 
Wayne Waggoner, National Fire Sprinkler Association, 
Inc., TN [M] 

Rep. National Fire Sprinkler Association 
Peter J. Willse, GE Global Asset Protection Services, CT [I] 

Rep. GE Global Asset Protection Services 



Alternates 



Timothy A. Bancroft, Integrated Engineering Services 
Inc., CA [SE] 

(Alt. to R. Hanselka) 
Kenneth E. Bush, Maryland State Fire Marshal's Office, 
MD [E] 

(Alt. to J. E Bender) 
John A. Davenport, West Point, VA [I] 

(Alt. to P J. Willse) 
Kenneth A. IFord, National Association of Home Builders, 
DC [U] 

(Alt. to L. Brown) 
Raymond A. Grill, The RJA Group, Inc., VA [SE] 

(Alt. to R. W. Tucker) 
Bill Hopple, Tyco/SimplexGrinnell, CA [M] 

(Voting Alt. to NEMARep.) 
Kevin J. Kelly, National Fire Sprinkler Association, Inc., 
NY[M] 

(Alt. to W. Waggoner) 
Roy C. (Chuck) Kimball, Brooks Equipment Company, 
Inc., NC [M] 

(Alt. to M.J. Laderoute) 



William E. Koffel, Koffel Associates, Inc., MD [SE] 

(Alt. to J. K. Lathrop) 
John Lake, Marion County Fire Rescue, FL [E] 

(Alt. to J. P Collins) 
Jennifer Nelson, AT&T - EH&S, NY [U] 

(Alt. to B.J. Denk) 
James S. Peterkin, HLM Design/Heery International, 
PA[U] 

(Alt. to T. T Bulow) 
Alfredo M. Ramirez, Underwriters Laboratories Inc., IL 
[RT] 

(Alt. to H. Hopper) 
Anthony Sanfilippo, Michigan Dept. of Consumer 
& Industry Services, MI [E] 

(Alt. to R. R. Farr) 
Chester W. Schirmer, Schirmer Engineering 
Corporation, NC [I] 

(Alt. to C. F. Baldassarra) 
Rick Thomberry, The Code Consortium, Inc., CA [M] 

(Voting Alt. to W. R. Grace Rep.) 
Gary E Trojak, The Chlorine Institute, Inc., VA [M] 

(Alt. to J. M. Shapiro) 



2006 Edition 



1-4 



UNIFORM FIRE CODE 



Nonvoting 



Robert Bourke, Lynn Fire Department, MA [E] 

Rep. Northeast Regional Fire Code Development 

Committee 
James E. Everitt, Tualatin Valley Fire/Rescue, OR [E] 

Rep. Western Regional Fire Code Development 

Committee 
Jon Nisja, Minnesota State Fire Marshal Division, MN [E] 

Rep. North Central Regional Fire Code Development 

Committee 



Eddie PhilUps, City of East Ridge Fire and Police, TN [E] 
Rep. Southeast Regional Fire Code Development 
Committee 

Walter Smittle, Ripley, WV [SE] 
(Member Emeritus) 



Martha H. Curtis, NFR\ Staff Liaison 

This list represents the membership at the time the Committee was balloted on the final text of this edition. Since that time, 
changes in the membership may have occurred. A key to classifications is found at the back of the document. 

NOTE: Membership on a committee shall not in and of itself constitute an endorsement of the Association or 
any document developed by the committee on which the member serves. 

Committee Scope: This Committee shall have primary responsibility for documents on a Fire Prevention 
Code that includes appropriate administrative provisions, to be used with the National Fire Codes for the 
installation, operation, and maintenance of buildings, structures, and premises for the purpose of providing 
safety to life and property from fire and explosion. This includes development of requirements for, and 
maintenance of, systems and equipment for fire control and extinguishment. Safety to life of occupants of 
buildings and structures is under the primary jurisdicrion of the Committee on Safety to Life. 



2006 Edition 



CONTENTS 



1-5 



Parti AdimiBiistratiom 1— 11 

Chapter 1 Admimistrationi 1— 11 

1.1 Scope 1- 11 

1.2 Purpose 1- 11 

1.3 Application 1- 11 

1.4 Equivalencies, Alternatives, and 
Modifications 1- 12 

1.5 Units 1- 12 

1.6 Enforcement 1— 12 

1.7 Authority 1- 12 

1.8 Duties and Powers of the Incident 
Commander 1- 13 

1.9 Liability 1- 14 

1.10 Board of Appeals 1- 14 

1.11 Records and Reports 1— 15 

1.12 Permits and Approvals 1- 15 

1.13 Certificates of Fitness 1- 22 

1.14 PlanReview 1- 22 

1.15 Technical Assistance 1— 22 

1.16 Notice of Violations and Penalties 1— 23 

Chapter 2 Referenced PubBcatioiiis 1— 23 

2.1 General 1- 23 

2.2 NFPA Publications 1- 23 

2.3 Other Publications 1- 25 

2.4 References for Extracts in Mandatory 

Sections 1— 27 

Chapters De&niitions 1- 28 

3.1 General 1- 28 

3.2 NFPA Official Definitions 1- 28 

3.3 General Definitions 1- 28 

3.4 Special Performance-Based Definitions .... 1- 44 

Chapter 4 General Requirements 1— 44 

4.1 Goals and Objectives 1- 44 

4.2 Assumptions 1- 45 

4.3 Compliance Options 1- 46 

4.4 Fundamental Requirements 1- 46 

4.5 General Requirements 1— 46 

Chapter 5 Perf ormanice-Based Optioim 1— 47 

5.1 General 1- 47 

5.2 Performance Criteria 1- 49 

5.3 Retained Prescriptive Requirements 1-49 

5.4 Design Scenarios 1-49 

5.5 Evaluation of Proposed Designs 1- 51 

5.6 Safety Factors 1- 51 

5.7 Documentation Requirements 1- 51 

Chapter 6 Classificatioii of Occupancy 1— 52 

6.1 Classification of Occupancy 1- 52 



Chapter? Reserved 1- 54 

Chapters Reserved 1- 54 

Chapters Reserved 1- 54 

Partll General 1- 54 

Chapter 10 General Fire Safety 1-54 

10.1 Fundamental Requirements 1— 54 

10.2 Owner/ Occupant Responsibilities 1- 54 

10.3 Occupancy 1- 56 

10.4 Maintenance, Inspection, and Testing 1- 56 

10.5 Building Evacuation 1- 56 

10.6 FireDrills 1-56 

10.7 Reportingof Fires and Other 

Emergencies 1— 56 

10.8 Tampering with Fire Safety Equipment .... 1— 57 

10.9 Emergency Plans 1— 57 

10.10 Smoking 1- 57 

10.11 Open Fires, Incinerators, and 

Commercial Fireplaces 1- 57 

10.12 Fire Protection Markings 1- 58 

10.13 Vacant Buildings and Premises 1— 58 

10.14 Combustible Vegetation 1- 59 

10.15 Special Outdoor Events, Carnivals, and 

Fairs 1- 59 

10.16 Outside Storage 1-60 

10.17 ParadeFloats 1- 60 

10.18 Powered Industrial Trucks 1-60 

10.19 Combustible Materials 1- 61 

Chapter II Bmildimg Services 1— 61 

11. 1 Electrical Fire Safety 1- 61 

11.2 Heating, Ventilation, and 

Air-Conditioning 1— 62 

11.3 Elevators, Escalators, and Conveyors 1- 62 

11.4 Utilities 1- 62 

11.5 Heating Appliances 1— 62 

11.6 Rubbish Chutes, Incinerators, and 

Laundry Chutes 1- 63 

11.7 Stationary Generators and Standby 

Power Systems 1— 63 

11.8 Smoke Control 1-64 

11.9 Emergency Command Center 1— 64 

Chapter 12 Features of Fire Protection 1— 64 

12.1 General 1- 64 

12.2 Construction 1- 64 

12.3 Fire-Resistant Assemblies 1- 64 

12.4 Fire Doors and Windows 1— 64 

12.5 Interior Finish 1- 65 

12.6 Furnishings, Contents, Decorations, 

and Treated Finishes 1— 65 

12.7 Fire Barriers 1- 65 



2006 Edition 



1-6 



UNIFORM FIRE CODE 



12.8 Smoke Partitions 1-68 

12.9 Smoke Barriers 1-69 

Chapter 13 Fire Protection Systems 1— 70 

13.1 General 1- 70 

13.2 Standpipe Systems 1— 71 

13.3 Automatic Sprinklers 1— 71 

13.4 Fire Pumps 1-83 

13.5 WaterSupply 1-86 

13.6 Portable Extinguishers 1- 86 

13.7 Detection, Alarm, and 

Communications Systems 1— 92 

13.8 Other Fire Protection Systems 1-107 

Chapter 14 Means of Egress 1—107 

14.1 Application 1-107 

14.2 Exit Access Corridors 1-107 

14.3 Exits 1-107 

14.4 Means of Egress Reliability 1-108 

14.5 Doors 1-108 

14.6 Enclosure and Protection of Stairs 1—111 

14.7 Exit Passageways 1-112 

14.8 Capacity of Means of Egress 1-113 

14.9 Number of Means of Egress 1-115 

14.10 Arrangement of Means of Egress 1-115 

14.11 Discharge from Exits 1-117 

14.12 Illumination of Means of Egress 1—118 

14.13 Emergency Lighting 1-118 

14.14 Marking of Means of Egress 1-119 

14.15 Secondary Means of Escape 1-121 

Chapter 15 Planned Building Groups 1-121 

15.1 Applicability 1-121 

15.2 Compliance 1-121 

15.3 Plans 1-121 

Chapter 16 Safeguards During Building 
Construction, Alteration, and 

Demolition Operations 1—121 

16.1 General Requirements 1—121 

16.2 Processes and Hazards 1-121 

16.3 Fire Protection 1-122 

16.4 Safeguarding Construction and 

Alteration Operations 1—123 

16.5 Fire Safety During Demolition 1-125 

16.6 Torch-Applied Roofing Systems 1-125 

16.7 TarKettles 1-125 

16.8 Asbestos Removal 1—126 

Chapter 17 Wddland Urban Interface 1-126 

17.1 General 1-126 

17.2 Plans 1-126 

17.3 Wildland Fire-Prone Areas 1-126 



Chapter 18 Fire Department Access and Water 

Supply 1-128 

18.1 General 1-128 

18.2 Fire Department Access 1-128 

18.3 Water Supplies and Fire Hydrants 1-129 

Chapter 1 9 Combustible Waste and Refuse 1-1 29 

19.1 General 1-129 

19.2 Combustible Waste and Refuse 1-1 30 

Part III Occupancy 1—1 30 

Chapter 20 Occupancy Fire Safety 1-130 

20.1 Assembly Occupancies 1-130 

20.2 Educational Occupancies 1-135 

20.3 Day-Care Occupancies 1-135 

20.4 Health Care Occupancies 1-137 

20.5 Residential Board and Care 

Occupancies 1-139 

20.6 Ambulatory Health Care Centers 1-1 40 

20.7 Detention and Correctional 

Occupancies 1—141 

20.8 Hotels and Dormitories 1-142 

20.9 Apartment Buildings 1-142 

20.10 Lodging or Rooming Houses 1-143 

20. 1 1 One- and Two-Family Dwellings and 
Manufactured Housing 1-143 

20.12 Mercantile Occupancies 1-143 

20.13 Business Occupancies 1—143 

20.14 Industrial Occupancies 1-143 

20.15 Storage Occupancies 1—143 

20.16 Special Structures and High-Rise 

Buildings 1-143 

20.17 Historic Buildings and Cultural 

Resources 1-144 

Chapter 21 Airports and Heliports 1-144 

21.1 Hangars 1-144 

21.2 Terminals 1-144 

21.3 Rooftop Heliport Construction and 
Protection 1-145 

Chapter 22 AutomobUe Wrecking Yards 1—147 

22.1 General 1-147 

22.2 Permits 1-147 

22.3 Fire Department Access Roads 1-147 

22.4 Welding and Cutting 1-147 

22.5 Housekeeping 1-147 

22.6 Fire Extinguishers 1—147 

22.7 Tire Storage 1-147 

22.8 Burning Operations 1-147 

22.9 Motor Vehicle Fluids and Hazardous 

Materials 1-147 

Chapter 23 Cleanrooms 1—147 

23.1 General 1-147 

23.2 Applicability 1-147 

23.3 Permits 1-147 



2006 Edition 



CONTENTS 



1-7 



Chapter24 Drycleaning 1-148 

24.1 General 1-148 

24.2 Permits 1-148 

Chapter 25 Grandstands and Bleachers, 

Folding and Telescopic Seating, 

Tents, and Membrane 

Structures 1-148 

25.1 General 1-148 

25.2 Tents 1-149 

25.3 Grandstands 1-150 

25.4 Folding and Telescopic Seating 1—151 

25.5 Permanent Membrane Structures 1—152 

25.6 Temporary Membrane Structures 1-1 53 

Chapter 26 Laboratories Using Chemicals 1—1 54 

26.1 General 1-154 

26.2 Laboratories in Health Care 

Occupancies 1-154 

26.3 Permits 1-154 

Chapter 27 Manufactured Home and 

Recreational Vehicle Sites 1—154 

27.1 Manufactured Home Sites 1-154 

27.2 Recreational Vehicle Parks and 
Campgrounds 1—154 

Chapter 28 Marinas, Boatyards, Marine 

Terminals, Piers, and Wharves 1-155 

28.1 Marinas, Boatyards, and Other 

Recreational Marine Facilities 1—155 

28.2 Marine Terminals, Piers, and Wharves 1—158 

28.3 Construction, Conversion, Repair, and 

Lay-Up of Vessels 1-158 

Chapter 29 Parking Garages 1-158 

29.1 General 1-158 

Chapter 30 Motor Fuel Dispensing Facilities 

and Repair Garages 1—158 

30.1 Motor Fuel Dispensing Facilities 1—158 

30.2 Repair Garages 1-159 

30.3 Operational Requirements 1-160 

Chapter 31 Forest Products 1-161 

31.1 General 1-161 

31.2 Permits 1-161 

31.3 Protection of Storage of Forest 

Products 1-161 

Chapter 32 Motion Pictiuie and Television 
Production Studio Soundst^es 
and Approved Production 

Facilities 1-165 

32.1 General 1-165 

32.2 Permits 1-165 



32.3 Housekeeping 1-165 

32.4 Fire Protection Features 1-165 

Chapter33 Outside Storage of Tbres 1-165 

33.1 General 1-165 

33.2 Individual Piles 1-166 

33.3 Emergency Response Plan 1-166 

33.4 Fire Control Measures 1-166 

33.5 SiteAccess 1-166 

33.6 Signs and Security 1-166 

33.7 Outdoor Storage of Altered Tire 

Material 1-166 

Chapter34 General Storage 1-167 

34.1 General 1-167 

34.2 Classification of Commodities 1-167 

34.3 Building Construction 1-168 

34.4 Storage Arrangement 1-168 

34.5 General Fire Protection 1-169 

34.6 Building Equipment, Maintenance, 

and Operations 1-169 

34.7 Protection of Rack Storage 1-170 

34.8 Protection of Rubber Tires 1-171 

34.9 Protection of Roll Paper 1-171 

34.10 Storage of Idle Pallets 1-171 

Chapter35 Reserved 1-172 

Chapter 36 Reserved 1-172 

Chapters? Reserved 1-172 

ChapterSS Reserved 1-172 

Chapter39 Reserved 1-172 

PartIV Processes 1-172 

Chapter 40 Dust Explosion Prevention 1-1 72 

40.1 General 1-172 

40.2 Permits 1-172 

Chapter41 Hot Work Operations 1-172 

41.1 General 1-172 

41.2 Responsibility for Hot Work 1-173 

41.3 Fire Prevention Precautions 1—173 

41.4 Sole Proprietors and Individual 

Operators 1—175 

41.5 Public Exhibitions and 

Demonstrations 1-175 

41.6 Arc Welding Equipment 1-175 

Chapter42 Refuelmg 1-175 

42.1 General 1-175 

42.2 Automotive Fuel Servicing 1—175 

42.3 Marine Fueling 1-185 

42.4 Aircraft Fuel Servicing 1-187 

42.5 Alternate Fuels 1-194 



2006 Edition 



UNIFORM FIRE CODE 



Chapter 43 Spraying, Dipping, and Coating 
Using Flammable or 

Combustible Materials 1—195 

43.1 Application 1-195 

43.2 Automated Electrostatic Spray 

Equipment 1-206 

43.3 Handheld Electrostatic Spray 

Equipment 1—206 

43.4 Drying, Curing, or Fusion Processes 1—207 

43.5 Miscellaneous Spray Operations 1-207 

43.6 Powder Coating 1-208 

43.7 Organic Peroxides and Plural 

Component Coatings 1-208 

43.8 Styrene Cross-Linked Composites 
Manufacturing (Glass Fiber 

Reinforced Plastics) 1-208 

43.9 Dipping and Coating Processes 1-209 

43.10 Training 1-209 

Chapter44 Solvent Extraction 1-210 

44.1 General 1-210 

44.2 Application 1-210 

44.3 Permits 1-210 

44.4 Special Requirements 1-210 

Chapter 45 Combustible Fibers 1—210 

45.1 General 1-210 

45.2 Electrical Wiring 1-210 

45.3 NoSmoking 1-210 

45.4 Vehicles and Material Handling 

Equipment 1-210 

45.5 Loose Storage of Combustible Fibers 1-210 

45.6 Baled Storage 1-211 

45.7 Storage of Hay, Straw, and Other 

Similar Agricultural Products 1-211 

45.8 Hazardous Materials 1-211 

Chapter 46 Reserved 1-211 

Chapter47 Reserved 1-211 

Chapter48 Reserved 1-211 

Chapter49 Reserved 1-211 

PartV Equipment 1-211 

Chapter 50 Commercial Cooking Equipment 1-211 

50.1 Application 1-211 

50.2 General Requirements 1-212 

50.3 Protection of Coverings and Enclosure 
Materials 1-212 

50.4 Fire-Extinguishing Equipment 1-212 

50.5 Procedures for the Use and 

Maintenance of Equipment 1-215 

50.6 Minimum Safety Requirements for 

Cooking Equipment 1—216 



Chapter 5 1 Industrial Ovens and Furnaces 1—216 

51.1 General 1-216 

51.2 Location 1-216 

51.3 Safety Controls 1-216 

Chapter 52 Stationary Lead-Acid Battery 

Systems 1-216 

52.1 General 1-216 

52.2 Permits 1-216 

52.3 Safety Features 1-216 

Chapter 53 Mechanical Refrigeration 1-217 

53.1 General 1-217 

53.2 Classification 1-217 

53.3 Definitions 1-217 

53.4 Permits and Plans 1-217 

53.5 Installation and Maintenance 1-217 

53.6 Access 1-217 

53.7 Emergency Pressure Control System 1-218 

53.8 Treatment and Flaring Systems for 
Refrigeraint Discharge 1-218 

53.9 Ammonia Diffusion Systems 1-218 

53.10 Refrigeration Machinery Rooms 1-219 

53. 1 1 Refrigerant Vapor Detection and 
AlarmSystems 1-220 

53.12 Electrical 1-220 

53.13 Instructions 1-220 

53.14 Signs and Labels 1-220 

53.15 Testing of Equipment 1-220 

53.16 Notification of Refrigerant Discharges 1-220 

53.17 Changing of Refrigerant Type 1-221 

53.18 Records of Refrigerant Quantities 1—221 

53.19 Storage 1-221 

Chapter54 Reserved 1-221 

Chapter55 Reserved 1-221 

Chapter56 Reserved 1-221 

Chapters? Reserved 1-221 

Chapter58 Reserved 1-221 

Chapter59 Reserved 1-221 

Part VI Hazardous Materials 1-221 

Chapter60 Hazardous Materials 1-221 

60.1 General Requirements 1-221 

60.2 Requirements for All Occupancies 
Containing High Hazard Contents 1-236 

60.3 Requirements for Occupancies 
Exceeding the Maximum Allowable 
Quantities per Control Area for 

High Hazard Contents 1-237 

60.4 Supplemental Requirements for Use 
and Handling of Hazardous 
Materials in Amounts Exceeding 

Maximum Allowable Quantities 1-243 



2006 Edition 



CONTENTS 



1-9 



ChapterGl Aerosol Products 1-247 

61.1 General Provisions 1-247 

61.2 Classification of Aerosol Products 1-247 

61.3 Marking of Packages of Aerosol 

Products 1-247 

61.4 Basic Requirements 1-247 

61.5 Storage in Warehouses and Storage 

Areas 1-248 

61.6 Mercantile Occupancies 1-249 

61.7 Operations and Maintenance 1-250 

Chapter62 Reserved 1-250 

Chapter 63 Compressed Gases and Cryogenic 

Fluids 1-250 

63.1 General Provisions 1-250 

63.2 Building-Related Controls 1-251 

63.3 Compressed Gases 1-256 

63.4 Cryogenic Fluids 1-265 

63.5 Bulk Oxygen Systems 1-271 

63.6 Gaseous Hydrogen Systems 1—271 

63.7 Liquefied Hydrogen Systems 1-271 

Chapter 64 Corrosive Solids and Liquids 1-271 

64.1 General 1-271 

64.2 Outdoor Storage 1-271 

Chapter 65 Explosives, Fireworks, and Model 

Rocketry 1-271 

65.1 General 1-271 

65.2 Display Fireworks 1-271 

65.3 Pyrotechnics Before a Proximate 

Audience 1-271 

65.4 Flame Effects Before an Audience 1-271 

65.5 Fireworks Manufacturing 1-271 

65.6 Model Rocketry 1-271 

65.7 Rocketry Manufacturing 1—271 

65.8 High Power Rocketry 1-271 

65.9 Explosives 1-271 

65.10 Ammonium Nitrate 1-272 

65.11 Sale, Handling, and Storage of 

Consumer Fireworks 1—272 

Chapter 66 Flammable and Combustible 

Liquids 1-279 

66.1 General 1-279 

66.2 TankStorage 1-280 

66.3 Piping Systems 1-288 

66.4 Container and Portable Tank Storage 1-288 

66.5 Operations 1—314 

66.6 Electrical Equipment and Installations 1-321 

66.7 Handling Underground Releases of 
Flammable and Combustible 

Liquids 1-321 



Chapter67 Flammable Solids 1-324 

67.1 General 1-324 

67.2 Outdoor Storage 1-324 

Chapter 68 Highly Toxic and Toxic Solids and 

Liquids 1-324 

68.1 General 1-324 

68.2 Indoor Storage 1-325 

68.3 Outdoor Storage 1-325 

Chapter 69 Liquefied Petroleum Gases and 

Liquefied Natural Gases 1-325 

69.1 General Provisions 1-325 

69.2 LP-Gas Equipment and Appliances 1-325 

69.3 Installation of LP-Gas Systems 1-327 

69.4 LP-Gas Liquid Transfer 1-338 

69.5 Storage of Cylinders Awaiting Use, 

Resale, or Exchange 1-340 

69.6 Vehicular Transportation of LP-Gas 1-342 

69.7 LP-Gases at Utility Plants 1-344 

69.8 Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) 1-344 

Chapter 70 Oxidizers and Organic Peroxides 1-344 

70.1 General 1-344 

70.2 Liquid and Solid Oxidizers 1-344 

70.3 Organic Peroxide Formulations 1—352 

Chapter 7 1 Pyrophoric Solids and Liquids 1—356 

71.1 General 1-356 

71.2 Outdoor Storage 1-356 

Chapter 72 Unstable (Reactive) Solids and 

Liquids 1-356 

72.1 General 1-356 

72.2 Outdoor Storage 1-356 

Chapter 73 Water-Reactive Solids and Liquids 1-356 

73.1 General 1-356 

73.2 Outdoor Storage 1-357 

AnnexA Ejcplanatoiy Material 1-357 

Annex B Oxidizers and Organic Peroxides 1—464 

Annex C Sample Ordinance Adopting the 

NFPAl, Uniform Fire Code^ 1-473 

Annex D Hazardous Materials Management 
Plans and Hazardous Materials 

Inventory Statements 1-474 

Annex E Model Citation Program 1-483 

Annex F Model Fees and Charges Program 1-490 

Annex G Ozone Gas-Generating Equipment 1 -494 

Annex H Fire Flow Requirements for Buildings 1—495 



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Annex I Fire Hydrant Locations and Annex N AHJ Minimum Qualifications and Job 

Distribution 1-497 Descriptions for Code 

^ „ . „„ , „ , ,r,a Enforcement Personnel 1—514 

Annex J Protection of Outdoor Storage 1-498 

Annex K Explanation of Rack Storage Test Data Annex O Additional, Adoptable NFPA Codes 

andProcedures 1-499 andStandards 1-517 

Annex L Protection of Baled Cotton: History of 

Guidelines 1-503 AnnexP Infonnational References 1-518 

Annex M Recommendations for Fitting 

Rubber Tu« Fires in Sprinklered Index 1-524 

Buildings 1-513 



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ADMINISTRATION 



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NFPAl 

Uniform Fire Code^"^ 

2006 Edition 

IMPORTANT NOTE: This NFPA document is made available for 
use subject to important notices and legal disclaimers. These notices 
and disclaimers appear in all publications containing this document 
and may be found under the heading "Important Notices and Dis- 
claimers Concerning NFPA Documents. " They can also be obtained 
on request from NFPA or viewed at iinvw.nfpa.org/disclaimers. 

NOTICE: An asterisk (*) following the number or letter 
designating a paragraph indicates that explanatory material 
on the paragraph can be found in Annex A. 

A reference in brackets [ ] following a section or paragraph 
indicates material that has been extracted from another NFPA 
document. As an aid to the user, the complete title and edition 
of the source documents for extracts in mandatory sections of 
the document are given in Chapter 2 and those for extracts in 
informational sections are given in Annex P. Editorial changes 
to extracted material consist of revising references to an ap- 
propriate division in this document or the inclusion of the 
document number with the division number when the refer- 
ence is to the original document. Requests for interpretations 
or revisions of extracted text shall be sent to the technical 
committee responsible for the source document. 

Information on referenced publications can be found in 
Chapter 2 and Annex P. 

Chapter 1 Administration 

1.1 Scope. 

1.1.1 The scope includes, but is not limited to, the following: 

( 1 ) Inspection of permanent and temporary buildings, pro- 
cesses, equipment, systems, and other fire and related 
life safety situations 

(2) Investigation of fires, explosions, hazardous materials in- 
cidents, and other related emergency incidents 

(3) Review of design and construction plans, drawings, and 
specifications for life safety systems, fire protection sys- 
tems, access, water supplies, processes, and hazardous 
materials and other fire and life safety issues 

(4) Fire and life safety education of fire brigades, employees, 
responsible parties, and the general public 

(5) Existing occupancies and conditions, the design and 
construction of new buildings, remodeling of existing 
buildings, and additions to existing buildings 

(6) Design, alteration, modification, construction, main- 
tenance, and testing of fire protection systems and 
equipment 

(7)*Access requirements for fire department operations 

(8) Hazards from outside fires in vegetation, trash, building 
debris, and other materials 

(9) Regulation and control of special events including, but 
not limited to, assemblage of people, exhibits, trade 
shows, amusement parks, haunted houses, outdoor 
events, and other similar special temporary and perma- 
nent occupancies 

(10) Interior finish, decorations, furnishings, and other com- 
bustibles that contribute to fire spread, fire load, and 
smoke production 



(11) Storage, use, processing, handling, and on-site transpor- 
tation of flammable and combustible gases, liquids, and 
solids 

(12) Storage, use, processing, handling, and on-site transpor- 
tation of hazardous materials 

(13) Control of emergency operations and scenes 

(14) Conditions affecting fire fighter safety 

1.1.2 Title. The tide of this Code shall be NFPA 1, Uniform Fire 
Code, of the National Fire Protection Association (NFPA) . 

1.2* Purpose. The purpose of this Code is to prescribe mini- 
mum requirements necessary to establish a reasonable level of 
fire and life safety and property protection from the hazards 
created by fire, explosion, and dangerous conditions. 

1.3 Application. 

1.3.1 This Cod£ shall apply to both new and existing condi- 
tions. 

1.3.2* Referenced Standards. 

1.3.2.1 Details regarding processes, methods, specifications, 
equipment testing and maintenance, design standards, per- 
formance, installation, or other pertinent criteria contained 
in those codes and standards listed in Chapter 2 of this Cod£ 
shall be considered a part of this Code. 

1.3.2.2 Where no applicable codes, standards, or require- 
ments are set forth in this Code or contained within other laws, 
codes, regulations, ordinances, or bylaws adopted by the au- 
thority having jurisdiction (AHJ) , compliance with applicable 
codes and standards of NFPA or other nationally recognized 
standards as are approved shall be deemed as prima facie evi- 
dence of compliance with the intent of this Code. (See Annex O.) 

1.3.2.3 Nothing herein shall derogate from the authority of 
the AHJ to determine compliance with codes or standards for 
those activities or installations within the AHJ's responsibility. 

1.3.3 Conflicts. 

1.3.3.1 When a requirement differs between this Code and a 
referenced document, the requirement of this Code shall apply. 

1.3.3.2 When a conflict between a general requirement and a 
specific requirement occurs, the specific requirement shall apply. 

1.3.4 Multiple Occupancies. Where two or more classes of oc- 
cupancy occur in the same building or structure and are so 
intermingled that separate safeguards are impracticable, 
means of egress facilities, construction, protection, and other 
safeguards shall comply with the most restrictive fire safety 
requirements of the occupancies involved. 

1.3.5 Vehicles and Vessels. Vehicles, vessels, or other similar 
conveyances, when in fixed locations and occupied as build- 
ings, as described by Section 11.6 of NFPA 101, Life Safety Code, 
shall be treated as buildings and comply with this Code. 

1.3.6 Buildings. 

1.3.6.1 Buildings permitted for construction after the adop- 
tion of this Cod« shall comply with the provisions stated herein 
for new buildings. 

1.3.6.2* Buildings in existence or permitted for construction 
prior to the adoption of this Code shall comply with the provi- 
sions stated herein or referenced for existing buildings (see 
10.3.2). 



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1.3.6.3 Repairs, renovations, alterations, reconstruction, 
change of occupancy, and additions to buildings shall con- 
form with NFPA 101 and the building code. 

1.3.6.4 Newly introduced equipment, materials, and opera- 
tions regulated by this Code shall comply with the require- 
ments for new construction or processes. 

1.3.7 Severability. If any provision of this Code or the applica- 
tion thereof to any person or circumstance is held invalid, the 
remainder of the Code and the application of such provision to 
other persons or circumstances shall not be affected thereby. 

1.4 Equivalencies, Alternatives, and Modifications. 

1.4.1 Equivalencies. Nothing in this Code is intended to pre- 
vent the use of systems, methods, or devices of equivalent or 
superior quality, strength, fire resistance, effectiveness, dura- 
bility, and safety to those prescribed by this Code, provided 
technical documentation is submitted to the AHJ to demon- 
strate equivalency and the system, method, or device is ap- 
proved for the intended purpose. 

1.4.2 Alternatives. The specific requirements of this Corfe shall 
be permitted to be altered by the AHJ to allow alternative 
methods that will secure equivalent fire safety, but in no case 
shall the alternative afford less fire safety than, in the judg- 
ment of the AHJ, that which would be provided by compliance 
with the provisions contained in this Code. 

1.4.3 Modifications. The AHJ is authorized to modify any of 
the provisions of this Code upon application in writing by the 
owner, a lessee, or a duly authorized representative where 
there are practical difficulties in the way of carrying out the 
provisions of the Code, provided that the intent of the Code 
shall be complied with, public safety secured, and substantial 
justice done. 

1.4.4 Buildings with equivalency, alternatives, or modifica- 
tions, approved by the AHJ shall be considered as conform- 
ing with this Code. 

1.4.5 Each application for an alternative fire protection fea- 
ture shall be filed with the AHJ and shall be accompanied by 
such evidence, letters, statements, results of tests, or other sup- 
porting information as required to justify the request. The 
AHJ shall keep a record of actions on such applications, and a 
signed copy of the AHJ's decision shall be provided for the 
applicant. 

1.4.6 Approval. The AHJ shall approve such alternative con- 
struction systems, materials, or methods of design when it is 
substantiated that the standards of this Code are at least 
equaled. If, in the opinion of the AHJ, the standards of this 
Code shall not be equaled by the alternative requested, ap- 
proval for permanent work shall be refused. Consideration 
shall be given to test or prototype installations. 

1.4.7 Tests. 

1.4.7.1 Whenever there is insuiBcient evidence of compli- 
ance with the requirements of this Code or evidence that any 
material or method of construction does not conform to the 
requirements of this Code, or to substantiate claims for alterna- 
tive construction systems, materials, or methods of construc- 
tion, the AHJ shall be permitted to require tests for proof of 
compliance to be made by an approved agency at the expense 
of the owner or his/her agent. 

1.4.7.2 Test methods shall be as specified by this Codeior the 
material in question. If there are not appropriate test methods 



specified in this Code, the AHJ is authorized to accept an appli- 
cable test procedure from another recognized source. 

1.4.7.3 Copies of the results of all such tests shall be retained 
in accordance with Section 1.11. 

1.5 Units. 

1.5.1 International System of Units. Metric units of measure- 
ment in this Code are in accordance with the modernized met- 
ric system known as the International System of Units (SI). 

1.5.2 Primary and Equivalent Values. If a value for a measure- 
ment as given in this Code is followed by an equivalent value in 
other units, the first stated value shall be regarded as the re- 
quirement. A given equivalent value could be approximate. 

1.6 Enforcement. This Code shall be administered and en- 
forced by the AHJ designated by the governing authority. (See 
Annex C for sample wording for enabling legislation.) 

1.7 Authority. 

1.7.1 Administration. The provisions of this Code shall apply 
without restriction, unless specifically exempted. 

1.7.2* Minimum Qualifications to Enforce this Code. The AHJ 

shall adopt minimum qualifications for all persons assigned 
the responsibility of administering and enforcing this Code. 

1.7.3 Interpretations. 

1.7.3.1 The AHJ is authorized to render interpretations of 
this Code and to make and enforce rules and supplemental 
regulations in order to carry out the application and intent of 
its provisions. 

1.7.3.2 Such interpretations, rules, and regulations shall be 
in conformance with the intent and purpose of this Code and 
shall be available to the public during normal business hours. 

1.7.4 Enforcement Assistance. Police and other enforcement 
agencies shall have authority to render necessary assistance in 
the enforcement of this Code when requested to do so by the 
AHJ. 

1.7.5 Delegation of Authority. The AHJ shall be permitted to 
delegate to other qualified individuals such powers as neces- 
sary for the administration and enforcement of this Code. 

1.7.6 Inspection. 

1.7.6.1 The AHJ shall be authorized to inspect, at all reason- 
able times, any building or premises for dangerous or hazard- 
ous conditions or materials as set forth in this Code. 

1.7.6.2 The AHJ shall have authority to order any person(s) 
to remove or remedy such dangerous or hazardous condition 
or material. Any person (s) failing to comply with such order 
shall be in violation of this Code. 

1.7.6.3 To the full extent permitted by law, any AHJ engaged 
in fire prevention and inspection work shall be autifiorized at 
all reasonable times to enter and examine any building, struc- 
ture, marine vessel, vehicle, or premises for the purpose of 
making fire safety inspections. 

1.7.6.4 Before entering, the AHJ shall obtain the consent of 
the occupant thereof or obtain a court warrant authorizing 
entry for the purpose of inspection except in those instances 
where an emergency exists. 



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1.7.6.5 As used in 1.7.6.4, emergency means circumstances 
that the AHJ knows, or has reason to believe, exist and that can 
constitute immediate danger to life and property. 

1.7.6.6 Persons authorized to enter and inspect buildings, 
structures, marine vessels, vehicles, and premises as herein set 
forth shall be identified by credentials issued by the governing 
authority. 

1.7.7 Where conditions exist and are deemed hazardous to 
life and property by the AHJ, the AHJ shall have the authority 
to summarily abate such hazardous conditions that are in vio- 
lation of this Code. 

1.7.8 Interference with Enforcement. Persons shall not inter- 
fere or cause conditions that would interfere with an AHJ car- 
rying out any duties or functions prescribed by this Code. 

1.7.9 Impersonation. Persons shall not use a badge, uniform, 
or other credentials to impersonate the AHJ. 

1.7.10 Investigation. 

1.7.10.1 Authority. The AHJ shall have the authority to in- 
vestigate the cause, origin, and circumstances of any fire, 
explosion, release of hazardous materials, or other hazard- 
ous condition. 

1.7.10.2 Evidence. The AHJ shall have the authority to take 
custody of all physical evidence relating to the cause of the 
fire, explosion, release of hazardous materials, or other haz- 
ardous condition. 

1.7.10.3 Limiting Access. The AHJ shall have the authority to 
limit access to emergencies or other similar situations. 

1.7.10.4 Trade Secret. Information that could be related to 
trade secrets or processes shall not be made part of the public 
record except as could be directed by a court of law. 

1.7.11 Plans and SpeciHcations. The AHJ shall have the au- 
thority to require plans and specifications to ensure compli- 
ance with applicable codes and standards. 

1.7.12 Inspection of Construction and Installation. 

1.7.12.1 The AHJ shall be notified by the person perform- 
ing the work when the installation is ready for a required 
inspection. 

1.7.12.2 Whenever any installation subject to inspection 
prior to use is covered or concealed without having first been 
inspected, the AHJ shall have the authority to require that 
such work be exposed for inspection. 

1.7.12.3 When any construction or installation work is being 
performed in violation of the plans and specifications as ap- 
proved by the AHJ, a written notice shall be issued to the re- 
sponsible party to stop work on that portion of the work that is 
in violation. 

1.7.12.4 The notice shall state the nature of the violation, and 
no work shall be continued on that portion until the violation 
has been corrected. 

1.7.13 Certificate of Occupancy. When the building code re- 
quires a certificate of occupancy, the certificate of occupancy 
shall not be issued until approved by the AHJ for fire code 
enforcement. 

1.7.14 Stop Work or Evacuation. 

1.7.14.1 The AHJ shall have the authority to order an opera- 
tion or use stopped and the immediate evacuation of any oc- 



cupied building or area when such building or area has haz- 
ardous conditions that present imminent danger. 

1.7.14.2 Whenever any work is being done contrary to provi- 
sions of this Code, the AHJ is hereby authorized to order such 
work stopped. 

1.7.14.3 Such work shall immediately stop until authorized 
by the AHJ to proceed. 

1.7.15 Standby Fire Personnel. 

1.7.15.1 The AHJ shall have the authority to require standby 
fire personnel or an approved fire watch when potentially haz- 
ardous conditions or a reduction in a life safety feature exist 
due to the type of performance, display, exhibit, occupancy, 
contest or activity, an impairment to a fire protection feature, 
or the number of persons present. 

1.7.15.2* The owner, agent, or lessee shall employ one or 
more qualified persons, as required and approved, to be on 
duty. 

1.7.15.2.1 The cost of standby fire personnel shall be at no 
cost to the AHJ. 

1.7.15.3 Such standby fire personnel or fire watch personnel 
shall be subject to the AHJ's orders at all times and shall be 
identifiable and remain on duty during the times such places 
are open to the public, when such activity is being conducted, 
or as required by the AHJ. 

1.7.16 Public Fire Education. 

1.7.16.1 The AHJ shall have the authority to develop and 
implement a public fire safety education program as deemed 
necessary for the general welfare with respect to the potential 
fire hazards within the jurisdiction. 

1.7.16.2 The AHJ shall have the authority to ensure duly au- 
thorized public fire safety education programs or public fire 
safety messages are disseminated to the general public. 

1.8 Duties and Powers of the Incident Commander. 

1.8.1 Authority. The incident commander conducting opera- 
tions in connection with the extinguishment and control of 
any fire, explosion, hazardous materials incident, natural di- 
saster, rescue, and/or other emergency shall have authority to 
direct all operations of fire extinguishment, mitigation of a 
hazardous materials incident, natural disaster, rescue, and/or 
control and to take necessary precautions to save life, protect 
property, and prevent further injury or damage. 

1.8.2 Controlling Scene. During any emergency described in 
1.8.1, including the investigation of the cause of such emer- 
gency, the incident commander or authorized representative 
shall be permitted to control or prohibit the approach to the 
scene of such emergency by any vehicle, vessel, or person. 

1.8.3 Obstruction of Operations. No person shall obstruct 
the operations of the fire department or disobey any com- 
mand of the incident commander or authorized representa- 
tive or any part thereof, or any order of a police officer assist- 
ing the fire department. 

1.8.4 Scene Barrier. The incident commander or authorized 
representative in charge of an emergency scene shall have the 
authority to establish barriers to control access in the vicinity 
of such emergency and to place, or cause to be placed, ropes, 
guards, barricades, or other obstructions across any street or 
alley to delineate such emergency scene barrier. 



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UNIFORM FIRE CODE 



1.8.5 No person, except as authorized by the incident com- 
mander in charge of the emergency, shall be permitted to 
cross barriers established in accordance with 1.8.4. 

1.9 Liability. 

1.9.1 The AHJ, and other individuals charged by the AHJ or 
the incident commander with the control or extinguishment 
of any fire, the enforcement of this Code or any other official 
duties, acting in good faith and without malice in the dis- 
charge of their duties, shall not thereby be rendered person- 
ally liable for any damage that could accrue to persons or 
property as a result of any act or by reason of any act or omis- 
sion in the discharge of their duties. 

1.9.2 Any suit brought against the AHJ, the incident com- 
mander, or such individuals because of such act or omission 
performed in the enforcement of any provision of such codes 
or other pertinent laws or ordinances implemented through 
the enforcement of this Code or enforced by the code enforce- 
ment agency shall be defended by this jurisdiction until final 
termination of such proceedings, and any judgment resulting 
therefrom shall be assumed by this jurisdiction. 

1.9.3 This Code shall not be construed to relieve from or 
lessen the responsibility of any person owning, operating, or 
controlling any building or structure for any damages to per- 
sons or property caused by defects, nor shall the code enforce- 
ment agency or its parent jurisdiction be held as assuming any 
such liability by reason of the inspections authorized by this 
Code or any permits or certificates issued under this Code. 

1.10 Board of Appeals. 

1.10.1 Establishment of Board of Appeals. 

1.10.1.1 ABoard of Appeals shall be established consisting of 
members and alternate members who shall be appointed by 
the appointing official of the jurisdiction by reason of educa- 
tion, experience, and knowledge and are deemed to be com- 
petent to sit in judgment on matters concerning this Code and 
its enforcement. 

1.10.1.2 No more than one of said members or their alter- 
nates shall be engaged in the same business, profession, or 
line of endeavor. 

1.10.1.3 The members shall serve for a term of three years, 
except for the initial appointees who shall serve as follows: two 
for a term of one year, two for a term of two years, and three 
for a term of three years. 

1.10.1.4 All members and any alternate members shall be 
appointed and shall serve in accordance with the terms and 
conditions of the AHJ. 

1.10.2 Rules of Board of Appeals. The Board of Appeals shall 
establish rules and regulations for conducting its business and 
shall render all decisions and findings in writing to the AHJ, 
with a copy to the appellant. 

1.10.3 Conflicts of Interest. 

1.10.3.1 Board of Appeals members shall not be officers, 
agents, or employees of the jurisdiction. 

1.10.3.2 No member of the Board of Appeals shall sit in judg- 
ment on any case in which the member, personally, is directly 
interested. 

1.10.4 Duties of Board of Appeals. 

1.10.4.1 The Board of Appeals shall provide for reasonable 
interpretation of the provisions of this Code and rule on ap- 
peals from decisions of the AHJ. 



1.10.4.2 The ruling of the Board of Appeals shall ensure that 
the intent of the Code is complied with and public safety is 
secured. 

1.10.4.3 The Board of Appeals shall be permitted to grant 
alternatives or modifications through the procedures outiined 
in Section 1 .4 of this Code. 

1.10.4.4 The Board of Appeals shall not have the authority to 
waive the requirements of this Code. 

1.10.5 Meetingsof Board of Appeals. 

1.10.5.1 The Board of Appeals shall meet whenever directed 
by the appointing authority to interpret the provisions of this 
Code and to consider and rule on any properly filed appeal 
from a decision of the AHJ, giving at least five days' notice of 
hearing, but in no case shall it fail to meet on an appeal within 
30 calendar days of the filing of notice of appeal. 

1.10.5.2 All of the meetings of the Board of Appeals shall be 
open to the public. 

1.10.6 Quorum. Two-thirds, but not less than four members, 
of the Board of Appeals shall constitute a quorum. In varying 
the application of any provision of this Code, or in modifying 
an order of the AHJ, a majority vote shall be required. 

1.10.7 Meetings and Records. 

1.10.7.1 Meetings of the Board of Appeals shall be held at the 
call of the chair and at such other times as the board determines. 

1.10.7.2 All hearings before the Board of Appeals shall be 
open to the public. 

1.10.7.3 The Board of Appeals shall keep minutes of its pro- 
ceedings showing the vote of each member on every question, or 
if the member is absent or fails to vote, indicating such actions. 

1.10.7.4 The Board of Appeals shall also keep records of its 
examinations and other official actions. 

1.10.7.5 Minutes and records of the Board of Appeals shall be 
public record. 

1.10.8 Procedures. The Board of Appeals shall establish rules 
and regulations for its own procedures consistent with the pro- 
visions of this Code. 

1.10.9 Means of Appeals. 

1.10.9.1 Any person shall be permitted to appeal a decision 
of the AHJ to the Board of Appeals when it is claimed that any 
one or more of the following conditions exist: 

(1) The true intent of the codes or ordinances described in 
this Code has been incorrectly interpreted. 

(2) The provisions of the codes or ordinances do not fully 
apply. 

(3) A decision is unreasonable or arbitrary as it applies to al- 
ternatives or new materials. 

1.10.9.2 An appeal shall be submitted to the AHJ in writing 
within 30 calendar days of notification of violation outlining 
the Code provision from which relief is sought and the remedy 
proposed. 

1.10.9.3* All documentation supporting an appeal shall be 
submitted to the AHJ. 



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1.11 Records and Reports. 

1.11.1 A record of examinations, approvals, equivalencies, 
and alternates shall be maintained by the AHJ and shall be 
available for public inspection during business hours in accor- 
dance with applicable laws. 

1.11.2 The AHJ shall keep a record of all fire prevention in- 
spections, including the date of such inspections and a sum- 
mary of any violations found to exist, the date of the services of 
notices, and a record of the final disposition of all violations. 

1.11.3 Emeigency Response Records. 

1.11.3.1 The fire department shall keep a record of fire and 
other emergency responses occurring within its jurisdiction 
and of facts concerning the same, including statistics as to the 
extent and damage caused by such fires or emergencies. 

1.11.3.2 The fire department shall report its incident record 
data, collected in accordance with 1.11.3, to the recognized 
state agency responsible for collecting such data. 

1.11.4 All records required to be kept shall be maintained 
until their usefulness has been served or as required by law. 

1.12 Permits and Approvals. 

1.12.1 The AHJ shall be authorized to establish and issue 
permits, certificates, and approvals pertaining to conditions, 
operations, or materials hazardous to life or property pursu- 
ant to Section 1.12. 

1.12.2 Applications for permits shall be made to the AHJ on 
forms provided by the jurisdiction and shall include the appli- 
cant's answers in full to inquiries set forth on such forms. 

1.12.2.1 Applications for permits shall be accompanied by 
such data as required by the AHJ and fees as required by the 
jurisdiction. 

1.12.2.2 The AHJ shall review all applications submitted and 
issue permits as required. 

1.12.2.3 If an application for a permit is rejected by the AHJ, 
the applicant shall be advised of the reasons for such rejection. 

1.12.2.4 Permits for activities requiring evidence of financial 
responsibility by the jurisdiction shall not be issued unless 
proof of required financial responsibility is furnished. 

1.12.3 Approvals by Other Authorities Having Jurisdiction. 

1.12.3.1 The AHJ shall have the authority to require evidence 
to show that other regulatory agencies havingjurisdiction over 
the design, construction, alteration, repair, equipment, main- 
tenance, process, and relocation of structures have issued ap- 
propriate approvals. 

1.12.3.2 The AHJ shall not be held responsible for enforcement 
of the regulations of such other regulatory agencies unless spe- 
cifically mandated to enforce those agencies' regulations. 

1.12.4 Misrepresentation. 

1.12.4.1 Any attempt to misrepresent or otherwise deliber- 
ately or knowingly design; install; service; maintain; operate; 
sell; represent for sale; falsify records, reports, or applications; 
or other related activity in violation of the requirements pre- 
scribed by this Code shall be a violation of this Code. 

1 . 1 2.4. 2 Such violations shall be cause for immediate suspen- 
sion or revocation of any related approvals, certificates, or per- 
mits issued by this jurisdiction. 



1.12.4.3 Such violations shall be subject to any other criminal 
or civil penalties as available by the laws of this jurisdiction. 

1.12.5 A permit shall be predicated upon compliance with 
the requirements of this Code and shall constitute written au- 
thority issued by the AHJ to maintain, store, use, or handle 
materials, or to conduct processes that could produce condi- 
tions hazardous to life or property, or to install equipment 
used in connection with such activities. 

1.12.6 Any permit issued under this Code shall not take the 
place of any other approval, certificate, license, or permit re- 
quired by other regulations or laws of this jurisdiction. 

1.12.7 Where additional permits, approvals, certificates, or 
licenses are required by other agencies, approval shall be ob- 
tained from those other agencies. 

1.12.8 The AHJ shall have the authority to require an inspec- 
tion prior to the issuance of a permit. 

1.12.9 A permit issued under this Code shall continue until 
revoked or for the period of time designated on the permit. 

1.12.10 The permit shall be issued to one person or business 
only and for the location or purpose described in the permit. 

1.12.11 Any change that affects any of the conditions of the 
permit shall require a new or amended permit. 

1.12.12 The AHJ shall have the authority to grant an exten- 
sion of the permit time period upon presentation by the per- 
mittee of a satisfactory reason for failure to start or complete 
the work or activity authorized by the permit. 

1.12.13 A copy of the permit shall be posted or otherwise 
readily accessible at each place of operation and shall be sub- 
ject to inspection as specified by the AHJ. 

1.12.14 Any actixdt)' authorized by any permit issued under 
this Code shall be conducted by the permittee or the permit- 
tee's agents or employees in compliance with all requirements 
of this Cod^ applicable thereto and in accordance with the 
approved plans and specifications. 

1.12.15 No permit issued under this Co<i« shall be interpreted 
to justify a violation of any provision of this Code or any other 
applicable law or regulation. 

1.12.16 Any addition or alteration of approved plans or speci- 
fications shall be approved in advance by the AHJ, as evi- 
denced by the issuance of a new or amended permit. 

1.12.17* Permits shall be issued by the AHJ and shall bear 
the name and signature of the AHJ or that of the AHJ's 
designated representative. In addition, the permit shall in- 
dicate the following: 

(1) Operation or activities for which the permit is issued 

(2) Address or location where the operation or activity is to be 
conducted 

(3) Name and address of the permittee 

(4) Permit number and date of issuance 

(5) Period of validity of the permit 

(6) Inspection requirements and other permit conditions 



2006 Edition 



1-16 



UNIFORM FIRE CODE 



1.12.18 Any application for, or acceptance of, any permit re- 
quested or issued pursuant to this Code shall constitute agree- 
ment and consent by the person making the application or 
accepting the permit to allow the AHJ to enter the premises at 
any reasonable time to conduct such inspections as required 
by this Code. 

1.12.19 Revocation or Suspension of Permits. 

1.12.19.1 The AHJ shall be permitted to revoke or suspend a 
permit or approval issued if any violation of this Code is found 
upon inspection or in case any false statements or misrepre- 
sentations have been submitted in the application or plans on 
which the permit or approval was based. 



1.12.19.2 Revocation or suspension shall be constituted 
when the permittee is duly notified by the AHJ. 

1.12.19.3 Any person who engages in any business, opera- 
tion, or occupation, or uses any premises, after the permit 
issued therefore has been suspended or revoked pursuant to 
the provisions of this Code, and before such suspended permit 
has been reinstated or a new permit issued, shall be in viola- 
tion of this Code. 

1.12.20 Permits shall be required in accordance with Table 
1.12.20(a) through Table 1.12.20(d). 



Table 1.12.20(a) Permit Requirements 



Operations and Materials 


Permit Required 


Cross Reference 
Section No. 


Aerosol Products 


To store or handle an aggregate quantity of Level 2 or 
Level 3 aerosol products in excess of 500 lb (226.8 kg) 


61.1.2.3 


Aircraft Fuel Servicing 


To provide aircraft fuel servicing 


42.4.1.2 


Aircraft Hangars 


For servicing or repairing aircraft 


21.1.1 


Aircraft Refueling Vehicles 


To operate aircraft refueling vehicles 


42.4.1.2 


Airport Terminal Buildings 


For construction and alteration 


21.2.2.1 


Ammonium Nitrate 


For storage 


65.10.2 


Amusement Parks 


For construction, alteration, or operation of 
amusement park fire protection safety features 


10.15.1 


Asbestos Removal 


For the removal of asbestos 


16.8.2 


Automatic Fire Suppression Systems 


For installation or modification 


13.1.1.1; 50.4.2 


Automobile Wrecking Yards 


To operate automobile wrecking yards 


22.2 


Automotive Fuel Servicing 


To provide automotive fuel servicing 


42.2.2.1; 42.5.2.2.4; 42.5.3.1 


Battery System 


To install or operate stationary lead-acid battery 
systems having an electrolyte capacity of more than 100 
gal (379 L) in sprinklered buildings or 50 gal (189 L) 
in nonsprinklered buildings 


52.2 


Candles, Open Flames, and Portable 
Cooking 


To use in connection v«th assembly areas, dining areas 
of restaurants, or drinking establishments 


17.3.4.6.1; 20.1.4.2.4.1 


Carnivals and Fairs 


To conduct a carnival or fair 


10.15.1 


Cellulose Nitrate Film 


To store, handle, use, or display 


20.15.6.2 


Cellulose Nitrate Plastic 


To store or handle more than 25 lb (11.3 kg) 


43.1.1.4 


Cleanrooms 


For construction, alternation, or operation 


23.3 


Combustible Fibers 


For storage or handling of combustible fibers greater 
than 100 ft'' (2.8 m^) 


45.1.3 


Combustible Material Storage 


To store more than 2500 ft^ (70.8 m') gross volume 


10.19.2; 19.1.1; 31.2 


Commercial Rubbish-Handling 
Operation 


To operate 


19.1.1 



2006 Edition 



ADMINISTRATION 



1-17 



Table 1.12.20(a) Continued 



Operations and Materials 


Permit Required 


Cross Reference 
Section No. 


Compressed Gases 


To store, use, or handle compressed gases in excess of 
the amounts listed in Table 1.12.20(b). When the 
compressed gases in use or storage exceed the 
amounts listed in Table 1.12.20(b), a permit is 
required to install, repair damage to, abandon, 
remove, place temporarily out of service, close, or 
substantially modify a compressed gas system. For 
additional permit requirements for compressed gases 
facility closures, see 63.1.2. 


63.1.2 


Consumer Fireworks (1.4G) 


1. For the sale, on-site handling, and manufacture of 
consumer fireworks (1.4G) 

2. For the storage of consumer fireworks (1.4G) in 
excess of the amount listed in Table 1.12.20(d) 


65.5.2 
65.11.3.2 


Covered Mall Buildings 


Annual requirement for facilities that utilize mall area 
for exhibits or displays with 4 conditions 


20.1.4.5.1 


Crop Maze 


To operate a crop maze 


10.15.11 


Cryogens 


To produce, store, or handle cryogens in excess of 
amounts listed in Table 1.12.20(c) 
Exception: Where federal or state regulations apply or far fuel 
systems of a vehicle. 


63.1.2 


Cutting and Welding Operation 


For operations within a jurisdiction 


17.3.4.6.1; 41.1.5; 41.3.1.2; 
41.3.3.1 


Display Fireworks (1.3G) 


For possession, transportation, storage, manufacture, 
sale, handling, and discharge of display fireworks 
within the jurisdiction 


65.2.3; 65.5.2 


Drycleaning Plants 


To engage in business of drycleaning or to change to a 
more hazardous cleaning solvent 


24.2 


Dust-Producing Operations 


To operate a grain elevator, flour mill, starch mill, feed 
mill, or plant pulverizing aluminum, coal, cocoa, 
magnesium, spices, sugar, or other similar combustible 
material 


40.2 


Exhibit and Trade Shows 


For operation of all exhibits and trade shows held 
within ajurisdiction 


20.1.4.5.1 


Explosives 


Manufacture, sell, dispose, purchase, storage, use, 
possess, or transport of explosives within the 
jurisdiction. For additional permit requirements for 
blasting operations, see 65.9.2 


65.9.2 


Fire Alarm and Detection Systems and 
Related Equipment 


Installation or modification to fire alarm and detection 
systems and related equipment* 


13.1.1.1 


Fire Hydrants and Water-Control Valves 


To use a fire hydrant or operate a water-control valve 
intended for fire suppression purposes 


13.1.1.1 


Fire Pumps and Related Equipment 


Installation of or modification to fire pumps, jockey 
pumps, controllers, and generators'* 


13.1.1.1 


Flame Effects 


Use of flame effects before an audience 


65.4.2 



(continues) 



2006 Edition 



1-18 



UNIFORM FIRE CODE 



Table 1.12.20(a) Continued 



Operations and Materials 



Permit Required 



Cross Reference 
Section No. 



Flammable and Combustible Liquids 



1. To use or operate, repair, or modify a pipeline for 
the on-site transportation of flammable or combustible 
liquids 

2. To store, handle, or use Class 1 liquids in excess of 5 
gal (18.9 L) in a building or in excess of 10 gal (37.9 
L) outside of a building. 

Exception to item (2): A permit is not required for the 
following: 

(a) The storage or use of Class I liquids in the fuel tank of a 
motor vehicle, aircraft, motorboat, mobile power plant, or 
mobile heating plant unless such storage in the opinion of the 
chief would cause an unsafe condition 

(b) The storage or use of paints, oils, varnishes, or similar 
flammable mixtures when such liquids are stored for 
maintenance, painting, or similar purposes for a period of not 
more than 30 days 

3. To store, handle, or use Class II or Class Ill-A liquids 
in excess of 25 gal (94.6 L) in a building or in excess of 
60 gal (227.1 L) outside a building. 

Exception to item (3): Fuel oil used in connection with 
oil-burning equipment 

4. To remove Class 1 or Class II liquids from an 
underground storage tank used for fueling motor 
vehicles by any means other than the approved, 
stationary on-site pumps normally used for dispensing 
purposes 

5. To install, construct, alter, or operate tank vehicles, 
equipment, tanks, plants, terminals, wells, 
fuel-dispensing stations, refineries, distilleries, and 
similar facilities where flammable and combustible 
liquids are produced, processed, transported, stored, 
dispensed, or used 

6. To install, alter, clean, repair, line with a protective 
coating, remove, abandon, place temporarily out of 
service, or otherwise dispose of a flammable or 
combustible liquid tank 

7. To change the type of contents stored in a 
flammable or combustible liquid tank to a material 
other than those for which the tank was designed and 
constructed 



66.1.5 



Fruit Ripening 



To operate a fruit-ripening process 



60.1.6.1.1; 63.1.2 



General Storage 



To store materials indoors or outdoors, representing a 
broad range of combustibles, including plastics, rubber 
tires, and roll paper. 



34.1.2 



Grandstands, Bleachers, and Folding 
and Telescopic Seating 



For construction, location, erection, or placement of 
grandstands, bleachers, and folding and telescopic 

seating 



25.1.2 



Hazardous Materials 



To store, transport on site, dispense, use, or handle 
hazardous materials in excess of the amounts listed in 
Table 1.12.20(d) or to install, repair, abandon, 
remove, place temporarily out of service, close, or 
substantially modify a storage facility or other area 
regulated by Chapter 60 when the hazardous materials 
in use or storage exceed the amounts listed in Table 
1.12.20(d) 



60.1.6.1.1 



2006 Edition 



ADMINISTRATION 



1-19 



Table 1.12.20(a) Continued 



Operations and Materials 


Permit Required 


Cross Reference 
Section No. 


High-Piled Combustible Storage 


To use any building or portion thereof as a high-piled 
storage area exceeding 500 ft^ (46.45 m^) 


20.15.7.1.1 


High-Powered Rocketry 


For the manufacturing, sale, and use of high-powered 
rocketry 


65.8.2; 65.7.2 


Hot Work Operations 


To conduct hot work 


17.3.4.6.1; 41.1.5; 41.3.3.1 


Industrial Ovens and Furnaces 


For operation of industrial ovens and furnaces covered 
by Chapter 51 


51.1.2.1 


Laboratories 


For construction, alteration, or operation 


26.3 


Liquefied Petroleum Gases 


1. To store, use, handle, or dispense LP-Gas of 125 gal 
(0.5 m^) (water capacity) aggregate capacity or greater 

2. To install or modify LP-Gas systems 


42.5.2.2.4 
69.1.2 


Liquid- or Gas-Fueled Vehicles 


To display, compete, or demonstrate liquid- or 
gas-fiieled vehicles or equipment in assembly buildings 


20.1.4.5.1 


Lumberyards and Woodworking Plants 


For storage of lumber exceeding 100,000 board ft 


31.2 


Marine Craft Fuel Servicing 


To provide marine craft fuel servicing 


42.3.1.4 


Membrane Structures, Tents, and 
Canopies — Permanent 


For construction, location, erection, or placement 


25.1.2 


Membrane Structures, Tents, and 
Canopies — Temporary 


To erect or operate an air-supported temporary 

membrane structure or tent having an area in excess of 

200 ft^ (18.6 m^) or a canopy in excess of 400 ft^ (37.2 

m^) 

Exception: Temporary membrane structures, tents, or canopy 

structures used exclusively for camping 


25.1.2 


Motion Picture and Television 

Production Studio Soundstages and 
Approved Production Facilities 


To design, construct, operate, and maintain 
soundstages and approved production facilities used in 
motion picture and television industry productions. 


32.2 


Oil- and Gas-Fueled Heating Appliances 


To install oil- and gas-fired heating appliances 


11.5.1.6 


Open Burning 


To conduct open burning. For additional permit 
requirements for open burning, see 10.11.1 


10.11.1 


Open Fires 


For kindling or maintaining an open fire. For 
additional permit requirements for open fires, see 
10.11.4'' 


10.11.1 


Organic Coatings 


For operation and maintenance of a facility that 
manufactures organic coatings 


43.1.1,4 


Organic Peroxide Formulations 


To store, transport on site, use, or handle materials in 
excess of amounts listed in Tables 1.12.20(c) and (d) 


70.1.2 


Outside Storage of Tires 


To store more than 500 tires outside 


33.1.2 


Oxidizers 


To store, transport on site, use, or handle materials in 
excess of amounts listed in Tables 1.12.20(c) and (d) 


70.1.2 


Parade Floats 


To use a parade float for public performance, 
presentation, spectacle, entertainment, or parade 


10.17.1 



(contznties) 



2006 Edition 



1-20 



UNIFORM FIRE CODE 



Table 1.12.20(a) Continued 



Operations and Materials 


Permit Required 


Cross Reference 
Section No. 


Places of Assembly 


To operate a place of assembly 


10.15.1; 20.1.1 


Pyrotechnic Articles 


For the manufacture, storage, sale, or use of 
pyrotechnic articles within the jurisdiction 


65.2.3; 65.3.3; 65.5.2; 
65.11.3.2 


Pyrotechnics Before a Proximate 
Audience 


For the display and use of pyrotechnic materials before 
a proximate audience 


65.3.3 


Pyroxylin Plastics 


For storage, handling, assembly, or manufacture of 
pyroxyhn plastics 


43.1.1.4 


Private Fire Hydrants 


For installation, modification, or removal from service 
of any private fire hydrants 


13.1.1.1 


Refrigeration Equipment 


To install or operate a mechanical refrigeration unit or 
system regulated by this Code 


53.4.1 


Repair Garages and Service Stations 


For operation of service stations and repair garages 


30.1.1.3:30.2.1.1 


Rocketry Manufacturing 


For the manufacturing of model rocket motors 


65.7.2 


Rooftop Heliports 


For construction, modification, or operation of a 
rooftop heliport 


21.3.2.1 


Solvent Extraction 


For storage, use, and handling 


44.3 


Spraying or Dipping of Flammable 
Finish 


For installation or modification of any spray room, 
spray booth, or preparation work station, or to conduct 
a spraying or dipping operation utilizing flammable or 
combustible liquids or powder coating 


43.1.1.4 


Standpipe Systems 


For installation, modification, or removal from service 
of any standpipe system'' 


13.1.1.1 


Special Outdoor Events 


For the location and operation of special outdoor 
events 


10.15.1 


Tar Ketdes 


To place a tar kettle, a permit must be obtained prior 
to the placement of a tar ketde 


16.7.1.2; 17.3.4.6.1 


Tire-Rebuilding Plants 


For operation and maintenance of a tire-rebuilding 
plant 


34.1.2 


Tire Storage 


To use an open area or portion thereof to store tires in 
excess of 500 tires 


33.1.2; 34.1.2 


Torch-Applied Roofing Operation 


For the use of a torch for application of roofing 
materials 


16.6.1 


Wildland Fire-Prone Areas 


For use of hazardous areas within fire-prone areas 


17.3.2 


Wood Products 


To store wood chips, hogged material, wood 
by-products, lumber, or plywood in excess of 200 ft^ 
(5.7 m^) 


31.2 



"Maintenance performed in accordance with this Code is not considered a modification and does not require a permit. 
''Cooking and recreational fires are exempt and do not require a permit. 



2006 Edition 



ADMINISTRATION 



1-21 



Table 1.12.20(b) Permit Amounts for Compressed Gases 



Table 1.12.20(d) Continued 



Amount* 



Type of Gas 



ft^ 



Corrosive 

Flammable 

Highly toxic 

Inert and simple asphyxiant 

Oxidizing (including oxygen) 

Pyrophoric 

Toxic 

Unstable (reactive) 



200 0.57 

200 0.57 

Any amount 
6000 169.9 

504 14.3 

Any amount 
Any amount 
Any amount 



Note: See Chapters 41, 42, 60, 63, and 69 for additional requirements 

and exceptions. 

*Cubic feet measured at normal temperature and pressure. 



Table 1.12.20(c) Permit Amounts for Cryogens 





Inside Building 


Outside Building 


Type of Cryogen 


(gal) 


(gal) 


Corrosive 


Overl 


Overl 


Flammable 


Overl 


60 


Toxic/Highly 


Overl 


Overl 


toxic 






Nonflammable 


60 


500 


Oxidizer 


10 


50 


(includes 






oxygen) 







Note: See Chapter 63. 



Table 1.12.20(d) Permit Amoimts for Hazardous Materials 



Amount 



Type of Material 



U.S. Unit Metric Unit 



Cellulose nitrate 
Combustible fiber 
Combustible liquids 
Consumer fireworks 

(1.4G) 
Corrosive gases 
Corrosive liquids 
Corrosive solids 
Cryogens 

Display fireworks (1.3G) 
Explosives 
Flammable gases 
Flammable liquids 
Flammable solids 
Highly toxic gases 
Highly toxic liquids 
Highly toxic solids 
LP-Gas 

Nitrate film (cellulose) 
Organic peroxides: 



251b 11.3 kg 

100 ft* 2.8 m* 

See Table 1.12.20(a) 

10 lb 4.5 kg* 

See Table 1.12.20(b) 
55 gal 208 L 

500 lb 227 kg 

See Table 1.12.20(c) 
Any amount 
Any amount 

See Table 1.12.20(b) 

See Table 1.12.20(a) 
100 lb 45.4 kg 

See Table 1.12.20(b) 
Any amount 
Any amount 

See Table 1.12.20(b) 
Any amount 

See Table 1.12.20(a) 



Amount 



Type of Material 



U.S. Unit Metric Unit 



Class! 

Class II 

Class III 

Class IV 

Class V 

Unclassified 

detonatable 
Oxidizing gases 
Oxidizing liquids: 

Class 4 

Class 3 

Class 2 

Class 1 
Oxidizing solids: 

Class 4 

Class 3 

Class 2 

Class 1 
Pyrophoric gases 
Pyrophoric liquids 
Pyrophoric solids 
Toxic gases 
Toxic liquids 
Toxic solids 

Unstable (reactive) gases 
Unstable (reactive) 

liquids: 

Class 4 

Class 3 

Class 2 

Class 1 
Unstable (reactive) solids: 

Class 4 

Class 3 

Class 2 

Class 1 
Water reactive liquids: 

Class 3 

Class 2 

Class 1 
Water reactive sohds: 

Class 3 

Class 2 

Class 1 



Any amount 
Any amount 
10 lb 4.5 kg 

20 lb 9 kg 

Not required 
Any amount 

See Table 1.12.20(b) 
See Table 1.12.20(a) 

Any amount 

1 gal 3.8 L 

10 gal 38 L 

55 gal 208 L 

See Table 1.12.20(a) 

Any amount 

10 lb 4.5 kg 

100 lb 45 kg 

500 lb 227 kg 

See Table 1.12.20(b) 

Any amount 

Any amount 

See Table 1.12.20(b) 

10 gal 38 L 

1001b 45 kg 

See Table 1.12.20(b) 



Any amount 

Any amount 

5 gal 19 L 

10 gal 38 L 

Any amount 

Any amount 

50 lb 22.7 kg 

100 lb 45 kg 

Any amount 
5 gal 19 L 

10 gal 38 L 

Any amount 
50 lb 22.7 kg 

100 lb 45 kg 



Note; See Chapter 60 for additional requirements and exceptions. 
*UnIess the actual weight of the pyrotechnic composition of the con- 
sumer fireworks, 1 .4G, is known, 25 percent of the gross weight of the 
fireworks, including packaging, is permitted to be used to determine 
the weight of the fireworks for the purpose of this table. 



2006 Edition 



1-22 



UNIFORM FIRE CODE 



1.13 Certificates of Fitness. 

1.13.1 Authorization. The AHJ shall have the authority to re- 
quire certificates of fitness and collect fees for individuals or 
companies performing activities related to fire or life safety 
within the jurisdiction such as the following: 

(1) Use of explosive materials 

(2) Blasting or demolition operations 

(3) Fireworks displays 

(4) Inspection, servicing, or recharging of portable fire extin- 
guishers 

(5) Installation, servicing, or recharging of fixed fire extin- 
guishing systems 

(6) Installation or servicing of fire alarm or fire communica- 
tion systems 

(7) Servicing of gas- or oil-burning heating systems 

(8) Chimney sweep operations 

(9) Installation, inspection, or servicing of range-hood systems 

1.13.2 Where certificates of fitness are required, the AHJ 
shall be responsible for their issuance. 

1.13.3 All applications for a certificate of fitness shall be filed 
with the AHJ on forms provided by the AHJ. 

1.13.4 Every individual or company applying for a certificate 
of fitness shall furnish evidence to the AHJ of familiarity with 
the codes and standards for which the certificate of fitness is 
issued. 

1.13.5 Investigation of Applicant. 

1.13.5.1 The AHJ shall investigate every application for a cer- 
tificate of fitness. 

1.13.5.2 The investigation shall include an examination of 
the applicant's experience and training in the field of the cer- 
tificate of fitness for which application has been made. 

1.13.5.3 When the AHJ determines that an applicant is not fit 
to receive the certificate of fitness because of the applicant's 
inability to comply with the provisions of this Code, the AHJ 
shall refuse to issue the certificate of fitness. 

1.13.5.4 If the refusal is based on the applicant's inability to 
pass an examination given to determine competency, the ap- 
plicant shall not be permitted to apply again for the certificate 
of fitness within a 10-day period following the examination. 

1.13.6 Certificates of fitness shall not be transferable. 

1.13.7 Certificates of fitness shall be issued for the period of 
time as indicated on the certificate of fitness as determined by 
the AHJ, but such period of time shall not exceed 3 years. 

1.13.8 Applications for renewal of a certificate of fitness shall 
be filed in the same manner as an application for an original 
certificate. 

1.13.9 Each individual or company holding a certificate of 
fitness shall notify the AHJ in writing of any address change 
within 10 days after such change. 

1.13.10 A certificate of fitness shall be in the form of an identi- 
fication card. The card shall contain the following information: 

(1) Purpose for which the certificate of fitness is issued 

(2) Date of expiration 

(3) Information necessary to easily identify the individual to 
whom the certificate of fitness is issued 



(4) Signature of the individual to whom the certificate of fit- 
ness is issued 

(5) Name and signature of the AHJ or a designated represen- 
tative 

(6) Statement printed thereon in bold type the following: 

THIS CERTIFICATE IS NOT AN ENDORSEMENT OF 
THIS INDIVIDUAL OR COMPANY BY THE 
AUTHORITY HAVING JURISDICTION. 

1.13.11 Any individual or company to whom a certificate of 
fitness has been granted shall, upon request, produce and 
show proper identification and the certificate of fitness to any- 
one for whom that individual seeks to render services or to the 
AHJ. 

1.13.12 Revocation. 

1.13.12.1 The AHJ shall be permitted to revoke or suspend a 
certificate of fitness issued if any violation of this Code is found 
upon inspection or where any false statements or misrepresen- 
tations are submitted in the application on which the approval 
was based. 

1.13.12.2 Revocation or suspension shall be constituted 
when the certificate holder is duly notified by the AHJ. 

1.13.12.3 Failure on the part of an individual to give such 
notification of a change of address required by 1.13.9 shall 
constitute grounds for revocation of the certificate of fitness. 

1.14 Plan Review. 

1.14.1* Where required by the AHJ for new construction, 
modification, or rehabilitation, construction documents and 
shop drawings shall be submitted, reviewed, and approved 
prior to the start of such work as provided in Section 1.14. 

1.14.2 The applicant shall be responsible to ensure that the 
following conditions are met: 

(1) The construction documents include all of the fire pro- 
tection requirements. 

(2) The shop drawings are correct and in compliance with 
the applicable codes and standards. 

(3) The contractor maintains an approved set of construction 
documents on site. 

1.14.3 It shall be the responsibility of the AHJ to promulgate 
rules that cover the following: 

(1) Criteria to meet the requirements of Section 1.14 

(2) Review of documents and construction documents vnthin 
established time frames for the purpose of acceptance or 
providing reasons for nonacceptance 

1.14.4 Review and approval by the AHJ shall not reUeve the 
applicant of the responsibility of compliance with this Code. 

1.14.5 When required by the AHJ, revised construction docu- 
ments or shop drawings shall be prepared and submitted for 
review and approval to illustrate corrections or modifications 
necessitated by field conditions or other revisions to approved 
plans. 

1 . 1 5 '^ Technical Assistance . 

1.15.1 The AHJ shall be permitted to require a review by an 
independent third party with expertise in the matter to be 
reviewed at the submitter's expense. 

1.15.2 The independent reviewer shall provide an evaluation 
and recommend necessary changes of the proposed design, 
operation, process, or new technology to the AHJ. 



2006 Edition 



REFERENCED PUBLICATIONS 



1-23 



1.15.3 The AHJ shall be authorized to require design submit- 
tals to bear the stamp of a professional engineer. 

1.15.4 The AHJ shall make the final determination as to 
whether the provisions of this Code have been met. 

1.16 Notice of \^olations and Penalties. 

1.16.1 Whenever the AHJ determines violations of this Code,!i 
written notice shall be issued to confirm such findings. 

1.16.2 Serving Notice. 

1.16.2.1 Any order or notice issued pursuant to this CodeshaW 
be served upon the owner, operator, occupant, or other per- 
son responsible for the condition or violation, either by per- 
sonal service, by mail, or by delivering the same to, and leaving 
it with, some person of responsibility upon the premises. 

1.16.2.2 For unattended or abandoned locations, a copy of 
such order or notice shall be posted on the premises in a con- 
spicuous place at or near the entrance to such premises and 
the order or notice shall be mailed by registered or certified 
mail, with return receipt requested, to the last known address 
of the owner, occupant, or both or publication in a newspaper 
of general circulation wherein the subject premise is located. 

1.16.3 Any person who mutilates, destroys, or removes posted 
orders or notices without the authorization of the AHJ shall be 
subject to the penalties established by the jurisdiction. 

1.16.4 Any person who fails to comply with the provisions of 
this Code or who fails to carry out an order made pursuant of 
this Code or violates any condition attached to a permit, ap- 
proval, or certificate shall be subject to the penalties estab- 
lished by the jurisdiction. 

1.16.5 Failure to comply with the time limits of an abatement 
notice or other corrective notice issued by the AHJ shall result 
in each day that such violation continues being regarded as a 
new and separate offense. 



Chapter 2 Referenced Publications 

2.1 General. The documents or portions thereof listed in this 
chapter are referenced within this code and shall be consid- 
ered part of the requirements of this document. 

2.2 NFPA Publications. National Fire Protection Association, 
1 Batterymarch Park, Quincy, MA 02169-7471. 

NFPA 10, Standard for Portable Five Extinguishers, 2002 edition. 

NFPA 11, Standard for Low-, Medium-, and High-Expansion 
Foam, 2005 edition. 

NFPA 12, Standard on Carbon Dioxide Extinguishing Systems, 
2005 edition. 

NFPA 12A, Standard on Halon 1301 Fire Extinguishing Systems, 
2004 edition. 

NFPA 13, Standard for the Installation of Sprinkler Systems, 2002 
edition. 

NFPA 13D, Standard for the Installation of Sprinkler Systems in 
One- and Two-Family Dwellings and Manufactured Homes, 2002 
edition. 

NFPA 13R, Standard for the Installation of Sprinkler Systems in 
Residential Occupancies up to and Including Four Stories in Height, 
2002 edition. 

NFPA 14, Standard for the Installation of Standpipe and Hose 
Systems, 2003 edition. 



NFPA 1 5 , Standard for Water Spray Fixed Systems for Fire Protec- 
tion, 2001 edition. 

NFPA 16, Standard for the Installation of Foam-Water Sprinkler 
and Foam-Water Spray Systems, 2003 edition. 

NFPA 1 7, Standard for Dry Chemical Extinguishing Systems, 
2002 edition. 

NFPA 17A, Standard for Wet Chemical Extinguishing Systems, 

2002 edition. 

NFPA 20, Standard for the Installation of Stationary Pumps for 
Fire Protection, 2003 edition. 

NFPA 22, Standard for Water Tanks for Private Fire Protection, 

2003 edition. 

NFPA 24, Standard for the Installation of Private Fire Service 
Mains and Their Appurtenances, 2002 edition. 

NFPA 25, Standard for the Inspection, Testing, and Maintenance 
ofWater-Based Fire Protection Systems, 2002 edition. 

NFPA 30, Flammable and Combustible Liquids Code, 2003 
edition. 

NFPA30A, Code for Motor Fuel Dispensing Facilities and Repair 
Garages, 2003 edition. 

NFPA 30B, Code for the Manufacture and Storage of Aerosol Prod- 
ucts, 2002 edition. 

NFPA 31, Standard for the Installation of Oil-Burning Equip- 
ment, 2001 edition. 

NFPA 32, Standard for Lhycleaning Plants, 2004 edition. 

NFPA 33, Standard for Spray Application Using Flammable or 
Combustible Materials, 2003 edition. 

NFPA 34, Standard for Dipping and Coating Processes Using 
Flammable or Combustible Liquids, 2003 edition. 

NFPA 35, Standard for the Manufacture of Organic Coatings, 
2005 edition. 

NFPA 36, Standard for Solvent Extraction Plants, 2004 edition. 

NFPA 37, Standard for the Installation and Use of Stationary 
Combustion Engines and Gas Turbines, 2002 edition. 

NFPA 40, Standard for the Storage and Handling of Cellulose 
Nitrate Film, 2001 edition. 

NFPA 45, Standard on Fire Protection for Laboratories Using 
Chemicals, 2004 edition. 

NFPA 51, Standard for the Design and Installation of Oxygen- 
Fuel Gas Systems for Welding Cutting, and Allied Processes, 2002 
edition. 

NFPA 51 A, Standard for Acetylene Cylinder Charging Plants, 
2001 edition. 

NFPA 51B, Standard for Fire Prevention During Welding, Cut- 
ting, and Other Hot Work, 2003 edition. 

NFPA 52, Vehicular Fuel Systems Code, 2006 edition. 

NFPA 54, National Fuel Gas Code, 2006 edition. 

NFPA 55, Standard for the Storage, Use, and Handling of Com- 
pressed Gases and Cryogenic Fluids in Portable and Stationary Con- 
tainers, Cylinders, and Tanks, 2005 edition. 

NFPA 58, Liquefied Petroleum Gas Code, 2004 edition. 

NFPA 59, Utility LP-Gas Plant Code, 2004 edition. 

NFPA 59A, Standard for the Production, Storage, and Handling 
of Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG), 2006 edition. 

NFPA 61, Standard for the Prevention of Fires and Dust Explo- 
sions in Agricultural and Food Processing Facilities, 2002 edition. 

NFPA 69, Standard on Explosion Prevention Systems, 2002 
edition. 

NFPA 70, National Electrical Code^, 2005 edition. 

NFPA 7'f, National Fire Alarm Code^, 2002 edition. 

NFPA 80, StandardforFire Doors and Fire Windows, 1999 edition. 

NFPA 82, Standard on Incinerators and Waste and Linen Han- 
dling Systems and Equipment, 2004 edition. 



2006 Edition 



1-24 



UNIFORM FIRE CODE 



NFPA 85, Boiler and Combustion Systems Hazards Code, 2004 
edition. 

NFPA 86, Standard for Ovens and Furnaces, 2003 edition. 

NFPA88A, Standard for Parking Structures, 2002 edition. 

NFPA 90 A, Standardfor the Installation ofAir-Conditioningand 
Ventilating Systems, 2002 edition. 

NFPA 90B, Standardfor the Installation of Warm Air Heating 
and Air-Conditioning Systems, 2006 edition. 

NFPA 91, Standard for Exhaust Systems for Air Conveying of 
Vapors, Gases, Mists, and Noncombustible Particulate Solids, 2004 
edition. 

NFPA 96, Standardfor Ventilation Control and Fire Protection of 
Commercial Cooking Operations, 2004 edition. 

NFPA 99, Standard for Health Care Facilities, 2005 edition. 

NFPA lOI®, Life Safety Code®, 2006 edition. 

NFPA 102, Standard for Grandstands, Folding and Telescopic 
Seating Tents, and Membrane Structures, 1995 edition. 

NFPA 110, Standard for Emergency and Standby Power Systems, 

2005 edition. 

NFPA 111, Standard on Stored Electrical Energy Emergency and 
Standby Power Systems, 2005 edition. 

NFPA 120, Standard for Fire Prevention and Control in Coal 
Mines, 2004 edition. 

NFPA 140, Standard on Motion Picture and Television Production 
Studio Soundstages and Approved Producticm Facilities, 2004 edition. 

NFPA 1 60, Standardfor the Use of Flame Effects Before an Audi- 
ence, 2006 edition. 

NFPA204, Standard for Smoke and Heat Venting, 2002 edition. 

NFPA 211, Standard for Chimneys, Fireplaces, Vents, and Solid 
FuA-Buming Appliances, 2003 edition. 

NFPA 220, Standard on Types of Building Construction, 2006 
edition. 

NFPA 221, Standard fen- High Challenge Fire Walls, Fire Walk, 
and Fire Barrier Walls, 2006 edition. 

NFPA 232, Standard for the Protection of Records, 2000 edition. 

NFPA 241, Standardfor Safeguarding Construction, Alteration, 
and Demolition Operations, 2004 edition. 

NFPA 251, Standard Methods of Tests of Fire Resistance of Build- 
ing Construction and Materials, 2006 edition. 

NFPA 252, Standard Methods of Fire Tests of Door Assemblies, 
2003 edition. 

NFPA 253, Standard Method of Test for Critical Radiant Flux of 
Floor Covering Systems Using a Radiant Heat Energy Source, 2006 
edition. 

NFPA 255, Standard Method of Test of Surface Burning Charac- 
teristics of Building Materials, 2006 edition. 

NFPA 256, Standard Methods of Fire Tests of Roof Coverings, 

2003 edition. 

NFPA 257, Standard on Fire Test for Window and Glass Block 
Assemblies, 2000 edition. 

NFPA 271, Standard for Heat and Visible Smoke Release Rates for 
Materials and Products Using an Oxygen Consumption Calorimeter, 

2004 edition. 

NFPA 288, Standard Methods of Fire Tests of Floor Fire Docrr As- 
semblies Installed Horizontally in Fire Resistance-Rated Floor Sys- 
tems, 2001 edition. 

NFPA 302, Fire Protection Standard for Pleasure and Commercial 
Motor Craft, 2004 edition. 

NFPA 303, Fire Protection Standard for Marinas and Boatyards, 

2006 edition. 

NFPA 307, Standardfor the Construction and Fire Protection of 
Marine Terminals, Piers, and Wharves, 2006 edition. 

NFPA 312, Standard for Fire Protection of Vessels During Con- 
struction, Conversion, Repair, and Lay-Up, 2006 edition. 

NFPA 318, Standardfor the Protection of Semiconductor Fabrica- 
tion Facilities, 2006 edition. 



NFPA 385, Standardfor Tank Vehicles for Flammable and Com- 
bustible Liquids, 2000 edition. 

NFPA 407, Standard for Aircraft Fv£l Servicing 2001 edition. 

NFPA 409, Standard on Aircraft Hangars, 2004 edition. 

NFPA 410, Standard on Aircraft Maintenance, 2004 edition. 

NFPA 415, Standard on Airport Terminal Buildings, Fueling 
Ramp Drainage, and Loading Walkways, 2002 edition. 

NFPA 418, Standard for Heliports, 2001 edition. 

NFPA 430, Code for the Storage of Liquid and Solid Oxidizers, 

2004 edition. 

NFPA 432, Code for the Storage of Organic Peroxide Formulations, 
2002 edition. 

NFPA 434, Code far the Storage of Pesticides, 2002 edition. 

NFPA 484, Standardfor Combustible Metals, 2006 edition. 

NFPA 490, Code for the Storage of Ammonium Nitrate, 2002 
edition. 

NFPA 495, Explosive Materials Code, 2006 edition. 

NFPA 498, Standard for Safe Havens and Interchange Lots for 
Vehicles Transporting Explosives, 2006 edition. 

NFPA 501, Standard on Manufactured Housing, 2005 edition. 

NFPA 501 A, Standard for Fire Safety Criteria for Manufactured 
Home Installations, Sites, and Communities, 2005 edition. 

NFPA 505, Fire Safely Standard for Powered Industrial Trucks 
Including Type Designations, Areas of Use, Conversions, Mainte- 
nance, and Operations, 2006 edition. 

NFPA 560, Standardfor the Storage, Handling, and Use of Eth- 
ylene Oxide for Sterilization and Fumigation, 2002 edition. 

NFPA 601 , Standardfor Security Services in Fire Loss Prevention, 

2005 edition. 

NFPA 654, Standardfor the Prevention of Fire and Dust Explo- 
sions from the Manufacturing Processing and Handling of Combus- 
tible Particulate Solids, 2006 edition. 

NFPA 655, Standard for Prevention of Sulfur Fires and Explo- 
sions, 2001 edition. 

NFPA 664, Standardfor the Prevention of Fires and Explosions in 
Wood Processing and Woodworking Facilities, 2002 edition. 

NFPA 701 , Standard Methods of Fire Tests for Flame Propagation 
of Textiles and Films, 2004 edition. 

NFPA 703, Standard for Fire Retardant-Treated Wood andFire- 
Retardant Coatings for Building Materials, 2006 edition. 

NFPA 704, Standard System for the Identification of the Hazards 
of Materials for Emergency Response, 2001 edition. 

NFPA 750, Standard on Water Mist Fire Protection Systems, 2003 
edition. 

NFPA 801, Standard for Fire Protection fen' Facilities Handling 
Radioactive Materials, 2003 edition. 

NFPA 909, Code for the Protection of Cultural Resource Properties 
— Museums, Libraries, and Places of Worship, 2005 edition. 

NFPA 1122, Code for Model Rocketry, 2002 edition. 

NFPA 1123, Code for Fireworks Display, 2006 edition. 

NFPA 1124, Code for the Manufacture, Transportation, Storage, 
and Retail Sales of Fireworks and Pyrotechnic Articles, 2006 edition. 

NFPA 1125, Code for the Manufacture of Model Rocket and High 
Power Rocket Motors, 2001 edition. 

NFPA 1126, Standardfor the Use of Pyrotechnics Before a Proxi- 
mate Audience, 2006 edition. 

NFPA 1127, Code for High Power Rocketry, 2002 edition. 

NFPA 1141, Standard for Fire Protection in Planned Building 
Groups, 2003 edition. 

NFPA 1 1 42, Standard on Water Supplies for Suburban and Rural 
Fire Fighting, 2001 edition. 

NFPA 1144, Standard for Protection of Life and Property from 
Wildfire, 2002 edition. 

NFPA 1192, Standard on Recreational Vehicles, 2005 edition. 

NFPA 1194, Standard for Recreational Vehicle Parks and Camp- 
grounds, 2005 edition. 



2006 Edition 



REFERENCED PUBLICATIONS 



1-25 



NFPA 1600, Standard on Disaster/Emergency Management and 
Business Continuity Programs, 2004 edition. 

NFPA 1963, Standard for Fire Hose Connections, 2003 edition. 

NFPA 2001, Standard on Clean Agent Fire Extinguishing Sys- 
tems, 2004 edition. 

NFPA 500(f, Building Construction and Safety Code'^, 2006 
edition. 

2.3 Other Publications. 

2.3.1 ANSI Publication. American National Standards Insti- 
tute, Inc., 25 West 43rd Street, 14th floor. New York, NY 10036. 

CABO/ANSI All 7.1, American National Standard for Acces- 
sible and Usable Buildings and Facilities, 2003. 

2.3.2 API Publications. American Petroleum Institute, 1220 
L Street, NW, Washington, DC 20005-4070. 

APFASME Code for Unfired Pressure Vessels for Petroleum Liquids 
and Gases, Pre-July 1, 1961. 

API BULL 1529, Aviation Fueling Hose, 1998. 

API 607, Fire Test for Soft-Seated Quarter-Turn Valves, 1993. 

2.3.3 ASHRAE Publication. American Society of Heating, 
Refrigerating and Air Conditioning Engineers, Inc., 1791 Tul- 
lie Circle, N.E., Atlanta, GA 30329. 

ASHRAE 15, Safety Code for Mechanical Refrigeration, 1994. 

2.3.4 ASME Publications. American Society of Mechanical 
Engineers, Three Park Avenue, New York, NY 10016-5990. 

ASMEA13.1, Scheme for the Identification of Piping Systems, 1996. 

ASME/ ANSI Al 7.1, Safety Code for Elevators and Escalators, 
2000. 

ASME/ANSl A17.3, Safety Code for Existing Elevators and Es- 
calators, 2002. 

ASMEB31, Code for Pressure Piping 1998. 

ASME B31.3, Process Piping, 2004. 

ASME B56.1, Safety Standard for Low-Lift and High-Lift 
Trucks, 2004. 

ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code, Section VIII, "Rules for 
the Construction of Unfired Pressure Vessels," 2004. 

ASME Code Case Interpretations and Addenda, 2004. 

2.3.5 ASTM Publications. American Society for Testing and 
Materials, 100 Barr Harbor Drive, West Conshohocken, PA 
19428-2959. 

ASTM D 5, Standard Method of Test fcrr Penetration of Bitumi- 
nous Materials, 2005. 

ASTM D 86, Standard Method of Test for Distillation of Petro- 
leum Products at Atmospheric Pressure, 2004. 

ASTM D 92, Standard Test Method for Rash and Fire Points by 
Cleveland Open Cup Tester, 2002. 

ASTM D 323, Standard Method of Test for Vapor Pressure of 
Petroleum Products (Reid Method), 1999. 

ASTM D 2898, Test Method for Accelerated Weathering ofFire- 
Retardant-Treated Wood for Fire Testing, 2004. 

ASTM D 4206, Standard Test Method for Sustained Burning of 
Liquid Mixtures Using the Small Scale Open-Cup Apparatus, 2001. 



ASTM D 4207, Standard Test Method for Sustained Burning of 
Low Viscosity Liquid Mixtures by the Wick Test. 

ASTM D 5391, Standard Test for Electrical Conductivity and 
Resistivity of a Flowing High Purity Water Sample, 2005. 

ASTM E 84, Standard Test Method of Surface Burning Charac- 
teristics of Building Materials, 2001. 

ASTM E 108, Standard Test Methods for Fire Tests of Roof Cover- 
ings, 2000. 

ASTM E 119, Standard Test Methods for Fire Tests of Building 
Construction and Materials, 2000. 

ASTM E 136, Standard Test Method for Behavior of Materials in 
a Vertical Tube Furnace at 750 Degrees C, 2004. 

ASTM E 502, Standard Test Method for Selection and Use of 
ASTM Standards for the Determination of Flash Point of Chemicals by 
Closed Cup Methods, 2000. 

ASTM E 681, Standard Test Method fcrr Concentration Limits of 
Flammability of Chemicals (Vapors and Gases), 2001. 

ASTM E 814, Standard Test Method for Fire Tests of Through 
Penetration Fire Stops, 2002. 

ASTM E 1226, Test Method for Pressure and Rate of Pressure Rise 
for Combustible Dusts, 2000. 

ASTM E 1354, Standard Test Method for Heat and Visible Smoke 
Release Rates for Materials and Products Using an Oxygen Consump- 
tion Calorimeter, 2002. 

ASTM E 1590, Standard Test Method for Fire Testing of Mat- 
tresses, 2002. 

ASTM E 1591, Standard Guide for Obtaining Data for Determin- 
istic Fire Models, 2000. 

ASTM E 1996, Standard Specification for' Performance of Exterior 
Windows, Curtain Walls, Doors and Impact Protective Systems Im- 
pacted by Windbome Debris in Hurricanes, 2003. 

ASTM E 2010, Standard Test Method for Positive Pressure Fire 
Tests of Window Assemblies, 2001. 

ASTM E 2074, Standard Test Method for Fire Tests of Door Assem- 
blies, Including Positive Pressure Testing of Side-Hinged and Pivoted 
Swinging Door Assemblies, 2000. 

ASTM F 852, Standard for Portable Gasoline Containers for Con- 
sumer Use, 1999. 

ASTM F 976, Standard for Portable Kerosene Containers for Con- 
sumer Use, 2002. 

2.3.6 ATA Publication. American Trucking Association Traf- 
fic Department, 2200 Mill Road, Alexandria, VA 22314. 

National Motor Freight Classification, 2002. 

2.3.7 CGA Publications. Compressed Gas Association, 4221 
Walney Road, 5th Floor, ChantiUy, VA 20151-2923. 

CGAC-7, Guide to the Preparation of Precautionary Labeling and 
Marking of Compressed Gas Containers, 2004. 

CGAP-1, Safe Handling of Compressed Gases in Containers, 2000. 

CGA P-18, Standard for Bulk Inert Gas Systems at Consumer 
Sites, 1992. 

CGAP-20, Standard for the Classification of Toxic Gas Mixtures, 
1995. 



2006 Edition 



1-26 



UNIFORM FIRE CODE 



CGAP-23, Standard for Categorizing Gas Mixtures Containing 
Flammable and Nonflammable Component, 1995. 

CGA P-32, Safe Storage and Handling ofSilane and Silane Mix- 
tures, 2000. 

CGA S-1.1, Pressure Relief Device Standards — Part 1 — Cylin- 
ders for Compressed Gases, 2003. 

CGA S-1 .2, Pressure Relief Device Standards — Part 2 — Cargo 
and Portable Tanks for Compressed Gases, 1995. 

CGA S-1. 3, Pressure Relief Device Standards — Part 3 - Station- 
ary Storage Containers fc^r Compressed Gases, 2003. 

2.3.8 CSA Publication. Canadian Standards Association, 178 
Rexdale Boulevard, Rexdale, Ontario, M9W 1R3. 

CAN 3-B44, Safety Code for Elevators, Including Supplement No. 
1, 1987. 

2.3.9 FMRC Publication. Factory Mutual Research Corpora- 
tion, 1151 Boston-Providence Turnpike, Norwood, MA 02062. 

FMRC Class 6083, Examination Program for Fusible Closures for 
Steel Drums. 

2.3.10 IAS Publications. International Approval Services, 
8501 East Pleasant Valley Road, Cleveland, OH 44131. 

ANSI/IAS NGVl, Standard for Compressed Natural Gas Vehicle 
(NGV) Fueling Connection Devices, 1998. 

ANSI/IAS NGV2, Basic Requirements for Compressed Natural 
Gas Vehicle (NGV) Fuel Containers, 2000. 

2.3.11 ISO Publications. International Organization for 
Standardization, 1, rue de Varembe, Case postale 56, CH-1211 
Geneve 20, Switzerland. 

ISO 8115, Cotton Bales Dimensions andDensity, 2001. 

ISO 10298, Determination of toxicity of a gas or gas mixture, 1995. 

ISO 10156, Gases and gas mixtures — Determination of fire po- 
tential and oxidizing ability for the selection of cylinder valve outlets, 
1996. 

2.3.12 NBBPVI Publication. National Board of Boiler and 
Pressure Vessel Inspectors, 1055 Crupper Avenue, Columbus, 
OH 43229. 

National Board Inspection Code, 2001. 

2.3.13 NRFC Publication. National Railroad Freight Commit- 
tee, 222 South Rivereide Plaza, Chicago, IL 60606-5945. 

Uniform Freight Classification, 2005. 

2.3.14 RVIA Publication. Recreation Vehicle Industry Asso- 
ciation, 1896 Preston White Drive, P.O. Box 2999, Reston, VA 
20195-0999. 

RVIA/ANSIA119.5, Standard for Recreational Park Trailers, 1998. 

2.3.15 Scott Specialty Gases Publication. Scott Specialty Gases, 
6141 Easton Road, Box 310, Plumsteadville, PA 18949. 

Design & Safety Handbook, 2004. 

2.3.16 UL Publications. Underwriters Laboratories Inc., 333 
Pfingsten Road, Northbrook, IL 60062-2096. 

UL 8, Standard for Foam Fire Extinguishers, 1995. 

UL9, Standard for Safety Fire Tests of Window Assemblies, 1994. 



UL lOB, Standard for Fire Tests of Door Assemblies, 1997. 

UL IOC, Standard for Positive Pressure Fire Tests of Door Assem- 
blies, 1998. 

UL I47A, Standard for Nonrefillable (Disposable) Type Fuel Gas 
Cylinder Assemblies, 1996. 

UL 147B, Standard for Nonrefillable (Disposable) Type Metal 
Container Assemblies for Butane, 2005. 

UL 154, Standard for Carbon Dioxide Fire Extinguishers, 1995. 

UL 197, Standard for Commercial Electric Cooking Appliances, 
2003. 

UL 263, Standard for Fire Tests of Building Construction and 
Materials, 1997. 

UL 299, Standard for Dry Chemical Fire Extinguishers, 2002. 

UL 300, Standard for Fire Testing of Fire Extinguishing Systems 
for Protection of Restaurant Cooking Areas, 1996. 

UL340, Test for Comparative Flammability of Liquids, 1997. 

UL555, Standard for Fire Dampers, 1999. 

UL 555S, Standard for Smoke Dampers, 1999. 

UL 567, Standard for Emergency Breakaway Fittings, Swivel Con- 
nectors and Pipe Connection Fittings for Petroleum Products and LP- 
Gas, 2003. 

UL626, Standard for 2V2-Gallon Stored-Pressure, Water-Type Fire 
Extinguishers, 1995. 

UL 711, Standard Rating and Testing of Fire Extinguishers, 
1995. 

UL 723, Standard for Test for Surface Burning Characteristics of 
Building Materials, 2001. 

UL 790, Standard for Safety for Tests for Fire Resistance of Roof 
Covering Materials, 1997. 

UL842, Standard for Valves for Flammable Fluids, 1997. 

UL900, Standard for Test Performance of Air Filter Units, 1994. 

UL 913, Standard for Intrinsically Safe Apparatus and Associ- 
ated Apparatus for Use in Class I, II, and III Division 1, Hazardous 
(Classified) Locations, 2002. 

UL 924, Standard for Emergency Lighting and Power Equipment, 
1995. 

UL 1093, Standard for Halogenated Agent Fire Extinguishers, 
1995. 

UL 1313, Nonmetallic Safety Cans for Petroleum Products, 1993. 

UL 1479, Standard for Fire Tests of Throu^-Penetration Firestops, 
2003. 

UL 1803, Standard for Factory FoUcnu-up on ThirdParty Certified 
Portable Fire Extinguishers, 1 994. 

UL 1975, Standard for Fire Tests for Foamed Plastics Used for 
Decorative Purposes, 1996. 

UL 2079, Standard for Tests for Fire Resistance of Building Joint 
Systems, 1998. 

UL 2080, Standard for Fire Resistant Tanks for Flammable and 
Combustible Liquids, 2000. 

UL 2085, Standard for Insulated Aboveground Tanks for Flam- 
mable and Combustible Liquids, 1997. 



2006 Edition 



REFERENCED PUBLICATIONS 



1-27 



UL2129, Standard for Halocarbon Ckan Agent Fire Extinguish- 
ers, 1999. 

UL 2200, Standard for Safety for Stationary En^ne Generator 
Assemblies, 1998. 

UL2208, Standard for Solvent Distillation Units, 1996. 

UL 2245, Standard for Bekrw-Orade Vaults for Flammable Liquid 
Storage Tanks, 1999. 

UL2368, Standard for Fire Exposure Testing of Intermediate Bulk 
Containers for Flammable and Combustible Liquids, 2001. 

2.3.17 ULC Publications. Underwriters' Laboratories of 
Canada, 7 Underwriters Road, Toronto, Ontario MIR 3B4, 
Canada. 

ULC-S503, Standard for Carbon-Dioxide Fire Extinguishers, 2005. 

ULC-S504, Standard for Dry Chemical Fire Extinguishers, 2002. 

ULC-S507, Standard for Water Fire Extinguishers, 2005. 

ULC-S508, Standard for Rating and Testing of Fire Extinguish- 
ers and Fire Extinguishing Agents, 2002. 

ULC-S512, Standard for Halogenated Agent Hand and Wheeled 
Fire Extinguishers, 1987. 

2.3.18 UN Publication. United Nations Headquarters, New 
York, NY 10017. 

United Nations, Recommendations on the Transport of Danger- 
ous Goods, Chapter 6, Rev. 4, 2004. 

2.3.19 U.S. Government Publications. U.S. Government Print- 
ing Office, Washington, DC 20402. 

FAA A/C 150/5390-2A, Heliport Design Advisory Circular, 
January 20, 1994. 

ICC, Rules for Construction ofUnfired Pressure Vessels, prior to 
April 1, 1967. 

ICC, Rules for Construction ofUnfired Pressure Vessels, April 1, 
1967. 

Title 16, Code of Federal Regulations, Parts 1500 and 1507, 
U.S. Consumer Product Safety Commission. 

Title 16, Code of Federal Regulations, Part 1632, Standard 
for the Flammability of Mattresses and Mattress Pads, January 
1, 1990. 

Tide 18, Code of Federal Regulations, "Importation, Manu- 
facture, Distribution and Storage of Explosive Materials." 

Title 29, Code of Federal Regulations, Parts 1910.1000 and 
1910.1200. 

Tide 40, Code of Federal Regulations, Parts 152.175 and 
156.10(i)(A). 

Tide 49, Code of Federal Regulations, Transportation. 

2.3.20 Other Publication. Merriam-Webster's Collegiate Dictionary, 
11th edition, Merriam-Webster, Inc., Springfield, MA, 2003. 

2.4 References for Extracts in Mandatory Sections. 

NFPA 10, Standard for Portable Fire Extinguishers, 2002 edition. 

NFPA13, Standard for the Installation of Sprinkler Systems, 2002 
edition. 

NFPA 14, Standard for the Installation of Standpipe and Hose 
Systems, 2003 edition. 

NFPA 20, Standard for the Installation of Stationary Pumps for 
i^ireProtoft'on, 2003 edition. 

NFPA 25, Standard for the Inspection, Testing, and Maintenance 
of Water-Based Fire Protection Systems, 2002 edition. 



NFPA 30, Flammable and Combustible Liquids Code, 2003 
edition. 

NFPA30A, Code for Motor Fuel Dispensing Facilities and Repair 
Garages, 2003 edition. 

NFPA 30B, Code for the Manufacture and Storage of Aerosol Prod- 
ucts, 2002 edition. 

NFPA 31, Standard for the Installation of Oil-Burning Equip- 
ment, 2001 edition. 

NFPA 33, Standard for Spray Application Using Flammable or 
Combustible Materials, 2003 edition. 

NFPA 34, Standard for Dipping and Coating Processes Using 
Flammable or Combustible Liquids, 2003 edition. 

NFPA 45, Standard on Fire Protection for Laboratories Using 
Chemicals, 2004 edition. 

NFPA 5 IB, Standard for Fire Prevention During Welding, Cut- 
ting, and Other Hot Work, 2003 edition. 

NFPA 52, Vehicular Fuel Systems Code, 2006 edition. 

NFPA 55, Standard for the Storage, Use, and Handling of Com- 
pressed Gases and Cryogenic Fluids in Portable and Stationary Con- 
tainers, Cylinders, and Tanks, 2005 edition. 

NFPA 58, Liquefied Petroleum Gas Code, 2004 edition. 

NFPA 61, Standard for the Prevention of Fires and Dust Explo- 
sions in Agricultural and Food Processing Facilities, 2002 edition. 

NFPA 68, Guide for Venting of Deflagrations, 2002 edition. 

NFPA 69, Standard on Explosion Prevention Systems, 2002 
edition (for definitions only). 

NFPA 70, National Electrical Code^, 2005 edition. 

NFPA 72®, National Fire AUrm Code^, 2002 edition. 

NFPA 80, Standard for Fire Doors and Fire VKndcnus, 1999 edition. 

NFPA88A, Standard for Parking Structures, 2002 edition (for 
definitions only) . 

NFPA 90A, Standard for the Installation ofAir-Conditioning and 
Ventilating Systems, 2002 edition. 

NFPA 101®, Life Safety Code"^, 2006 edition. 

NFPA 101 B, Code for Means of Egress for Buildings and Struc- 
tures, 2002 edition. 

NFPA 102, Standard for Grandstands, Folding and Telescopic 
Seating Tents, and Membrane Structures, 1995 edition. 

NFPA 140, Standard on Motion Picture and Television Production 
Studio Soundstages and Approved Production Facilities, 2004 edition. 

NFPA 211, Standard for Chimneys, Fireplaces, Vents, and Solid 
Fuel-Burning Appliances, 2003 edition. 

NFPA 220, Standard on Types of Building Construction, 2006 
edition. 

NFPA 271 , Standard for Heat and Visible Smoke Release Rates for 
Materials and Products Using an Oxygen Consumption Calorimeter, 
2004 edition, (Chapter 19). 

NFPA 303, Fire Protection Standard for Marinas and Boatyards, 
2006 edition. 

NFPA 307, Standard for the Construction and Fire Protection of 
Marine Terminals, Piers, and Wharves, 2006 edition. 

NFPA 312, Standard for Fire Protection of Vessels During Con- 
struction, Conversion, Repair, and Lay-Up, 2006 edition. 

NFPA 318, Standard for the Protection of Semiconductor Fabrica- 
tion Facilities, 2006 edition. 

NFPA 402, Guide for Aircraft Rescue and Fire Fighting Opera- 
tions, 2002 edition. 

NFPA 407, Standard for Aircraft Fuel Servicing, 2001 edition. 

NFPA 415, Standard on Airport Terminal Buildings, Fueling 
Ramp Drainage, and Loading Walkways, 2002 edition. 

NFPA 418, Standard for Heliports, 2001 edition. 

NFPA 430, Code for the Storage of Liquid and Solid Oxidizers, 
2004 edition. 

NFPA 432, Code for the Storage of Organic Peroxide Formulations, 
2002 edition. 



2006 Edition 



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UNIFORM FIRE CODE 



NFPA 434, Code for the Storage of Pesticides, 2002 edition. 

NFPA472, Standard for Professional Competence ofResponders to 
Hazardous Materials Incidents, 2002 edition. 

NFPA 654, Standard for the Prevention of Fire and Dust Explo- 
sions from the Manufacturing, Processing, and Handling of Combus- 
tible Particulate Solids, 2006 edition. 

NFPA 914, Code for Fire Protection of Historic Structures, 2001 
edition. 

NFPA 1031, Standard for Professional Qualifications for Fire In- 
spector and Plan Examiner, 2003 edition. 

NFPA 1124, Code for the Manufacture, Transportation, Storage, 
and Retail Sales of Fireworks and Pyrotechnic Articles, 2006 edition. 

NFPA 1141, Standard for Fire Protection in Planned Building 
Groups, 2003 edition. 

NFPA 1144, Standard for Protection of Life and Property from 
Wildfire, 2002 edition. 

NFPA 500(f, Building Construction and Safety Code®, 2006 
edition. 

ASCE 7, Minimum Design Loads for Buildings and Other Struc- 
tures, 2002. 

Chapter 3 Definitions 

3.1 General. The definitions contained in this chapter shall 
apply to the terms used in this Code. Where terms are not de- 
fined in this chapter or within another chapter, they shall be 
defined using their ordinarily accepted meanings within the 
context in which they are used. Merriam-Webster's Collegiate Dic- 
tionary, 11th edition, shall be the source for the ordinarily ac- 
cepted meaning. 

3.2 NFPA Official Definitions. 

3.2.1* Approved. Acceptable to the authority having jurisdic- 
tion. 

3.2.2* Authority Having Jurisdiction (AHJ). An organization, 
oflFice, or individual responsible for enforcing the require- 
ments of a code or standard, or for approving equipment, 
materials, an installation, or a procedure. 

3.2.3* Code. Astandard that is an extensive compilation of pro- 
visions covering broad subject matter or that is suitable for adop- 
tion into law independently of other codes and standards. 

3.2.4 Guide. A document that is advisory or informative in 
nature and that contains only nonmandatory provisions. A 
guide may contain mandatory statements such as when a 
guide can be used, but the document as a whole is not suitable 
for adoption into law. 

3.2.5 Labeled. Equipment or materials to which has been at- 
tached a label, symbol, or other identifying mark of an organiza- 
tion that is acceptable to the authority having jurisdiction and 
concerned with product evaluation, that maintains periodic in- 
spection of production of labeled equipment or materials, and 
by whose labeling the manufacturer indicates compliance with 
appropriate standards or performance in a specified manner. 

3.2.6* listed. Equipment, materials, or services included in a 
list published by an organization that is acceptable to the au- 
thority having jurisdiction and concerned with evaluation of 
products or services, that maintains periodic inspection of 
production of listed equipment or materials or periodic evalu- 
ation of services, and whose listing states that either the equip- 
ment, material, or service meets appropriate designated stan- 
dards or has been tested and found suitable for a specified 
purpose. 



3.2.7 Recommended Practice. A document that is similar in 
content and structure to a code or standard but that contains 
only nonmandatory provisions using the word "should" to in- 
dicate recommendations in the body of the text. 

3.2.8 ShaQ. Indicates a mandatory requirement. 

3.2.9 Should. Indicates a recommendation or that which is 
advised but not required. 

3.2.10 Standard. A document, the main text of which con- 
tains only mandatory provisions using the word "shall" to indi- 
cate requirements and which is in a form generally suitable for 
mandatory reference by another standard or code or for adop- 
tion into law. Nonmandatory provisions shall be located in an 
appendix or annex, footnote, or fine-print note and are not to 
be considered a part of the requirements of a standard. 

3.3 General Definitions. 

3.3.1* Absolute Pressure. Pressure based on a zero reference 
point, the perfect vacuum. [55, 2005] 

3.3.2 Access Box. An approved secure box, accessible by the 
authority having jurisdiction's master key or control, contain- 
ing entrance keys or other devices to gain access to a structure 
or area. 

3.3.3 Addition. An increase in the building area, aggregate 
floor area, height or number of stories of a structure. [ASCE 
7:9.2.1] 

3.3.4* Aerosol. A product that is dispensed from an aerosol 
container by a propellant. [308, 2002] 

3.3.5 Airport (Aerodrome). An area on land or water that is 
used or intended to be used for the landing and takeoff of 
aircraft and includes buildings and facilities. [402, 2002] 

3.3.6 Airport Ramp. Any outdoor area, including aprons and 
hardstands, where aircraft can be positioned, stored, serviced, 
or maintained, irrespective of the nature of the surface of the 
area. [415, 2002] 

3.3.7* Aisle Wdth (Storage Rack). The horizontal dimension 
between the face of the loads in racks under consideration. 
[13, 2002] 

3.3.8 Alarm. Awarning of danger. 

3.3.9 Alarm Signal. See 3.3.208.1. 

3.3. 1 Alleyway. An accessible clear space between storage piles 
or groups of piles suitable for housekeeping operations, visual 
inspection of piling areas, and initial fire-fighting operations. 

3.3. ir Alternative. A system, condition, arrangement, mate- 
rial, or equipment submitted for approval to the authority hav- 
ing jurisdiction and the fire chief as a substitute for a code 
requirement. [1141, 2003] 

3.3.12 ANSI/ASME. The designation for American National 
Standards Institute publication sponsored and published by 
the American Society of Mechanical Engineers. 

3.3.13 Area. 

3.3.13.1 Back Stock Area. The area of a mercantile occu- 
pancy that is physically separated from the sales area and 
not intended to be accessible to the public. [30B, 2002] 

3.3.13.2 Cmisumer Fireworks Retail Sales (CFRS) Area. The 

portion of a consumer fireworks retail sales facility or store. 



2006 Edition 



DEFINITIONS 



1-29 



including the immediately adjacent aisles, where consumer 
fireworks are located for the purpose of retail display and 
sale to the public. [1124, 2006] 

3.3.13.3 ControlArea. A designated area, either indoors or 
outdoors, within which hazardous materials are allowed to 
be stored, used, handled, or dispensed in quantities not 
exceeding the maximum allowable quantity (MAQ). 

3.3.13.4 Fire Area. An area of a building separated from 
the remainder of the building by construction having a fire 
resistance of at least 1 hour and having all communicating 
openings properly protected by an assembly having a fire 
resistance rating of at least 1 hour. [30, 2003] 

3.3.13.5 Indoor Area. An area that is within a building or 
structure having overhead cover, other than a structure 
qualifying as "weather protection" in accordance with 6.5.2 
of NFPA 55, Standard for the Storage, Use, and Handling of 
Compressed Gases and Cryogenic Fluids in Portable and Station- 
ary Containers, Cylinders, and Tanks. (See also 3.3.13.8, Out- 
door Area.) [55, 2005] 

3.3.13.6 Inside Liquid Storage Area. A room or building 
used for the storage of liquids in containers or portable tanks, 
separated from other types of occupancies. [30, 2003] 

3.3.13.7 Organic Peroxide Stora.ge Area. An area used for 
the storage of organic peroxide formulations. [432, 2002] 

3.3.13.8 Outdoor Area. An area that is either outside the 
confines of a building, or an area sheltered from the ele- 
ments by overhead cover, that is protected from weather 
exposure by an exterior wall that obstructs not more than 
25 percent of the building boundary. 

3.3.13.9 Sales Display Area. The area of a mercantile occu- 
pancy that is open to the public for the purpose of viewing 
and purchasing goods, wares, and merchandise. Individu- 
als are free to circulate among the items, which are typically 
displayed on shelves, racks, or on the floor [30B, 2002] 

3.3.13.10 SmokingArea. A designated area where smoking 
is permitted within a premises in which smoking is other- 
v«se generally prohibited. 

3.3.13.11* Spray Area. Any area in which dangerous quan- 
tities of flammable or combustible vapors, mists, residues, 
dusts, or deposits are present due to the operation of spray 
processes. It can be either enclosed or unenclosed and in- 
cludes: (a) any area in the direct path of a spray application 
process; (b) the interior of any exhaust plenum and any 
exhaust duct leading from the spray process; (c) the inte- 
rior of any limited finishing workstation, spray booth, or 
spray room as herein defined; (d) the interior of any air 
recirculation particulate filter, solvent concentrator unit, 
solvent distillation (recovery) unit, or recirculation air sup- 
ply unit. [33, 2003] 

3.3.14 ASME. American Society of Mechanical Engineers. 
[58, 2004] 

3.3.15 ASME Container (or Tank). See 3.3.65.1. 

3.3. 16* Available Hei^t for Stor^e. The maximum height at 
which commodities can be stored above the floor and still 
maintain adequate clearance from structural members and 
the required clearance below sprinklers. [13, 2002] 

3.3.17* Baled Cotton. A natural seed fiber wrapped and se- 
cured in industry-accepted materials, usually consisting of bur- 



lap, woven polypropylene, or sheet polyethylene, and secured 
with steel, synthetic, or wire bands, or wire; also includes lint- 
ers (lint removed from the cottonseed) and motes (residual 
materials from the ginning process) . 

3.3.17.1 Block. A basic yard storage unit for baled cotton 
comprising multiple-row storage with clear spaces on all sides. 

3.3.17.2* Densely Packed Baled Cotton. Cotton, made into 
banded bales, with a packing density of at least 22 lb/ft* 
(360 kg/m^), and dimensions complying ^mXh the follow- 
ing: a length of 55 in. (ca. 1400 mm ± 20 mm), a width of 
21 in. (ca. 530 mm ± 20 mm) and a height of 27.6 in. to 
35.4 in. (700 mm to 900 mm). 

3.3.17.3 Fire-Packed Baled Cotton. A cotton bale within 
which a fire has been packed as a result of a process in 
which ginning is the most frequent cause. 

3.3.17.4 Naked Cotton Bale. An unwrapped cotton bale se- 
cured with wire or steel straps. 

3.3.18 Barrel (bbl). A unit of volume used in the petroleum 
industry that is equal to 42 U.S. gal (159Lor 0.159 m'). [30, 
2003] 

3.3. 1 9 Barricade (Explosives or Fireworks) . A natural or artifi- 
cial barrier that effectively screens a magazine, building, rail- 
way, or highway from the effects of an explosion in a magazine 
or building containing explosives. [1124, 2006] 

3.3.19.1 Artificial Barricade (Explosives or Fireworks). An 
artificial mound or revetted wall of earth of a minimum 
thickness of 3 ft (0.9 m). [1124, 2006] 

3.3.19.2 Natural Barricade (Explosives or Fireworks). Anatu- 
ral outdoor feature (s), such as hills or trees, with a density 
suflFicient to prevent surrounding exposures that require 
protection from being seen from a magazine or building 
containing explosives when the trees are bare of leaves. 
[1124,2006] 

3.3.20 Basement. Story of a building wholly below grade or 
partiy below and partiy above grade, located so that the verti- 
cal distance from grade to the floor below is greater than the 
vertical distance from grade to the floor above. [3000, 2006] 

3.3.21 Battery (Lead-Acid). 

3.3.21.1* Vabie-Regulated (VRLA). A lead-acid battery con- 
sisting of sealed cells furnished with a valve that opens to 
vent the battery whenever the internal pressure of the bat- 
tery exceeds the ambient pressure by a set amount. 

3.3.21.2* Vented (Flooded). Alead-acid battery consisting of 
cells that have electrodes immersed in liquid electrolyte. 

3.3.22 Battery System (Lead-Acid). A system that consists of 
these interconnected subsystems: (1) lead-acid batteries; (2) 
battery chargers; and (3) a collection of rectifiers, inverters, 
converters, and associated electrical equipment as required 
for a particular application. 

3.3.23 Block. See 3.3.17.1. 

3.3.24 Board of Appeals. A group of persons appointed by the 
governing body of the jurisdiction adopting this Codefor the pur- 
pose of hearing and adjudicating differences of opinion between 
the authority havingjurisdiction and the citizenry in the interpre- 
tation, application, and enforcement of this Code. 



2006 Edition 



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UNIFORM FIRE CODE 



3.3.25* Boiling Point. The temperature at which the vapor 
pressure of a liquid equals the surrounding atmospheric pres- 
sure. For purposes of defining the boiling point, atmospheric 
pressure shall be considered to be 14.7 psia (760 mm Hg). For 
mixtures that do not have a constant boiling point, the 20 per- 
cent evaporated point of a distillation performed in accor- 
dance with ASTM D 86, Standard Method of Test for Distillation of 
Petroleum Products, shall be considered to be the boiling point. 
[30, 2003] 

3.3.26* Boil-Over. An event in the burning of certain oils in 
an open-top tank when, after a long period of quiescent burn- 
ing, there is a sudden increase in fire intensity associated with 
expulsion of burning oil from the tank. [30, 2003] 

3.3.27* Building. Any structure used or intended for support- 
ing or sheltering any use or occupancy. [101, 2006] 

3.3.27.1* Airport Terminal Building. A structure used pri- 
marily for air passenger enplaning or deplaning, including 
ticket sales, flight information, baggage handling, and 
other necessary functions in connection with air transport 
operations. This term includes any extensions and satellite 
buildings used for passenger handling or aircraft flight ser- 
vice functions. Aircraft loading walkways and "mobile 
lounges" are excluded. [415, 2002] 

3.3.27.2 Apartment Building. See 3.3.165.2. 

3.3.27.3 Attached Building. A building having only one 
common wall with another building having other types of 
occupancies. [30, 2003] 

3.3.27.4 Bulk Merchandising Retail Building. See 3.3.165.4. 

3.3.27.5* Existing Building. A building erected or officially 
authorized prior to the effective date of the adoption of this 
edition of the Codehy the agency or jurisdiction. {101, 2006] 

3.3.27.6* Hi^-Rise Building. A building where the floor of 
an occupiable story is greater than 75 ft (23 m) above the 
lowest level of fire department vehicle access. [5000, 2006] 

3.3.27.7* Important Building. A building that is considered 
not expendable in an exposure fire. [30, 2003] 

3.3.27.8 MinirSton^e Buildit^. See 3.3.165.25.1. 

3.3.27.9 Private Building. A building or the portion of a 
building that normally is not frequented by or open to the 
public. 

3.3.27.10 Satellite. A structure that can be adjacent to 
but separated from the airport terminal building, acces- 
sible aboveground or through subway passages, and used 
to provide flight service operations, such as passenger 
check-in, waiting rooms, food service, enplaning or de- 
planing, etc, [415, 2002] 

3.3.27.11 Storage Tank Building. A three-dimensional 
space that is enclosed by a roof and a wall that covers more 
than one-half of the possible area of the sides of the space, 
is of sufficient size to allow entry by personnel, will likely 
limit the dissipation of heat or dispersion of vapors, and 
restricts access for fire fighting. [30, 2003] 

3.3.28 Bulk Ox)^en System. See 3.3.233.2. 

3.3.29 Bulk Plant or Terminal. That portion of a property 
where liquids are received by tank vessel, pipelines, tank car, 
or tank vehicle and are stored or blended in bulk for the pur- 



pose of distributing such liquids by tank vessel, pipeline, tank 
car, tank vehicle, portable tank, or container. [30, 2003] 

3.3.30 Bum-It. A fire-fighting strategy that allows for the free- 
burn of a tire fire. 

3.3.3 1 Bury-lL A fire-fighting strategy in which a tire pile is bur- 
ied with soil, sand, gravel, cement dust, or other cover material. 

3.3.32 Certificate of Fitness. A written document issued by 
the authority having jurisdiction to any person for the purpose 
of granting permission to such person to conduct or engage in 
any operation or act for which certification is required. 

3.3.33 CFR. The Code of Federal Regulations of the United 
States Government. 

3.3.34 CGA. Compressed Gas Association. 

3.3.35 Chemical Heat of Combustion (He). The amount of 
heat released, in Btu/lb (kj/g) , when a substance is oxidized 
to yield stable end products, including water as a vapor, as 
measured under actual fire conditions in a normal ambient 
(air) atmosphere. [SOB, 2002] 

3.3.36 Chemical Name. The scientific designation of a chemi- 
cal in accordance with the nomenclature system developed by 
the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry or the 
Chemical Abstracts Service rules of nomenclature, or a name that 
clearly identifies a chemical for the purpose of conducting an 
evaluation. 

3.3.37 Chemical Plant A large integrated plant or that por- 
tion of such a plant, other than a refinery or distillery, where 
liquids are produced by chemical reactions or used in chemi- 
cal reactions. [30, 2003] 

3.3.38* Chip. A wood chip of various species used in the 
manufacture of pulp. 

3.3.39 Classification of Occupancy Hazards for Portable Fire 
Extii^uishers. 

3.3.39.1 Extra (Hi^) Hazard. Extra hazard occupancies 
are locations where the total amount of Class A combus- 
tibles and Class B flammables present, in storage, produc- 
tion, use, finished product, or combination thereof, is over 
and above those expected in occupancies classed as ordi- 
nary (moderate) hazard. These occupancies could consist 
of woodworking; vehicle repair; aircraft and boat servicing; 
cooking areas; individual product display showrooms; 
product convention center displays; and storage and 
manufacturing processes such as painting, dipping, and 
coating, including flammable liquid handling. Also in- 
cluded is warehousing of or in-process storage of other 
than Class 1 and Class 11 commodities. [10, 2002] 

3.3.39.2 Ligft* (Low) Hazard. Light hazard occupancies 
are locations where the total amount of Class A combus- 
tible materials, including furnishings, decorations, and 
contents, is of minor quantity. This can include some build- 
ings or rooms occupied as offices, classrooms, churches, 
assembly halls, guest room areas of hotels/motels, and so 
forth. This classification anticipates that the majority of 
content items are either noncombustible or so arranged 
that a fire is not likely to spread rapidly. Small amounts of 
Class B flammables used for duplicating machines, art de- 
partments, and so forth, are included, provided that they 
are kept in closed containers and safely stored. [10, 2002] 



2006 Edition 



DEFINITIONS 



1-31 



3.3.39.3 Ordinary (Moderate) Hazard. Ordinary hazard oc- 
cupancies are locations where the total amount of Class A 
combustibles and Class B flammables are present in greater 
amounts than expected under light (low) hazard occupan- 
cies. These occupancies could consist of dining areas, mer- 
cantile shops and allied storage, light manufacturing, re- 
search operations, auto showrooms, parking garages, 
workshop or support service areas of light (low) hazard 
occupancies, and warehouses containing Class I or Class II 
commodities as defined by NFPA 13, Standard for the Instal- 
lation of Sprinkler Systems. [10, 2002] 

3.3.40 Qeanroom. A room in which the concentration of air- 
borne particles is controlled to specified limits, including ar- 
eas below the raised floor and above the ceiling grid if these 
areas are part of the air path and within the rated construc- 
tion. [5000, 2006] 

3.3.41 Clean Zone. A defined space in which the concentra- 
tion of airborne particles is controlled to specified limits. [318, 
2006] 

3.3.42 Clear Space. An area free of combustible materials but 
that can contain noncombustible materials that cannot trans- 
mit an exposure fire. 

3.3.43 aosed System Use. See 3.3.244.1. 

3.3.44 Qothes Diyer. A device used to dry wet laundry by 
means of heat derived from the combustion of fuel or from 
electric heating elements. [211, 2003] 

3.3.45 Code. 

3.3.45.1 Building Code. The building code referenced in 
Section 2.2. 

3.3.45.2 Electrical Code. The electrical code referenced in 
Section 2.2. 



3.3.45.3 Mechanical Code. 

enced in Section 2.2. 



The mechanical code refer- 



3.3.45.4 Plumbing Code. The plumbing code referenced 
in Section 2.2. 

3.3.46 Cold Deck. A single ranked pile of logs with individual 
logs of regular or irregular length usually 20 ft to 50 ft (6.1 m 
to 15.2 m) long, but greater than 8 ft (2.4 m) long. 

3.3.47 Column (Paper) . A single vertical stack of rolls of paper. 

3.3.48 Combustible (Material). A material that, in the form in 
which it is used and under the conditions anticipated, will 
ignite and burn; a material that does not meet the definition 
of noncombustible or limited-combustible. [101, 2006] 

3.3.49* Combustible Dust. A combustible particulate solid that 
presents a fire or deflagration hazard when suspended in air or 
some other oxidizing medium over a range of concentrations, 
regardless of particle size or shape. [654, 2006] 

3.3.50* Combustible Fiber. Any material in a fibrous or shred- 
ded form that readily ignites when heat sources are present. 

3.3.51 Combustible Liquid. See 3.3.148.1. 

3.3.52 Combustible Particulate SoUd. See 3.3.216.1. 

3.3.53 Combustible Refuse. All combustible or loose rubbish, 
litter, or waste materials generated by an occupancy that are re- 
fused, rejected, or considered worthless and are disposed of by 
incineration on the premises where generated or periodically 
transported from the premises. 



3.3.54* Combustible Waste. Combustible or loose waste mate- 
rial that is generated by an establishment or process and, if sal- 
vageable, is retained for scrap or reprocessing on the premises 
where generated or transported to a plant for processing. 

3.3.55 Combustion. A chemical process of oxidation that oc- 
curs at a rate fast enough to produce heat and usually light in 
the form of either a glow or flame. 

3.3.56 Commodity. Combinations of products, packing ma- 
terial, and container upon which the commodity classification 
is based. [13, 2002] 

3.3.57* Common Path of Travel. The portion of exit access 
that must be traversed before two separate and distinct paths 
of travel to two exits are available. [101, 2006] 

3.3.58 Compartment. 

3.3.58.1* Fire Compartment. Aspace within a building that 
is enclosed by fire barriers on all sides, including the top 
and bottom. [101, 2006] 

3.3.58.2* Smoke Compartment. A space within a building 
enclosed by smoke barriers on all sides, including the top 
and bottom. [101, 2006] 

3.3.59 Condition, Existii^. See 3.3.91. 

3.3.60 Construction Documents. Documents that consist of 
scaled design drawings and specifications for the purpose of 
construction of new facilities or modification to existing facili- 
ties. (See also 3.3.207, Shop Drawings.) 

3.3.61 Consumer Fireworks. See 3.3.111.1. 

3.3.62 Consumer Fireworks Retail Sales Area. See 3.3.13.2. 

3.3.63 Consumer Fireworks Retail Sales Facility (CFRS Facility). 

A permanent or temporary building or structure, CFRS 
stand, tent, canopy, or membrane structure that is used prima- 
rily for the retail display and sale of consumer fireworks to the 
public. [1124, 2006] 

3.3.64* Consumer Flreworics Retail Sales (CFRS) Stand. A tem- 
porary or permanent building or structure that has a floor 
area not greater than 800 ft^ (74 m^), other than tents, cano- 
pies, or membrane structures, that is used primarily for the 
retail display and sale of consumer fireworks to the public. 
[1124, 2006] 

3.3.65 Container. A vessel, including cylinders, tanks, portable 
tanks, and cargo tanks, used for transporting or storing materials. 

3.3.65.1 ASME Container. A container constructed in ac- 
cordance with the ASME Code. [58, 2004] 

3.3.65.2 Closed Container. A container as herein defined, 
so sealed by means of a lid or other device that neither 
liquid nor vapor will escape from it at ordinary tempera- 
tures. [30A, 2003] 

3.3.65.3 Compressed Gas Container. A pressure vessel de- 
signed to hold compressed gas at an absolute pressure 
greater than 1 atmosphere at 68°F (20°C) that includes 
cylinders, containers, and tanks. [55, 2005] 

3.3.65.4 Container (Flammable or Combustible Liquid). Any 

vessel of 119 gal (450 L) or less capacity used for transport- 
ing or storing liquids. [30, 2003] 



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UNIFORM FIRE CODE 



3.3.65.5 Cryogenic Fluids Container. A cryogenic vessel ijsed 
for transportation, handling, or storage. 

3.3.65.6 LP-Gas Container. A vessel, including cylinders, 
tanks, portable tanks, and cargo tanks, used for the trans- 
porting or storing of LP-Gases. [58, 2004] 

3.3.66 ControlArea. See 3.3.13.3. 

3.3.67* Conventional Pallets. A material-handling aid de- 
signed to support a unit load with openings to provide access 
for material-handling devices. [13, 2002] 

3.3.68 Cooking Fire. The noncommercial, residential burn- 
ing of materials not exceeding 3 ft (0.9 m) in diameter and 2 ft 
(0.6 m) in height, other than rubbish in which the fuel burned 
is contained in an outdoor fireplace, a barbecue grill, or a 
barbecue pit for the purpose of preparing food. 

3.3.69 Cordwood. Logs 8 ft (2.4 m) or less in length custom- 
arily intended for pulpwood or fuel uses. 

3.3.70 Core. The central tube around which paper is wound 
to form a roll. [13,2002] 

3.3.71* Corrosive. A chemical that causes visible destruction 
of, or irreversible alterations in, materials by chemical action 
at the site of contact. 

3.3.72* Covered Fuse. A fuse or designed point of ignition 
that is protected against accidental ignition by contact with a 
spark, smoldering items, or small open flame. [1124, 2006] 

3.3.73 Crude Petroleum. Hydrocarbon mixtures that have a 
flash point below 150°F (65.6°C) and that have not been pro- 
cessed in a refinery. [30, 2003] 

3.3.74 Cryogenic Fluid. A fluid with a boiling point lower 
than -130°r (-90°C) at an absolute pressure of 14.7 psia 
(101.325 kPa). [55,2005] 

3.3.75* Cultural Properties. Buildings, structures, or sites, or 
portions thereof, that are culturally significant, or that house 
culturally significant collections. [914, 2001] 

3.3.76 Cylinder. A pressure vessel designed for pressures 
higher than 40 psia (276 kPa) and having a circular cross- 
section. It does not include a portable tank, multiunit tank 
car tank, cargo tank, or tank car. [55, 2005] 

3.3.76.1 Cylinder Containment Vessel. A gastight recovery 
vessel designed so that a leaking compressed gas container 
can be placed within its confines, thereby encapsulating 
the leaking container. [55, 2005] 

3.3.77 Deflagration. Propagation of a combustion zone at a 
velocity that is less than the speed of sound in the unreacted 
medium. [68, 2002] 

3.3.78 Detectors. 

3.3.78.1 Air Sampling-Type Detector. A detector that con- 
sists of a piping or tubing distribution network that runs 
from the detector to the area(s) to be protected. An aspira- 
tion fan in the detector housing draws air from the pro- 
tected area back to the detector through air sampling 
ports, piping, or tubing. At the detector, the air is analyzed 
for fire products. 

3.3.78.2* Fixed-Temperature Detector. A device that re- 
sponds when its operating element becomes heated to a 
predetermined level. [ 72, 2002] 



3.3.78.3 Heat Detector. A fire detector that detects either 
abnormally high temperature or rate of temperature rise, 
or both. [72,2002] 

3.3.78.4* Line-Type Detector. A device in which detection is 
continuous along a path. [ 72, 2002] 

3.3.78.5 Smoke Detector. A device that detects visible or in- 
visible particles of combustion. [ 72, 2002] 

3.3.78.6 Spot-Type Detector. A detector in which the detect- 
ing element is concentrated at a particular location. Typi- 
cal examples are bimetallic detectors, fusible alloy detec- 
tors, certain pneumatic rate-of-rise detectors, certain 
smoke detectors, and thermoelectric detectors. [72, 2002] 

3.3.79 Detonation. Propagation of a combustion zone at a 
velocity that is greater than the speed of sound in the unre- 
acted medium. [68, 2002] 

3.3.80 Distillery. A plant or that portion of a plant where liq- 
uids produced by fermentation are concentrated and where 
the concentrated products are also mixed, stored, or pack- 
aged. [30, 2003] 

3.3.81 Distributor. A business engaged in the sale or resale, or 
both of compressed gases or cryogenic fluids, or both. [55, 2005] 

3.3.82 DOT. U.S. Department of Transportation. 

3.3.83 Driveway. A clear space suitable for fire-fighting op- 
erations by motorized fire apparatus. 

3.3.84 Dwelling Unit. One or more rooms arranged for com- 
plete, independent housekeeping purposes, with space for 
eating, living, and sleeping; facilities for cooking; and provi- 
sions for sanitation. [5000, 2006] 

3.3.84.1 One- and Ttuo-Famify Dwelling Unit. See 3.3.165.19.1. 

3.3.85 Emergency. A fire, explosion, or hazardous condition 
that poses an immediate threat to the safety of life or damage 
to property. 

3.3.86 Emergency Relief Venting. An opening, construction 
method, or device that will automatically relieve excessive in- 
ternal pressure due to an exposure fire. [30, 2003] 

3.3.87 Excess Flow Control. A fail-safe system or approved 
means designed to shut off flow due to a rupture in pressur- 
ized piping systems. [55, 2005] 

3.3.88 Excess Flow Valve. A valve inserted into a compressed 
gas cylinder, portable tank, or stationary tank that is designed 
to positively shut off the flow of gas in the event that its prede- 
termined flow is exceeded. 

3.3.89* Exhausted Enclosure. An appliance or piece of equip- 
ment that consists of a top, a back, and two sides providing a 
means of local exhaust for capturing gases, fumes, vapors, and 
mists. [5000, 2006] 

3.3.90* Existing. That which is already in existence on the 
date this edition of the Code goes into effect. [101, 2006] 

3.3.91 Existing Condition. Any situation, circumstance, or 
physical makeup of any structure, premise, or process that 
was ongoing or in effect prior to the adoption of this Code. 
[1141, 2003] 

3.3.92* Fjdt That portion of a means of egress that is sepa- 
rated from all other spaces of a building or structure by con- 



2006 Edition 



DEFINITIONS 



1-33 



struction or equipment as required to provide a protected way 
of travel to the exit discharge. [101, 2006] 

3.3.92.1* Horizontal Exit. Away of passage from one build- 
ing to an area of refuge in another building on approxi- 
mately the same level, or a way of passage through or 
around a fire barrier to an area of refuge on approximately 
the same level in the same building that affords safety from 
fire and smoke originating from the area of incidence and 
areas communicating therewith. [101, 2006] 

3.3.93 Exit Access. That portion of a means of egress that 
leads to an exit. [101, 2006] 

3.3.94 Exit Dischai^e. That portion of a means of egress be- 
tween the termination of an exit and a public way. [101, 2006] 

3.3.95 Explosion. Theburstingorruptureof an enclosure or 
a container due to the development of internal pressure from 
a deflagration. [69, 2002] 

3.3.96* Explosive Material. Any chemical compound, mix- 
ture, or device, the primary or common purpose of which is to 
function by explosion. [5000, 2006] 

3.3.97 Facility. As applied to access and water supply, a struc- 
ture or use in a fixed location including exterior storage, use, 
and handling areas that relates to the occupancies and opera- 
tions covered by this Code. 

3.3.97.1 Hazardous Material Storage Facility. See 3.3.131. 

3.3.97.2 Limited Care Fadlity. See 3.3.165.15. 

3.3.97.3 Motor Fuel Dispensing Facility. See 3.3.165.24. 

3.3.97.3.1 Fleet Vehicle Motor Fuel Dispensing Facility. See 
3.3.165.24.1. 

3.3.97.3.2 Marine Motor Fuel Dispensing Facility. See 

3.3.165.24.2. 

3.3.97.3.3 Motor Fuel Dispensing Facility Located Inside a 
Building. See 3.3.165.24.3. 

3.3.98 Pines (Wood). Small pieces or splinters of wood by- 
products that can pass through a 0.25 in. (6.4 mm) screen. 

3.3.99 Fire. 

3.3.99.1 Class A Fires. Fires in ordinary combustible mate- 
rials, such as wood, cloth, paper, rubber, and many plastics. 
[10, 2002] 

3.3.99.2 Class B Fires. Fires in flammable liquids, combus- 
tible liquids, petroleum greases, tars, oils, oil-based paints, sol- 
vents, lacquers, alcohols, and flammable gases. [10, 2002] 

3.3.99.3 Class C Fires. Fires that involve energized electri- 
cal equipment. [10, 2002] 

3.3.99.4 Class D Fires. Fires in combustible metals, such as 
magnesium, titanium, zirconium, sodium, lithium, and po- 
tassium. [10, 2002] 

3.3.99.5 Class K Fires. Fires in cooking appliances that in- 
volve combustible cooking media (vegetable or animal oils 
and fats. [10,2002] 

3.3.100 Fire, Recreational. See 3.3.197. 

3.3.101 Fire Alarm System. See 3.3.233.8. 



3.3.102 Fire Compartment. See 3.3.58.1. 

3.3.103 Fire Door Assembly. Any combination of a fire door, 
a frame, hardware, and other accessories that together pro- 
vide a specific degree of fire protection to the opening. [80, 
1999] 

3.3.104 Fire Hazard. Any situation, process, material, or con- 
dition that, on the basis of applicable data, can cause a fire or 
explosion or that can provide a ready fuel supply to augment 
the spread or intensity of a fire or explosion, all of which pose 
a threat to life or property. [914, 2001] 

3.3.105* Fire Hydrant. Avalved connection on a water supply 
system having one or more outlets and that is used to supply 
hose and fire department pumpers with water. [1141, 2003] 

3.3.106 Fire Department Access Road. The road or other 
means developed to allow access and operational setup for 
fire-fighting and rescue apparatus. 

3.3.107* Fire Lane. Afire department access road, which is 
marked with approved signs or other approved notices. 

3.3.108 Fire Point. The lowest temperature at which a liquid 
will ignite and achieve sustained burning when exposed to a 
test flame in accordance with ASTM D 92, Standard Test Method 
for Rash and Fire Points by Cleveland Open Cup. [30, 2003] 

3.3.109 Fire Retardant. A liquid, solid, or gas that tends to 
inhibit combustion when applied on, mixed in, or combined 
with combustible materials. 

3.3.110 Fire Watch. The assignment of a person or persons to 
an area for the express purpose of notifying the fire depart- 
ment, the building occupants, or both of an emergency; pre- 
venting a fire from occurring; extinguishing small fires; or 
protecting the public from fire or life safety dangers. 

3.3.111* Fireworks. Any composition or device for the pur- 
pose of producing a visible or an audible effect for entertain- 
ment purposes by combustion, deflagration, or detonation, 
and that meets the definition of Consumer Fireworks or Display 
Fireworks ^s set forth in this Code. [1124, 2006] 

3.3.111.1* Consumer Fireworks. Small fireworks devices con- 
taining restricted amounts of pyrotechnic composition, de- 
signed primarily to produce visible or audible effects by com- 
bustion, that comply with the construction, chemical 
composition, and labeling regulations of the U.S. Consumer 
Product Safety Commission (CPSC), as set forth in CPSC 16 
CFR 1500 and 1507, 49 CFR 172, and APA Standard 87-1, Stan- 
dard for the Construction and Approval for Transportation of Fire- 
works, Novelties, and Theatrical Pyrotechnics. [1124, 2006] 

3.3.111.2* Display Fireworks. Large fireworks devices that 
are explosive materials intended for use in fireworks displays 
and designed to produce visible or audible effects by combus- 
tion, deflagration, or detonation, as set forth in CPSC 16 CFR 
1500 and 1507, 49 CFR 172, and APA Standard 87-1, Standard 
for the Construction and Approval for Transportation of Fireworks, 
Novelties, and Theatrical Pyrotechnics. [1124, 2006] 

3.3.112 Flame Break. A solid material without holes or other 
openings, used to retard the spread of flame. [1124, 2006] 

3.3.113* Flame Spread. The propagation of flame over a sur- 
face, [101, 2006] 



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UNIFORM FIRE CODE 



3.3.114 name Spread Index. A comparative measure, ex- 
pressed as a dimensionless number, derived from visual mea- 
surements of the spread of flame versus time for a material 
tested in accordance with NrPA255, Standard Method of Test of 
Surface Burning Characteristics of Building Materials, ASTM E 84, 
Standard Test Method for Surface Burning Characteristics of Build- 
ing Materials, or UL 723, Standard for Test for Surface Burning 
Characteristics of Burning Materials. [101, 2006] 

3.3.115 Flammable \^pors. Flammable vapors are the con- 
centration of flammable constituents in air that exceed 25 per- 
cent of their lower flammability limit (LFL) . 

3.3.116* Flash Point The minimum temperature of a liquid 
at which sufficient vapor is given off to form an ignitible mix- 
ture with the air, near the surface of the liquid or within the 
vessel used, as determined by the appropriate test procedure 
and apparatus specified in 1.7.4 of NFPA 30, Flammable and 
Combustible Liquids Code. [30, 2003] 

3.3.117 Floor Area. 

3.3.117.1* Gross Floor Area. The floor area within the in- 
side perimeter of the outside walls of the building under 
consideration with no deduction for hallways, stairs, clos- 
ets, thickness of interior walls, columns, or other features. 
[5000, 2006] 

3.3.117.2 Net Floor Area. The floor area within the inside 
perimeter of the outside walls, or the outside walls and fire 
walls of the building under consideration with deductions 
for hallways, stairs, closets, thickness of interior walls, col- 
umns, or other features. [5000, 2006] 

3.3.118 Forecasting. The ability to predict fire progression in 
a scrap tire storage location prior to the completion of the 
inventory fire break using heavy equipment. 

3.3. 119* Fugitive Emissions. Releases of flammable vapor that 
continuously or intermittendy occur from process equipment 
during normal operations. [30, 2003] 

3.3.120 GaUon. U.S. Standaid. 1 U.S. gal = 0.833 Imperial gal 
= 231 in." = 3.785 L. [58, 2004] 

3.3.121 Garage. A building or a portion of a building in 
which one or more self-propelled vehicles carrying volatile 
flammable liquid for fuel or power are kept for use, sale, stor- 
age, rental, repair, exhibidon, or demonstrating purposes, 
and all that portion of a building that is on or below the floor 
or floors in which such vehicles are kept and that is not sepa- 
rated therefrom by suitable cutoffs. [5000, 2006] 

3.3.122 Gas. 

3.3.122.1* Compressed Gas. A material, or mixture of ma- 
terials, that (1) is a gas at 68°F (20°C) or less at 14.7 psia 
(101.3 kPa) of pressure, and (2) has a boiling point of 68°F 
(20°C) or less at 14.7 psia (101.3 kPa) that is either lique- 
fied, nonliquefied, or in solution, except those gases that have 
no other health or physical hazard properties are not consid- 
ered to be compressed until the pressure in the packaging 
exceeds 41 psia (282.5 kPa) at 68° (20°C). [5000, 2006] 

3.3.122.1.1 Compressed Gas Mixtures. A mixture of two or 
more compressed gases contained in a packaging, the haz- 
ard properties of which are represented by the properties 
of the mixture as a whole. 



3.3.122.1.2 Compressed Gases in Solution. Nonliquefied 
gases that are dissolved in a solvent. 

3.3.122.1.3 Liquefied Compressed Gases. Gases that are 
contained in a packaging under the charged pressure and 
are partially liquid at a temperature of 68°F (20°C). 

3.3.122.1.4 Nonliquefied Compressed Gases. Gases, other 
than those in solution, that are contained in a packaging 
under the charged pressure and are entirely gaseous at a 
temperature of 68°F (20°C). 

3.3.122.2 Corrosive Gas. A gas that causes visible destruc- 
tion of or irreversible alterations in living tissue by chemi- 
cal action at the site of contact. [55, 2005] 

3.3.122.3 Flammable Gas. A material that is a gas at 68°F 
(20°C) or less at an absolute pressure of 14.7 psia 
(101.325 kPa), that is ignitable at an absolute pressure of 
14.7 psia (101.325 kPa) when in a mixture of 13 percent 
or less by volume with air, or that has a flammable range 
at an absolute pressure of 14.7 psia (101.325 kPa) with 
air of at least 12 percent, regardless of the lower limit. 
[55, 2005] 

3.3.122.4 Flammable Liquefied Gas. A liquefied compressed 
gas that, when under a charged pressure, is partially liquid at a 
temperature of 68°F (20°C) and is flammable. [55, 2005] 

3.3.122.5 Highly Toxic Gas. A chemical that has a median 
lethal concentration (LCgg) in air of 200 ppm by volume or 
less of gas or vapor, or 2 mg/L or less of mist, fiime, or dust, 
when administered by continuous inhalation for 1 hour (or 
less if death occurs within 1 hour) to albino rats weighing 
between 0.44 lb and 0.66 lb (200 g and 300 g) each. [55, 2005] 

3.3.122.6* Inert Gas. Any gas that is nonflammable, nonre- 
active, and noncontaminating. 

3.3.122.7 Irritant Gas. A chemical that is not corrosive, but 
that causes a reversible inflammatory effect on living tissue by 
chemical action at the site of contact. A chemical is a skin 
irritant if, when tested on the intact skin of albino rabbits by 
the methods of 16 CFR 1500.41, for an exposure of 4 or more 
hours or by other appropriate techniques, it results in an em- 
pirical score of 5 or more. A chemical is classified as an eye 
irritant if so determined under the procedure listed in 16 CFR 
1500.42, or other appropriate techniques. [55, 2005] 

3.3.122.8 Liquefied Gas. A gas, other than in solution, that 
in a packaging under the charged pressure exists both as a 
liquid and a gas at a temperature of 68°F (20°C) . [30, 2003] 

3.3.122.9 Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG). Afluid in the cryo- 
genic liquid state that is composed predominantly of meth- 
ane and that can contain minor quantities of ethane, pro- 
pane, or nitrogen. [52, 2006] 

3.3.122.10 Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LP-Gas). Any material 
having a vapor pressure not exceeding that allowed for 
commercial propane that is composed predominantly of 
the following hydrocarbons, either by themselves or as mix- 
tures: propane, propylene, butane (normal butane or 
isobutane), and butylenes. [58, 2004] 

3.3.122.11 Nonflammable Gas. A gas that does not meet 
the definition of a flammable gas. [55, 2005] 

3.3.122.12* Other Gas. A gas that is not a corrosive gas, 
flammable gas, highly toxic gas, oxidizing gas, pyrophoric 
gas, toxic gas, or unstable reactive gas with a hazard rating 
of Class 2, Class 3, or Class 4 gas. [55, 2005] 



2006 Edition 



DEFINITIONS 



1-35 



3.3.122.13 Oxidizing Gas. A gas that can support and ac- 
celerate combustion of other materials. [55, 2005] 

3.3.122.14 Pyrophoric Gas. Agas with an autoignition tem- 
perature in air at or below 130°F (54.4°C). [55, 2005] 

3.3.122.15 Scavei^ed Gas. A residual process gas that is 
collected for treatment or release at a location remote 
from the site of use. 

3.3.122.16 Simple Asphyxiant Gas. A gas that does not pro- 
vide sufficient oxygen to support life and that has none of 
the other physical or health hazards. 

3.3.122.17 TovAcGas. A gas with a median lethal concentra- 
tion (LCjo) in air of more than 200 ppm, but not more than 
2000 ppm by volume of gas or vapor, or more than 2 mg/L, 
but not more than 20 mg/L of mist, fiime, or dust, when ad- 
ministered by continuous inhalation for 1 hour (or less if 
death occurs within 1 hour) to albino rats weighing between 
0.44 lb and 0.66 lb (200 g and 300 g) each. [55, 2005] 

3.3.122.18* Unstable Reactive Gas. A gas that, in the pure 
state or as commercially produced, will vigorously polymer- 
ize, decompose, or condense, become self-reactive, or oth- 
erwise undergo a violent chemical change under condi- 
tions of shock, pressure, or temperature. [55, 2005] 

3.3.123* Gas Cabinet. A fully enclosed, noncombustible en- 
closure used to provide an isolated environment for com- 
pressed gas cylinders in storage and use. [5000, 2006] 

3.3. 1 24 Gas Manufacturer/Producer. A business that produces 
compressed gases or cryogenic fluids, or both, or fills portable or 
stationary gas containers, cylinders, or tanks. [55, 2005] 

3.3.125 Gas Room. See 3.3.200.2. 

3.3.126 Ground Kettle. Acontainer that could be mounted on 
wheels and is used for heating tar, aspheJt, or similar substances. 

3.3.127 Handling. The deliberate movement of material by 
any means to a point of storage or use. 

3.3.128* Hazard of Contents. 

3.3. 1 28. 1 High Hazard. High hazard contents include ma- 
terials defined as hazardous materials in 3.3.156.3, whether 
stored, used, or handled. [500ft6.3.2.4.1.1] 

3.3.128.1.1 Hi^ Hazard Level 1 Contents. High hazard Level 
1 contents include materials that present a detonation haz- 
ard, limited to, explosives; unclassified detonable oiganic per- 
oxides; Class 4 oxidizers; detonable pyrophoric materials ; 
and unstable (reactive) materials. Class 3 detonable, and 
Class 4. [5000:6.3.2.4.2] 

3.3.128.1.2 High Hazard Level 2 Contents. High hazard 
Level 2 contents include materials that present a deflagra- 
tion hazard or a hazard from accelerated burning, includ- 
ing but not limited to: Class I, Class II or Class III-A flam- 
mable or combustible liquids that are used or stored in 
normally open containers or systems, or in closed contain- 
ers or systems at gauge pressures of more than 15 psi (103 
kPa); combustible dusts stored, used, or generated in a 
manner creating a severe fire or explosion hazard; flam- 
mable gases and flammable cryogenic liquids; Class I or- 
ganic peroxides; Class 3 solid or liquid oxidizers that are 
used or stored in normally open containers or systems, or 
in closed containers or systems at gauge pressures of more 
than 15 psi (103 kPa); nondetonable pyrophoric materials; 



Class 3 nondetonable unstable (reactive) materials; and 
Class 3 water-reactive materials. [5000:6.3.2.4.3] 

3.3.128.1.3 i7tgft Hazard Level 3 Contents. High hazard 
Level 3 contents include materials that readily support 
combustion or present a physical hazard including, but not 
limited to. Level 2 and Level 3 aerosols; Class I, Class II, or 
Class III-A flammable or combustible liquids that are used 
or stored in normally closed containers or systems at gauge 
pressures of less than 15 psi (103 kPa); consumer fireworks, 
1.4 G; flammable solids, other than dusts classified as high 
hazard Level 2, stored, used, or generated in a manner 
creating a high fire hazard; Class II and Class III organic 
peroxides; Class 2 solid or liquid oxidizers; Class 3 solid or 
liquid oxidizers that are used or stored in normally closed 
containers or systems at gauge pressures of less than 15 psi 
(103 kPa); oxidizing gases and oxidizing cryogenic liquids; 
Class 2 unstable (reactive) materials; and Class 2 water- 
reactive materials. [5000:6.3.2.4.4] 

3.3.128.1.4 High Hazard Level 4 Contents. High hazard 
Level 4 contents include materials that are acute health 
hazards including, but not limited to, corrosives; highly 
toxic materials; and toxic materials [5000:6.3.2.4.5] 

3.3.128.1.5 High Hazard Level 5 Contents. High hazard 
Level 5 contents include hazardous production materials 
(HPM) used in the fabrication of semiconductors or semicon- 
ductor research and development. [5000:6.3.2.4.6] 

3.3.128.2* Lmv Hazard Contents. Contents that are of such 
low combustibility that no self-propagating fire therein can 
occur. [5000:6.3.2.2] 

3.3.128.3* Ordinary Hazard Contents. Contents that are 
likely to burn v\fith moderate rapidity or to give off a consid- 
erable volume of smoke. [5000:6.3.2.3] 

3.3.129* Hazard Rating. The numerical rating of the health, 
flammability, and self-reactivity, and other hazards of the ma- 
terial, including its reaction with water, specified in NFPA 704, 
Standard System for the Identification of the Hazards of Materials for 
Emergency Response. [55, 2005] 

3.3.130 Hazardous Material. See 3.3.156.3. 

3.3. 1 3 1 Hazardous Material Storage Facility. A building, a por- 
tion of a building, or exterior area used for the storage of 
hazardous materials in excess of exempt amounts. 

3.3.132 Hazardous Materials Storage Locker. A movable pre- 
fabricated structure, manufactured primarily at a site other than 
the final location of the structure and transported completely 
assembled or in a ready-to-assemble package to the final location. 
It is intended to meet local, state, and federal requirements for 
outside storage of hazardous materials. [30, 2003] 

3.3.133* Hazardous Reaction or Hazardous Chemical Reaction. 

Reactions that result in dangers beyond the fire problems re- 
lating to flash point and boiling point of either the reactants 
or of the products. [30, 2003] 

3.3.134* Heliport. An identifiable area located on land, on 
water, or on a structure, that also includes any existing build- 
ings or facilities thereon, used or intended to be used for land- 
ing and takeoff of helicopters. [418, 2001] 

3.3.135 Hogged Material. Mill waste consisting mainly of 
hogged bark but possibly including a mixture of bark, 
chips, dust, or other by-products from trees; also includes 
material designated as hogged fuel. 



2006 Edition 



1-3 



UNIFORM FIRE CODE 



3.3.136 Home. 

3.3.136.1 Day-Care Home. See 3.3.165.6. 

3.3.136.2 NursingHome. See 3.3.165.18. 

3.3.137 Horizontal Exit. See 3.3.92.1. 

3.3.138* Immediately Dangerous to Life and Health (IDLH). A 

concentration of airborne contaminants, normally expressed 
in parts per million (ppm) or milligrams per cubic meter, that 
represents the maximum level from which one could escape 
within 30 minutes without any escape-impairing symptoms or 
irreversible health effects. [55, 2005] 

3.3.139 Imminent Danger. Acondition or practice in an occu- 
pancy or structure that poses a danger that could reasonably 
be expected to cause death, serious physical harm, or serious 
property loss. 

3.3.140* Incident Commander. The person who is responsible 
for all decisions relating to the management of the incident 
and is in charge of the incident site. [472, 2002] 

3.3.141 Incidental Liquid Use or Storage. Use or storage as a 
subordinate activity to that which establishes the occupancy or 
area classification. [30, 2003] 

3.3.142 IncUcatii^ Valve. See 3.3.245.1. 

3.3. 143 Initiating Device Circuit. A circuit to which automatic 
or manual initiating devices are connected where the signal 
received does not identify the individual device operated. [ 72, 
2002] 

3.3.144 Inside Liquid Storage Area. See 3.3.13.6. 

3.3.145 Jurisdiction. A governmental unit or political division 
or a subdivision. 

3.3.146 Limit. 

3.3.146.1* Ceiling Limit. The maximum concentration of 
an airborne contaminant to which a person can be ex- 
posed. [5000, 2006] 

3.3.146.2* Permissible Exposure Limit (PEL). The maximum 
permitted 8-hour, time-weighted average concentration of 
an airborne contaminant. [55, 2005] 

3.3.146.3* ShoH-Term Exposure Limit (STEL). The concen- 
tration to which it is believed that workers can be exposed 
continuously for a short period of time without suifering 
from irritation, chronic or irreversible tissue damage, or 
narcosis of a degree sufficient to increase the likelihood of 
accidental injury, impairment of self-rescue, or the material 
reduction of work efficiency, without exceeding the daily 
permissible exposure limit (PEL) . [55, 2005] 

3.3.147* Limited-Combustible (Material). Refers to a building 
construction material not complying with the definition of 
noncombustible (see 3.3. 156. 9) that, in the form in which it is 
used, has a potential heat value not exceeding 3500 Btu/lb 
(8141 kj/kg) , where tested in accordance with NFPA259, Stan- 
dard Test Method for Potential Heat of Building Materials, and in- 
cludes either of the following: (1) materials having a structural 
base of noncombustible material, with a surfacing not exceed- 
ing a thickness of Vein. (3.2 mm) that has a flame spread index 
not greater than 50; (2) materials, in the form and thickness 
used, having neither a flame spread index greater than 25 nor 
evidence of continued progressive combustion, and of such 
composition that surfaces that would be exposed by cutting 
through the material on any plane would have neither a flame 



spread index greater than 25 nor evidence of continued pro- 
gressive combustion. [101, 2006] 

3.3.148 Liquid. 

3.3. 148. 1 CoTiibustible Liquid. Any liquid that has a closed- 
cup flash point at or above 100°F (37.8°C), as determined 
by the test procedures and apparatus set forth in 1.7.4 of 
NFPA 30, Flammable and Combustible Liquids Code. Combus- 
tible liquids are classified as Class 11 or Class III as follows: 
(1) Class II Liquid — any liquid that has a flash point at or 
above 100°F (37.8°C) and below MOT (60''C); (2) Class 
IIIA — any liquid that has a flash point at or above 140°F 
(60°C), but below 200°F (93°C); (3) Ctoi///B— any liquid 
that has a flash point at or above 200°F (93°C). [30, 2003] 

3.3.148.2 Flammable Liquid. Any liquid that has a closed- 
cup flash point below lOOT (37.8°C) , as determined by the 
test procedures and apparatus set forth in 1.7.4 of NFPA30, 
Flammable and Combustible Liquids Code. Flammable liquids 
are classified as Class 1 as follows: (a) Class I Liquid — any 
liquid that has a closed-cup flash point below 100°F 
(37.8°C) and a Reid vapor pressure not exceeding 40 psia 
(2068.6 mm Hg) at lOCF (37.8°C), as determined by 
ASTM D 323, Standard Method of Test for Vapor Pressure of 
Petroleum Products (Reid Method). Class 1 liquids are further 
classified as follows: ( 1 ) Class LA liquids — those liquids 
that have flash points below 73°F (22.8°C) and boihng 
points below 100°F (37.8°C); (2) Class IB liquids — those 
liquids that have flash points below 73°F (22.8°C) and boil- 
ing points at or above 100°F (37.8°C); (3) Class IC liquids 
— those liquids that have flash points at or above 73°F 
(22.8°C), but below 100°F (37.8''C). [30, 2003] 

3.3.148.3 Hi^ly Volatile Liquid. A liquid with a boiling 
point of less tiian 68°F (20°C). 

3.3.148.4 Stable Liquid. Any liquid not defined as un- 
stable. [30, 2003] 

3.3.149 Log. Felled tree from which all the branches have 
been removed. 

3.3.150 Loose House. A separate detached building in which 
unbaled combustible fibers are stored. 

3.3.151 Lumber. Wood from felled trees having a section pro- 
duced by lengthwise sawing or chipping of logs or other solid 
wood of large dimensions and possible crosscutting and/or fur- 
ther machining to obtain a certain size and includes boards, di- 
mension lumber, timber, and similar wood products. 

3.3.152 Manual Fire Alarm Box. A manually operated device 
used to initiate an alarm signal. [ 72, 2002] 

3.3.153 Manual PuD Station. See 3.3.152, Manual Fire Alarm 
Box. 

3.3.154 Marine Terminal. A fecility comprising one or more 
berths, slips, piers, wharves, loading and unloading areas, ware- 
houses, and storage yards used for the transfer of people and/or 
cargo between waterbome carriers and land. [307, 2006] 

3.3.155 Marine Vessel. Awater craft or other artificial contriv- 
ance used as a means of transportation in or on the water. 

3.3.156 Material. 

3.3.156.1 Combustible (Material). See 3.3.48. 

3.3.156.2 Compatible Material. A material that, when in 
contact with an oxidizer, will not react with the oxidizer or 
promote or initiate its decomposition. [430, 2004] 



2006 Edition 



DEFINITIONS 



1-37 



3.3.156.3 Hazardous Material. Achemical or substance that 
is classified as a physical hazard material or a health hazard 
material, whether the chemical or substance is in usable or 
waste condition. (See ako 3.3. 156.5, Health Hazard Material, and 
3.3.156.10, Physical Hazard Material.) [5000, 2006] 

3.3.156.4 Hazardous Production Material (HPM). A solid, 
liquid, or gas associated with semiconductor manufactur- 
ing that has a degree-of-hazard rating of 3 or 4 in health, 
flammability, instability, or water reactivity in accordance 
with NFPA 704 and that is used direcdy in research, labora- 
tory, or production processes that have as their end prod- 
uct materials that are not hazardous. [5000, 2006] 

3.3.156.5 Health Hazard Material. A chemical or sub- 
stance classified as a toxic, highly toxic, or corrosive mate- 
rial in accordance with the definitions set forth in this Code. 
[5000, 2006] 

3.3.156.6* Hi^ly Toxic Material. A material that produces 
a lethal dose or lethal concentration that falls within any of 
following categories: (1) a chemical that has a median le- 
thal dose (LD50) of 50 mg/kg or less of body weight when 
administered orally to albino rats weighing between 200 g 
and 300 g each; (2) a chemical that has a median lethal 
dose (LD50) of 200 mg/kg or less of body weight when 
administered by continuous contact for 24 hours, or less if 
death occurs within 24 hours, with the bare skin of albino 
rabbits weighing between 2 kg and 3 kg each; (3) a chemi- 
cal that has a median lethal concentration (LC50) in air of 
200 parts per million by volume or less of gas or vapor, or 
2 mg/L or less of mist, fume, or dust, when administered by 
continuous inhalation for 1 hour, or less if death occurs 
within 1 hour, to albino rats weighing between 200 g and 
300 g each. [5000, 2006] 

3.3.156.7 Hogged Material. See 3.3.135. 

3.3.156.8 Incompatible Material. Materials that, when in 
contact with each other, have the potential to react in a 
manner that generates heat, fumes, gases or by-products 
that are hazardous to life and property. [5000, 2006] 

3.3.156.9 Noncombustible Material. A material that, in the 
form in which it is used and under the conditions antici- 
pated, will not ignite, burn, support combustion, or release 
flammable vapors, when subjected to fire or heat. Materials 
that are reported as passing ASTM E 136, Standard Test 
Method for Behavior of Materials in a Vertical Tube Furnace at 
750 Degrees C, shall be considered noncombustible materi- 
als. [5000, 2006] 

3.3.156.10 Physical Hazard Material. A chemical or sub- 
stance classified as a combustible liquid, explosive, flammable 
cryogen, flammable gas, flammable liquid, flammable solid, 
organic peroxide, oxidizer, oxidizing cryogen, pyrophoric, 
unstable (reactive), or water-reactive material. [5000, 2006] 

3.3.156.11 Toxic Material. A material that produces a le- 
thal dose or a lethal concentration within any of the follow- 
ing categories: (1) a chemical or substance that has a me- 
dian lethal dose (LD50) of more than 50 mg/kg but not 
more than 500 mg/kg of body weight when administered 
orally to albino rats weighing between 200 g and 300 g 
each; (2) a chemical or substance that has a median lethal 
dose (LDgo) of more than 200 mg/kg but not more than 
1000 mg/kg of body weight when administered by continu- 
ous contact for 24 hours, or less if death occurs within 
24 hours, with the bare skin of albino rabbits weighing be- 



tween 2 kg and 3 kg each; (3) a chemical or substance that 
has a median lethal concentration (LC50) in air of more 
than 200 parts per million but not more than 2000 parts 
per million by volume of gas or vapor, or more than 
2 rng/L but not more than 20 mg/L of mist, fume, or dust 
when administered by continuous inhalation for 1 hour, or 
less if death occurs within 1 hour, to albino rats weighing 
between 200 g and 300 g each. [5000, 2006] 

3.3.156.12* Unstable (Reactive) Material. Amaterial that, in 
the pure state or as commercially produced, will vigorously 
polymerize, decompose, or condense, become self-reactive, 
or otherwise undergo a violent chemical change under condi- 
tions of shock, pressure, or temperature. [5000, 2006] 

3.3.156.13* Water-Reactive Material. A material that ex- 
plodes; violendy reacts; produces flammable, toxic, or other 
hazardous gases; or evolves enough heat to cause self-ignition 
or ignition of nearby combustibles upon exposure to water or 
moisture. [5000, 2006] 

3.3.157 Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS). Written or printed 
material concerning a hazardous material that is prepared in ac- 
cordance witii tiie provisions of OSHA29 CFR 1910.1200. 

3.3.158* Maxiinuin Allowable Quantity (MAQ). The quantity 
of hazardous material permitted in a control area. 

3.3.159* Means of Egress. Acontinuous and unobstructed way 
of travel from any point in a building or structure to a public way 
consisting of three separate and distinct parts: (1) the exit access, 
(2) die exit, and (3) the exit discharge. [101, 2006] 

3.3.160 Means of Escape. Away out of a building or structure 
that does not conform to the strict definition of means of 
egress but does provide an alternate way out. [101, 2006] 

3.3.161 Mezzanine. An intermediate level between the floor 
and the ceiling of any room or space. [101, 2006] 

3.3.162 Motor Vehicle Fluid. A fluid that is a flammable, com- 
bustible, or hazardous material, such as crankcase fluids, fuel, 
brake fluids, transmission fluids, radiator fluids, and gear oil. 

3.3.163 Nesting. A method of securing cylinders upright in a 
tight mass using a contiguous three-point contact system 
whereby all cylinders in a group have a minimum of three 
contact points with other cylinders or a solid support structure 
(for example, a wall or railing). [55, 2005] 

3.3.164 Normal Temperature and Pressure (NTP). A tempera- 
ture of 70°r (21.1°C) and a pressure of 1 atmosphere [14.7 psia 
(101.3 kPa)]. 

3.3.165 Occupancy. The purpose for which a building or 
other structure, or part thereof, is used or intended to be 
used. [ASCE 7:1.2] 

3.3.165. 1 * Ambulatory Health Care Occupancy. A building or 
portion thereof used to provide services or treatment simulta- 
neously to four or more patients that provides, on an outpa- 
tient basis, one or more of the following: (1) treatment for 
patients that renders the patients incapable of taking action 
for self-preservation under emergency conditions without the 
assistance of others; (2) anesthesia that renders the patients 
incapable of taking action for self-preservation under emer- 
gency conditions without the assistance of others; (3) emer- 
gency or urgent care for patients who, due to the nature of 
their injury or illness, are incapable of taking action for self- 
preservation under emergency conditions without the assis- 
tance of otiiers [101, 2006] 



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UNIFORM FIRE CODE 



3.3.165.2* Apartment Building. Abuilding or portion thereof 
containing three or more dwelling units with independent 
cooking and bathroom facilities. [5000, 2006] 

3.3.165.3* Assembly Occupancy. An occupancy (1) used for a 
gathering of 50 or more persons for deliberation, worship, 
entertainment, eating, drinking, amusement, awaiting trans- 
portation, or similar uses; or (2) used as a special amusement 
building, regardless of occupant load. [101, 2006] 

3.3.165.4 Bulk Merchandising Retail Building. Abuilding in 
which the sales area includes the storage of combustible 
materials on pallets, in solid piles, or in racks in excess of 
12 ft (3660 mm) in storage height. [5000, 2006] 

3.3.165.5* Business Occupancy. An occupancy used for the 
transaction of business other than mercantile. [5000, 2006] 

3.3. 1 65.6 * Day-Care Home. A building or portion of a build- 
ing in which more than 3 but not more than 12 clients receive 
care, maintenance, and supervision, by other than their rela- 
tive (s) or legal guardian (s), for less than 24 hours per day. 
[101, 2006] 

3.3.165.7* Day-Care Occupancy. An occupancy in which 
four or more clients receive care, maintenance, and super- 
vision, by other than their relatives or legal guardians, for 
less than 24 hours per day. [5000, 2006] 

3.3.165.8* Detention and Correctional Occupancy. An occu- 
pancy used to house one or more persons under varied 
degrees of restraint or security where such occupants are 
mosdy incapable of self-preservation because of security 
measures not under the occupants' control. [5000, 2006] 

3.3.165.8.1 Detention and Correctional Use Condition. For 

application of the life safety in Section 20.7, the resident 
user category is divided into the five use conditions. 

3.3.165.8.1.1 Use Condition I — Free Egress. Free move- 
ment is allowed from sleeping areas and other spaces 
where access or occupancy is permitted to the exterior via 
means of egress that meet the requirements of NFPA 101, 
Life Safety Code. [101, 2006] 

3.3.165.8.1.2 Use Condition II — Zoned Egress. Free move- 
ment is allowed from sleeping areas and any other occu- 
pied smoke compartment to one or more other smoke 
compartments. [101, 2006] 

3.3.165.8.1.3 Use Condition HI — Zoned Impeded Egress. 

Free movement is allowed within individual smoke com- 
partments, such as within a residential unit comprised of 
individual sleeping rooms and a group activity space, with 
egress impeded by remote-controlled release of means of 
egress from such a smoke compartment to another smoke 
compartment. [101, 2006] 

3.3.165.8.1.4 Use Condition IV — Impeded Egress. Free 
movement is restricted from an occupied space, and 
remote-controlled release is provided to allow movement 
from all sleeping rooms, activity spaces, and other occu- 
pied areas within the smoke compartment to another 
smoke compartment. [101, 2006] 

3.3.165.8.1.5 Use Condition V — Contained. Free move- 
ment is restricted from an occupied space, and staff- 
controlled manual release at each door is provided to allow 
movement from all sleeping rooms, activity spaces, and 
other occupied areas within the smoke compartment to 
another smoke compartment. [101, 2006] 



3.3. 1 65.9* Dormitory. A building or a space in a building in 
which group sleeping accommodations are provided for 
more than 16 persons who are not members of the same 
family in one room, or a series of closely associated rooms 
under joint occupancy and single management, with or 
without meals, but without individual cooking facilities. 
[101, 2006] 

3.3.165.10* Educational Occupancy. An occupancy used for 
educational purposes through the twelfth grade by six or 
more persons for 4 or more hours per day or more than 12 
hours per week. [5000, 2006] 

3.3.165.11* Health Care Occupancy. An occupancy used for 
purposes of medical or other treatment or care of four or 
more persons where such occupants are mostiy incapable 
of self-preservation due to age, physical or mental disability, 
or because of security measures not under the occupants' 
control. [5000, 2006] 

3.3.165.12 Hospital. A building or portion thereof used 
on a 24-hour basis for the medical, psychiatric, obstetrical, 
or surgical care of four or more inpatients. [101, 2006] 

3.3.165.13* Hotel. Abuilding or groups of buildings under 
the same management in which there are sleeping accom- 
modations for more than 16 persons and primarily used by 
transients for lodging with or without meals. [101, 2006] 

3.3.165.14* Industrial Occupancy. An occupancy in which 
products are manufactured or in which processing, assem- 
bling, mixing, packaging, finishing, decorating, or repair 
operations are conducted. [5000, 2006] 

3.3.165.15* Limited Care Facility. Abuilding or portion of a 
building used on a 24-hour basis for the housing of four or 
more persons who are incapable of self-preservation because 
of age; physical limitations due to accident or illness; or limi- 
tations such as mental retardation/developmental disability, 
mental illness, or chemical dependency. [101, 2006] 

3.3.165.16 Lodging or Roomitig House. A building or por- 
tion thereof that does not qualify as a one- or two-family 
dwelling, that provides sleeping accommodations for a to- 
tal of 16 or fewer people on a transient or permanent basis, 
without personal care services, with or without meals, but 
without separate cooking facilities for individual occu- 
pants. [101, 2006] 

3.3.165.17* Mercantile Occupancy. An occupancy used for 
the display and sale of merchandise. [5000, 2006] 

3.3.165.17.1 Class A Mercantile Occupancy. All mercantile 
occupancies having an aggregate gross area of more than 
30,000 ft'^ (2800 m ) or occupying more than three stories 
for sales purposes. [101, 2006] 

3.3.165.17.2 Class B Mercantile Occupancy. All mercantile 
occupancies of more than 3000 ft^ (280 m^), but not more 
than 30,000 ft^ (2800 m^) , aggregate gross area and occupy- 
ing not more than three stories for sales purposes. [101, 2006] 

3.3.165.17.3 Class C Mercantile Occupancy. All mercantile oc- 
cupancies of not more than 3000 ft^ (280 m^) gross area and 
used for sales purposes occupying one story only. [101, 2006] 

3.3.165.18 NursingHome. Abuilding or portion of abuild- 
ing used on a 24-hour basis for the housing and nursing 
care of four or more persons who, because of mental or 
physical incapacity, might be unable to provide for their 



2006 Edition 



DEFINITIONS 



1-39 



own needs and safety without the assistance of another per- 
son. [5000, 2006] 

3.3.165.19 One- and Two-Family Dwelling. One- and two- 
family dwellings include buildings containing not more 
than two dwelling units in which each dwelling unit is occu- 
pied by members of a single family with not more than 
three outsiders, if any, accommodated in rented rooms. 
[101, 2006] 

3.3. 1 65. 1 9. 1 One- and Two-Family Dwelling Unit. A building 
that contains not more than two dwelling units with indepen- 
dent cooking and bathroom facilities. [5000, 2006] 

3.3.165.20* Parking Structure. A building, structure, or por- 
tion thereof used for the parking, storage, or both, of motor 
vehicles. [88A, 2002] 

3.3.165.20.1 Basement and Underground Parking Structures. 

Parking structures that are located below grade. A base- 
ment parking structure has other occupancies above it and 
an underground parking structure has no occupancy other 
than parking above it. Basement and underground parking 
structures are considered as specific cases of enclosed park- 
ing structures. 

3.3.165.20.2 Enclosed Parking Structure. Any parking struc- 
ture that is not an open parking structure. [88A, 2002] 

3.3.165.20.3 Open Parking Structure. A parking structure 
that, at each parking level, has wall openings open to the 
atmosphere, for an area of not less than 1.4 ft^ for each 
linear foot (0.4 m^ for each linear meter) of its exterior 
perimeter. Such openings are distributed over 40 percent 
of the building perimeter or uniformly over two opposing 
sides. Interior wall lines and column lines are at least 
20 percent open, with openings distributed to provide ven- 
tilation. [88A, 2002] 

3.3.165.21 Repair Garages. 

3.3.165.21.1 Major Repair Garage. A building or portions 
of a building where major repairs, such as engine over- 
hauls, painting, body and fender work, and repairs that 
require draining of the motor vehicle fuel tank are per- 
formed on motor vehicles, including associated floor space 
used for offices, parking, or showrooms. 

3.3.165.21.2 Minor Repair Garage. A building or portions 
of a building used for lubrication, inspection, and minor 
automotive maintenance work, such as engine tune-ups, 
replacement of parts, fluid changes (e.g., oil, antifreeze, 
transmission fluid, brake fluid, air conditioning refriger- 
ants, etc.), brake system repairs, tire rotation, and similar 
routine maintenance work, including associated floor 
space used for offices, parking, or showrooms. 

3.3.165.22* Residential Board and Care Occupancy. A build- 
ing or portion thereof that is used for lodging and board- 
ing of four or more residents, not related by blood or mar- 
riage to the owners or operators, for the purpose of 
providing personal care services. [5000, 2006] 

3.3. 165.23* Residential Occupancy. An occupancy that pro- 
vides sleeping accommodations for purposes other than 
health care or detention and correctional. [101, 2006] 

3.3.165.24 Motor Fuel Dispensing Facility. That portion of a 
property where motor fuels are stored and dispensed from 
fixed equipment into the fuel tanks of motor vehicles or 



marine craft or into approved containers, including all 
equipment used in connection therewith. [30A, 2003] 

3.3.165.24.1 Fleet Vehicle Motor Fuel Dispensing Facility. A 
motor fuel dispensing facility at a commercial, industrial, 
governmental, or manufacturing property where motor fu- 
els are dispensed into the fuel tanks of motor vehicles that 
are used in connection with the business or operation of 
that property by persons within the employ of such busi- 
ness or operation. [30A, 2003] 

3.3.165.24.2 Marine Motor Fuel Dispensing Facility. A mo- 
tor fuel dispensing facility at or adjacent to shore, a pier, a 
wharf, or a floating dock where motor fuels are dispensed 
into the fuel tanks of marine craft. [30A, 2003] 

3.3.165.24.3* Motor Fuel Dispensing Facility Located Inside a 
Building. That portion of a motor fuel dispensing facility 
located within the perimeter of a building or building 
structure that also contains other occupancies. [30A, 2003] 

3.3.165.25* Storage Occupancy. An occupancy used prima- 
rily for the storage or sheltering of goods, merchandise, 
products, vehicles, or animals. [5000, 2006] 

3.3.165.25.1* Mini-Storage Building. A storage occupancy 
partitioned into areas that are rented or leased for the pur- 
poses of storing personal or business items where all of the 
following apply: (1) the storage areas are separated from 
each other by less than a 1-hour fire resistance rated bar- 
rier, (2) the owner of the facility does not have unrestricted 
access, and (3) the items being stored are concealed from 
view from outside the unit. 

3.3.166 Occupant Load. The total number of persons that 
might occupy a building or portion thereof at any one time. 
[5000, 2006] 

3.3.167 Open System Use. See 3.3.244.2. 

3.3.168 Operating Unit (Vessel) or Process Unit (Vessel). The 
equipment in which a unit operation or unit process is con- 
ducted. (See abo 3.3.240, Unit Opemtim or Unit Process.) [30, 2003] 

3.3.169 Operating Pressure. The pressure at which a system 
operates. 

3.3.170 Operations. A general term that includes, but is not 
limited to, the use, transfer, storage, and processing of liquids. 
[30, 2003] 

3.3.171 Organic Peroxide. Any organic compound having a 
double oxygen or peroxy (-0-0-) group in its chemical struc- 
ture. [432, 2002] 

3.3.171.1* Organic Peroxide Formulation. A pure organic 
peroxide or a mixture of one or more organic peroxides 
with one or more other materials in various combinations 
and concentrations. [432, 2002] 

3.3.171.2 Organic Peroxide Storage Area. See 3.3.13.7. 

3.3.172 OSHA. The Occupational Safety and Health Admin- 
istration of the U.S. Department of Labor. [55, 2005] 

3.3.173* Oxidizer. Any material that readily yields oxygen or 
other oxidizing gas, or that readily reacts to promote or ini- 
tiate combustion of combustible materials and can undergo a 
vigorous self-sustained decomposition due to contamination 
or heat exposure. For the purpose of this Code, oxidizers are 
classified according to the system listed in 3.3.173.1 through 
3.3.173.4. [430,2004] 



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UNIFORM FIRE CODE 



3.3.173.1 Class 1. An oxidizer that does not moderately 
increase tlie burning rate of combustible materials with 
which it comes into contact. 

3.3.173.2 Class 2, An oxidizer that causes a moderate in- 
crease in the burning rate of combustible materials with 
which it comes into contact. 

3.3.173.3 Class 3. An oxidizer that causes a severe in- 
crease in the burning rate of combustible materials with 
which it comes into contact. 

3.3.173.4 Class 4. An oxidizer that can undergo an explo- 
sive reaction due to contamination or exposure to thermal 
or physical shock and that causes a severe increase in the 
burning rate of combustible materials with which it comes 
into contact. 

3.3.174* Pack^ed Fireworks Merchandise. A consumer fire- 
works device or group of consumer fireworks devices that has 
been packaged within an unperforated container or packag- 
ing material by the manufacturer, distributor, or seller for re- 
tail display and sale as a unit. [1124, 2006] 

3.3.175 Packaging. A commodity wrapping, cushioning, or 
container. [13, 2002] 

3.3.176 Paper. Felted sheets made from natural fibrous materi- 
als, usually vegetable but sometimes mineral or animal, and 
formed on a fine wire screen by means of water suspension. 

3.3.177 Patch Ketde. Any pot or container with a capacity of 
less than 6 gal (22.7 L) used for preheating tar, asphalt, pitch, 
or similar substances for the repair of roofs, streets, floors, 
pipes, or similar objects. 

3.3.178 Permissible Exposure limit (PEL). See 3.3.146.2. 

3.3.179 Permit. A document issued by the authority having 
jurisdiction for the purpose of authorizing performance of a 
specified activity. 

3.3.180 Peroxide-Forming Chemical. A chemical that, when 
exposed to air, forms explosive peroxides that are shock sensi- 
tive, pressure sensitive, or heat sensitive. 

3.3.181* Personal Care. The care of residents who do not re- 
quire chronic or convalescent medical or nursing care. [101, 
2006] 

3.3.182 Pesticide. Any substance or mixture of substances in- 
tended for preventing, destroying, repelling, or mitigating any 
pest or for use as a plant regulator, defoliant, or desiccant. 
[434, 2002] 

3.3.183 Physical Hazard. A chemical for which there is scien- 
tifically valid evidence that the chemical is an organic perox- 
ide or oxidizer. 

3.3.184 Pier. A structure, usually of greater length that width 
and projecting from the shore into a body of water viith direct 
access from land, that can be either open deck or provided 
with a superstructure. [307: 2.1.15] 

3.3.185 Planned Building Groups. Multiple structures con- 
structed on a parcel of land, excluding farmland, under the 
ownership, control, or development by an individual, a corpo- 
ration, a partnership, or a firm. [1141, 2003] 

3.3.186 Primary Containment. The first level of containment, 
consisting of the inside portion of that container that comes 
into immediate contact on its inner surface with the material 
being contained. 



3.3.187 Private BuUding. See 3.3.27.9. 

3.3.188* Process or Processing. An integrated sequence of op- 
erations. [30, 2003] 

3.3.189 Process Unit (Vessel). See 3.3.168, Operating Unit 
(Vessel) or Process Unit (Vessel). 

3.3.190 Professional Engineer. An individual technically and 
legally qualified to practice the profession of engineering. 

3.3.191 Proprietary Information. Information regarding com- 
pounds or ingredients used in a process or production that do 
not qualify as trade secrets but that provide an industiy or busi- 
ness with a competitive advantage. 

3.3.192 Protection for Exposures. Fire protection for struc- 
tures on property adjacent to liquid storage that is provided by 
( 1 ) a public fire department or (2) a private fire brigade main- 
tained on the property adjacent to the liquid storage, either of 
which is capable of providing cooMng water streams to protect 
the property adjacent to the liquid storage. [30, 2003] 

3.3.193 Public Way. A street, alley, or other similar parcel of 
land essentially open to the outside air deeded, dedicated, or 
otherwise permanently appropriated to the public for public 
use and having a clear width and height of not less than 10 ft 
(3050 mm). [10/, 2006] 

3.3.194 Pyrophoric. A chemical that spontaneously ignites in 
air at or below a temperature of 130°F (54.5°C). 

3.3.195* Rack. Any combination of vertical, horizontal, and 
diagonal members that supports stored materials. 

3.3.195.1 Double-Row Racks. Two single-row racks placed 
back-to-back having a combined width up to 12 ft (3.7 m), 
with aisles at least 3.5 ft (1.1 m) on each side. [13, 2002] 

3.3.195.2* Movable Racks. Racks on fixed rails or guides. 

3.3.195.3 Multiple-Row Racks. Racks greater than 12 ft 
(3.7 m) wide or single- or double-row racks separated by 
aisles less than 3.5 ft (1.1 m) wide having an overall width 
greater than 12 ft (3.7 m). [13, 2002] 

3.3.195.4* Portable Racks. Racks that are not fixed in place. 

3.3.195.5 Sin^e-Row Racks. Racks that have no longitudi- 
nal flue space and that have a width up to 6 ft (1.8 m) with 
aisles at least 3.5 ft (1.1 m) from other storage. [13, 2002] 

3.3.196* Ramp. A walking surface that has a slope steeper 
than 1 in 20. [101, 2006] 

3.3.197 Recreational Fire. The noncommercial burning of 
materials other than rubbish for pleasure, religious, ceremo- 
nial, cooking, or similar purposes in which the fuel burned is 
not contained in an incinerator, a barbecue grill, or a barbe- 
cue pit, and the total fuel area is not exceeding 3 ft (0.9 m) in 
diameter and 2 ft (0.6 m) in height. 

3.3.198 Refinery. Aplant in which flammable or combustible 
liquids are produced on a commercial scale from crude petro- 
leum, natural gasoline, or other hydrocarbon sources. [30, 
2003] 

3.3.199 Relocatable Power Tap. A device for indoor use con- 
sisting of an attachment plug on one end of a flexible cord 
and two or more receptacles on the opposite end, and has 
overcurrent protection. 



2006 Edition 



DEFINITIONS 



1-41 



3.3.200 Room. 

3.3.200.1 Cutoff Roam. A room within a building and hav- 
ing at least one exterior wall. [30, 2003] 

3.3.200.2* Gas Room. A separately ventilated, fully enclosed 
room in which only compressed gases, cryogenic fluids, asso- 
ciated equipment and supplies are stored or used. [55, 2005] 

3.3.200.3 Inside Room. A room totally enclosed within a 
building and having no exterior walls. [30, 2003] 

3.3.201 Row. A minimum yard storage unit comprised of ad- 
joining cotton bales. 

3.3.202 Safety Can. A listed container, of not more than 
5.3 gal (20 L) capacity, having a spring-closing lid and spout 
cover and so designed that it will safely relieve internal pres- 
sure when subjected to fire exposure. [30, 2003] 

3.3.203 Sales Display Area. See 3.3.13.9. 

3.3.204 Salvage Vehicle. A vehicle that is dismantled for parts 
or awaiting destruction. 

3.3.205 Self-Closing. Equipped with an approved device that 
ensures closing after opening. [101, 2006] 

3.3.206 Separation of Hazards. Physically separated by a 
specified distance, construction, or appliance. [55, 2005] 

3.3.207 Shop Drawings. Scaled working drawings, equip- 
ment cutsheets, and design calculations. (See 3.3.12, Plan, in 
NFPA1031.) [1031,2003] 

3.3.208 Signal. 

3.3.208.1 Alarm Signal. A signal indicating an emergency 
that requires immediate action, such as a signal indicative 
of fire. [72, 2002] 

3.3.208.2 Fire-arm Signal. Asignal initiated by a fire alarm- 
initiating device such as a manual fire alarm box, automatic 
fire detector, waterflow switch, or other device in which activa- 
tion is indicative of the presence of a fire or fire signamre. [ 72, 
2002] 

3.3.208.3 Supervisory Signal. A signal indicating the need 
for action in connection with the supervision of guard 
tours, the fire suppressions or equipment, or the mainte- 
nance features of related systems. [72, 2002] 

3.3.208.4 Trouble Signal. A signal initiated by the fire 
alarm system or device indicative of a fault in a monitored 
circuit or component. [72, 2002] 

3.3.209 Simple Asphyxiant Gas. See 3.3.122.16. 

3.3.210 Smoke Alarm. A single or multiple station alarm re- 
sponsive to smoke. [ 72, 2002] 

3.3.211* Smoke Barrier. A continuous membrane, or a mem- 
brane with discontinuities created by protected openings, 
where such membrane is designed and constructed to restrict 
the movement of smoke. [5000, 2006] 

3.3.212 Smoke Compartment. See 3.3.58.2. 

3.3.213* Smoke Partition. Acontinuous membrane that is de- 
signed to form a barrier to limit the transfer of smoke. [101, 
2006] 

3.3.214 Smokii^. The use or carrying of a lighted pipe, cigar, 
cigarette, tobacco, or any other type of smoking substance. 

3.3.215 SmokingArea. See 3.3.13.10. 



3.3.216 Solid. 

3.3.216.1* Combustible Particulate Solid. Any combustible 
solid material comprised of distinct particles or pieces, re- 
gardless of size, shape, or chemical composition, that is 
capable of being pneumatically conveyed. [69, 2002] 

3.3.216.2* Flammable Solid. Asolid substance, other than a 
substance defined as a blasting agent or explosive, that is 
liable to cause fire resulting from friction or retained heat 
from manufacture, that has an ignition temperature below 
212°F (100°C), or which burns so vigorously or persistentiy 
when ignited that it creates a serious hazard. 

3.3.217 Solid Shelving. Solid, slatted, and other types of 
shelving located within racks that obstruct sprinkler water 
penetration down through the racks. 

3.3.218 Special Use. See 3.3.244.3. 

3.3.219 Spray Area. See 3.3.13.11. 

3.3.220* Spray Booth. A power-ventilated enclosure for a 
spray application operation or process that confines and limits 
the escape of the material being sprayed, including vapors, 
mists, dusts, and residues that are produced by the spraying 
operation and conducts or directs these materials to an ex- 
haust system. [33,2003] 

3.3.221* Spray Room. A power-ventilated fully enclosed room 
used exclusively for open spraying of flammable or combus- 
tible materials. [33, 2003] 

3.3.222 Standard Cubic Foot of Gas. Cubic foot of gas at 
14.7 psia (101 kPa) and 70°F (21°C). [55, 2005] 

3.3.223 Standard Temperature and Pressure (STP). Atempera- 
ture of 70°F (21 °C) and a pressure of 1 atmosphere (14.7 psi or 
760mmHg). 

3.3.224 Standpipe System. See 3.3.233.11. 

3.3.225 Storage. 

3.3.225.1 Banded Tire Storage. Storage in which a number 
of tires are strapped together. 

3.3.225.2 Cartoned Storage. Storage consisting of corru- 
gated cardboard or paperboard containers that fully en- 
close the commodity. 

3.3.225.3 Detached Storage. Storage in a separate building 
or in an outside area located away from all structures. 

3.3.225.4 High-Piled Storage. Solid-piled, palletized, rack 
storage, bin box, and shelf storage in excess of 12 ft (3.7 m) 
in height. [13, 2002] 

3.3.225.5 Isolated Storage. Storage in a different storage 
room or in a separate and detached building located at a 
safe distance. 

3.3.225.6* Laced Tire Storage. Tires stored where the sides 
of the tires overlap, creating a woven or laced appearance. 
[13, 2002] 

3.3.225.7* Miscellaneous Tire Storage. The storage of rub- 
ber tires that is incidental to the main use of the building. 
Storage areas shall not exceed 2000 ft'^ (186 m^). On-tread 
storage piles, regardless of storage method, shall not ex- 
ceed 25 ft (7.6 m) in the direction of the wheel holes. Ac- 
ceptable storage arrangements include (a) on-floor, on- 
side storage up to 12 ft (3.7 m) high; (b) on-floor, on-tread 
storage up to 5 ft (1.5 m) high; (c) double-row or multirow 



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UNIFORM FIRE CODE 



fixed or portable rack storage on-side or on-tread up to 5 ft 
(1.5 m) high; (d) single-row fixed or portable rack storage 
on-side or on-tread up to 12 ft (3.7 m) high; and (e) laced 
tires in racks up to 5 ft (1.5 m) in height. [13, 2002] 

3.3.225.8 On-Side Tire Storage. Tires stored horizontally or 
flat. [13, 2002] 

3.3.225.9 On-Tread Tire Storage. Tires stored vertically or 
on their treads. [13, 2002] 

3.3.225.10 Palletized Storage. Storage of commodities on 
pallets or other storage aids that form horizontal spaces 
between tiers of storage. [13, 2002] 

3.3.225.11 Segregated Storage. Storage located in the same 
room or inside area that is physically separated by distance 
from incompatible materials. 

3.3.225.12 Yard Storage. Storage of commodities in out- 
door areas. 

3.3.226 Storage Aids. Commodity storage devices, such as 
pallets, dunnage, separators, and skids. [13, 2002] 

3.3.227* Store. As used in Chapter 65, a building classified as 
a mercantile occupancy that contains a variety of merchandise 
and that is not used primarily for the retail sales of consumer 
fireworks. [1124, 2006] 

3.3.228 Story, The portion of a building located between the 
upper surface of a floor and the upper surface of the floor or 
roof next above. [5000,2006] 

3.3.228.1* Occupiable Story. A story occupied by people on 
a regular basis. [101, 2006] 

3.3.229 Street A public thoroughfare that has been dedi- 
cated for vehicular use by the public and can be used for ac- 
cess by fire department vehicles. [101, 2006] 

3.3.230* Street Floor. Astory or floor level accessible from the 
street or from outside the building at ground level, with the 
floor level at the main entrance located not more than three 
risers above or below ground level, and arranged and utilized 
to qualify as the main floor. [lOlB, 2002] 

3.3.231* Structure. That which is built or constructed. [101, 
2006] 

3.3.232 Smnmarily Abate. To immediately judge a condition 
to be a fire hazard to life or property and to order immediate 
correction of such condition. 

3.3.233 System. Several items of equipment assembled, 
grouped, or otherwise interconnected for the accomplish- 
ment of a purpose or function. 

3.3.233.1 Automatic Fire Extinguishing System. Any system 
that is designed and installed to detect a fire and subse- 
quendy discharge an extinguishing agent without human 
activation or direction. [1141, 2003] 

3.3.233.2 Bulk Oxygen System. An assembly of equipment, 
such as oxygen storage containers, pressure regulators, 
pressure relief devices, vaporizers, manifolds, and inter- 
connecting piping, with a storage capacity of more than 
20,000 ft^ (scf) (566 m''') ofoxygen including unconnected 
reserves on hand at the site. The bulk oxygen system termi- 
nates at the point where oxygen at service pressure first 
enters the supply line. The oxygen containers are either 
stationary or movable, and the oxygen is stored as a com- 
pressed gas or cryogenic fluid. [55, 2005] 



3.3.233.3 Central Station Fire Alarm System. A system or 
group of systems in which the operations of circuits and 
devices are transmitted automatically to, recorded in, 
maintained by, and supervised from a listed central station 
that has competent and experienced servers and operators 
who, upon receipt of a signal, take such action as required 
by NFPA 72. Such service is to be controlled and operated 
by a person, firm, or corporation whose business is the fur- 
nishing, maintaining, or monitoring of supervised fire 
alarm systems. [72, 2002] 

3.3.233.4 Compressed Gas System. An assembly of equip- 
ment designed to contain, distribute, or transport com- 
pressed gases. [318, 2006] 

3.3.233.5 Continuous Gas Detection System. A gas detection 
system in which the instrument is maintained in continu- 
ous operation and the interval between sampling of any 
point does not exceed 30 minutes. [55, 2005] 

3.3.233.6 Cylinder Containment System. A gastight recovery 
system comprised of equipment or devices that can be 
placed over a leak in a compressed gas container, thereby 
stopping or controlling the escape of gas from the leaking 
container. [55, 2005] 

3.3.233.7 Dedicated Smoke-Control System. A system that is 
intended for the purpose of smoke control only, which are 
separate systems of air moving and distribution equip- 
ment that do not function under normal building oper- 
ating conditions. 

3.3.233.8 Fire Alarm System. A system or portion of a com- 
bination system that consists of components and circuits 
arranged to monitor and annunciate the status of fire 
alarm or supervisory signal-initiating devices and to initiate 
the appropriate response to those signals. [ 72, 2002] 

3.3.233.9 Fire Protection System. Any fire alarm device or 
system or fire extinguishing device or system, or their com- 
bination, that is designed and installed for detecting, con- 
trolling, or extinguishing a fire or otherwise alerting occu- 
pants, or the fire department, or both, that a fire has 
occurred. [1141, 2003] 

3.3.233.10 Nondedicated Smoke-Control System. A smoke- 
control system that shares components with some other 
system (s), such as the building HVAC system, which 
changes its mode of operation to achieve the smoke- 
control objective. 

3.3.233.11 Standpipe System. An arrangement of piping, 
valves, hose connections, and allied equipment installed in 
a building or structure, vnth the hose connections located 
in such a manner that water can be discharged in streams 
or spray patterns through attached hose and nozzles, for 
the purpose of extinguishing a fire, thereby protecting a 
building or structure and its contents in addition to pro- 
tecting the occupants. This is accomplished by means of 
connections to water supply systems or by means of pumps, 
tanks, and other equipment necessary to provide an ad- 
equate supply of water to the hose connections. [14, 2003] 

3.3.233.12 Treatment System. An assembly of equipment 
capable of processing a hazardous gas and reducing the gas 
concentration to a predetermined level at the point of dis- 
charge from the system to the atmosphere. [55, 2005] 

3.3.233.13* Vapor Processing System. A system designed to 
capture and process vapors displaced during transfer or 



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DEFINITIONS 



1-43 



filling operations by use of mechanical or chemical means. 
[30, 2003] 

3.3.233.14* Vapor Recovery System. A system designed to 
capture and retain, without processing, vapors displaced 
during transfer or filling operations. [30, 2003] 

3.3.234 Tactics. The method of securing the objectives laid 
out in the strategy through the use of personnel and equip- 
ment to achieve optimum results. 

3.3.235 Tank. 

3.3.235.1 Aboveground Storage Tank. A horizontal or verti- 
cal tank that is listed and intended for fixed installation, 
without backfill, above or below grade and is used within 
the scope of its approval or listing. [30A, 2003] 

3.3.235.2 Aboveground Tank. A tank that is installed above 
grade, at grade, or below grade without backfill. [30, 2003] 

3.3.235.2.1 Protected Aboveground Tank. An aboveground 
storage tank that is listed in accordance with UL 2085, Stan- 
dard for Protected Aboveground Tanks for Flammable and Com- 
bustible Liquids, or an equivalent test procedure that con- 
sists of a primary tank provided with protection from 
physical damage and fire-resistive protection from expo- 
sure to a high-intensity liquid pool fire. [30, 2003] 

3.3.235.3 ASME Tank. See 3.3.65.1, ASME Container. 

3.3.235.4 Portable Tank. Any closed vessel having a liquid 
capacity over 60 gal (230 L) and not intended for fixed 
installation. This includes intermediate bulk containers 
(IBCs) as defined and regulated by the U.S. Department of 
Transportation. [30, 2003] 

3.3.235.5 Secondary Containment Tank. A tank that has an 
inner and outer wall with an interstitial space (annulus) 
between the walls and that has a means for monitoring the 
interstitial space for a leak. [30, 2003] 

3.3.235.6* Stationary Tank. A packaging designed prima- 
rily for stationary installations not intended for loading, 
unloading, or attachment to a transport vehicle as part of 
its normal operation in the process of use. [55, 2005] 

3.3.235.7 Storage Tank. Any vessel having a liquid capacity 
that exceeds 60 gal (230 L), is intended for fixed installa- 
tion, and is not used for processing. [30, 2003] 

3.3.236 Temporary Wiring. Approved wiring for power and 
lighting during a period of construction, remodeling, mainte- 
nance, repair, or demolition, and decorative lighting, carnival 
power and lighting, and similar purposes. 

3.3.237 Tire. 

3.3.237.1 Rubber Tires. Pneumatic tires for passenger au- 
tomobiles, aircraft, light and heavy trucks, trailers, farm 
equipment, construction equipment (off-the-road), and 
buses. [13, 2002] 

3.3.237.2 Scrap Tire. A tire that can no longer be used for 
its original purpose due to wear or damage. 

3.3.238 Toxic Material. See 3.3.156.11. 

3.3.239 Unauthorized Discharge. Arelease or emission of ma- 
terials in a manner that does not conform to the provisions of 
this Code or applicable public health and safety regulations. 

3.3.240 Unit Operation or Unit Process. A segment of a physi- 
cal or chemical process that might or might not be integrated 



with other segments to constitute the manufacturing se- 
quence. [30, 2003] 

3.3.241 Unit Process. See 3.3.240, Unit Operation or Unit 
Process. 

3.3.242 Unit (Vessel), Operating or Process. See 3.3. 1 68. 

3.3.243 Unstable (Reactive) Material. See 3.3.156.12. 

3.3.244 Use. 

3.3.244.1* Closed System Use (Material). A solid or liquid 
hazardous material in a closed vessel or system tliat remains 
closed during normal operations where vapors emitted by the 
product are not liberated outside of the vessel or system and 
the product is not exposed to the atmosphere during normal 
operations, and all uses of compressed gases. [5000, 2006] 

3.3.244.2* Open System Use (Material). Use of a solid or 
liquid hazardous material in a vessel or system that is continu- 
ously open to the atmosphere during normal operations and 
where vapors are liberated, or the product is exposed to the 
atmosphere during normal operations. [5000, 2006] 

3.3.244.3 Special Use. A use that includes, but is not lim- 
ited to, events or occurrences during which life safety- 
threatening situations or fire hazards exist or are likely to 
exist as determined by the AHJ. 

3.3.245 Valve. 

3.3.245.1 Indicating Valve. A valve that has components 
that show if the valve is open or closed. Examples are out- 
side screw and yoke (OS&Y) gate valves and underground 
gate valves with indicator posts. 

3.3.245.2 Reduced Flow Htlve. A valve equipped with a re- 
stricted flow orifice that is designed to reduce the maxi- 
mum flow from the valve under full flow conditions. 

3.3.245.3 Valve Outlet Cap or Plug. Aremovable device that 
forms a gastight seal on the outlet to the control valve that 
is provided on a source containing a compressed gas or 
cryogenic fluid. [55, 2005] 

3.3.245.4 Valve Protection Cap. A rigid, removable cover 
provided for container valve protection during handling, 
transportation, and storage. [55, 2005] 

3.3.245.5 Valve Protection Device. A device attached to the 
neck ring or body of a cylinder for the purpose of protect- 
ing the cylinder valve from being struck or from being 
damaged by the impact resulting from a fall or an object 
striking the cylinder. 

3.3.246* \^or Pressure. The pressure, measured in pounds 
per square inch, absolute (psia) , exerted by a liquid, as deter- 
mined byASTM D 323, Standard Method of Test for Vapor Pressure 
of Petroleum Products (Reid Method). [30, 2003] 

3.3.247 Vapor Processing System. See 3.3.233.13. 

3.3.248 Vapor Recovery System. See 3.3.233.14. 

3.3.249 Warehouses. 

3.3.249.1 GeneralrPurpose Warehouse. A separate, detached 
building or portion of a building used only for warehousing- 
type operations. [30, 2003] 

3.3.249.2 Liquid Warehouse. A separate, detached build- 
ing or attached building used for warehousing-type opera- 
tions for liquids. [30, 2003] 



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3.3.250 Water Capacity. The amount of water at 60°F (16°C) 
required to fill a container. [58, 2004] 

3.3.251* Wharf. A structure at the shoreline that has a plat- 
form built along and parallel to a body of water with either an 
open deck or a superstructure. [307, 2006] 

3.3.252 \Wldland/Urban Interface. An area where improved 
property and wildland fuels meet at a well-defined boundary. 
[1144, 2002] 

3.3.253 Wood Panel. Board or sheet made from veneers, par- 
ticles, or fibers of wood and includes plywood, oriented 
strandboard, and similar wood products. 

3.3.254 \SWtten Notice. A notification in writing delivered in 
person to the individual or parties intended, or delivered at, 
or sent by certified or registered mail to, the last residential or 
business address of legal record. 

3.4 Special Performance-Based Definitions. 

3.4.1 Alternative Calculation Procedure. A calculation proce- 
dure that differs from the procedure originally employed by 
the design team but that provides predictions for the same 
variables of interest. [iW, 2006] 

3.4.2 Analysis. 

3.4.2.1 Sensitivity Analysis. An analysis performed to deter- 
mine the degree to which a predicted output vnll vary given 
a specified change in an input parameter, usually in rela- 
tion to models. [5000, 2006] 

3.4.2.2 Uncertainty Analysis. An analysis performed to de- 
termine the degree to which a predicted value will vary. 
[5000, 2006] 

3.4.3 Data Conversion. The process of developing the input 
data set for the assessment method of choice. [101, 2006] 

3.4.4 Design Fire Scenario. See 3.4.9.1. 

3.4.5* Design Specification. A building characteristic and 
other conditions that are under the control of the design 
team. [5000, 2006] 

3.4.6 Design Team. A group of stakeholders including, but 
not limited to, representatives of the architect, client, and any 
pertinent engineers and other designers. [101, 2006] 

3.4.7* Exposure Fire. A fire that starts at a location that is 
remote from the area being protected and grows to expose 
that which is being protected. [101, 2006] 

3.4.8* Fine Model. A structured approach to predicting one 
or more effects of a fire. [101, 2006] 

3.4.9* Fire Scenario. A set of conditions that defines the devel- 
opment of fire, the spread of combustion products throughout a 
building or portion of a building, the reactions of people to fire, 
and the effects of combustion products. [101, 2006] 

3.4.9.1 Design Fire Scenario. A fire scenario selected for 
evaluation of a proposed design. [914, 2001] 

3.4.10* Fuel Load. The total quantity of combustible contents 
of a building, space, or fire area. [5000, 2006] 

3.4.11 Incapacitation. A condition under which humans do 
not function adequately and become unable to escape unten- 
able conditions. [101, 2006] 



3.4.12 Input Data Specification. Information required by the 
verification method. [101, 2006] 

3.4.13 Occupant Characteristics. The abilities or behaviors of 
people before and during a fire. [101, 2006] 

3.4.14* Performance Criteria. Threshold values on measure- 
ment scales that are based on quantified performance objec- 
tives. [101, 2006] 

3.4.15* Proposed Design. A design developed by a design 
team and submitted to the authority having jurisdiction for 
approval. [101, 2006] 

3.4.16 Safe Location. A location remote or separated from 
the effects of a fire so that such effects no longer pose a threat. 
[101, 2006] 

3.4.17 Safety Factor. A factor applied to a predicted value to 
ensure that a sufficient safety margin is maintained. [101, 2006] 

3.4.18 Safety Maigin. The difference between a predicted 
value and the actual value where a fault condition is expected. 
[101, 2006] 

3.4.19 Sensitivity Analysis. See 3.4.2.1. 

3.4.20 Stakeholder. An individual, or representative of same, 
having an interest in the successful completion of a project. 
[101, 2006] 

3.4.21 Uncertainty Analysis. See 3.4.2.2. 

3.4.22 Verification Method. A procedure or process used to 
demonstrate or confirm that the proposed design meets the 
specified criteria. [101, 2006] 



Chapter 4 General Requirements 

4.1* Goals and Objectives. 

4.1.1* Goals. The goals of this Code shall be to provide a rea- 
sonable level of safety, property protection, and public welfare 
from the hazards created by fire, explosion, and other hazard- 
ous conditions. 

4.1.2* Objectives. To achieve the goals stated in 4.1.1, the 
goals and objectives of 4.1.3 through 4.1.5 shall be used to 
determine the intent of this Code. 

4.1.3* Safety. This Corfe shall provide for life safety by reducing 
the probability of injury or death from fire, explosions, or 
events involving hazardous materials. 

4.1.3.1 Safety from Fire. 

4.1.3.1.1* Safety-from-Fire Goals. The fire safety goals of this 
Code shall be as follows: 

(1) To provide an environment for the occupants in a build- 
ing or facility and for the public near a building or facility 
that is reasonably safe from fire and similar emergencies 

(2) To protect fire fighters and emergency responders 

4.1.3.1.2 Safety-from-Fire Objectives. 

4.1.3.1.2.1 Buildings and facilities shall be designed, con- 
structed, and maintained to protect occupants who are not 
intimate with the initial fire development for the amount of 
time needed to evacuate, relocate, or defend in place. 



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1-45 



4.1.3.1.2.2* Buildings shall be designed and constructed to 
provide reasonable safety for fire fighters and emergency re- 
sponders during search and rescue operations. 

4.1.3.1.2.3 Buildings shall be designed, located, and con- 
structed to reasonably protect adjacent persons from injury or 
death as a result of a fire. 

4.1.3.1.2.4 Buildings shall be designed, located, and con- 
structed to provide reasonable access to the building for emer- 
gency responders. 

4.1.3.1.2.5* Operations shall be conducted at facilities in a 
safe manner that minimizes, reduces, controls, or mitigates 
the risk of fire injury or death for the operators, while protect- 
ing the occupants not intimate with initial fire development 
for the amount of time needed to evacuate, relocate, or de- 
fend in place. 

4. 1 .3.2 Safety During Building Use. 

4.1.3.2.1* Safety-During-Building-Use Goal. The safety- 
during-building-use goal of this Code shall be to provide an 
environment for the occupants of the building that is reason- 
ably safe during the normal use of the building. 

4.1.3.2.2 Safety-During-Building-Use Objectives. 

4.1.3.2.2.1 Buildings shall be designed and constructed to 
reduce the probability of death or injury of persons from fall- 
ing during normal use of the building. 

4.1.3.2.2.2 Buildings shall be designed and constructed to 
provide for reasonably safe crowd movement during emer- 
gency and nonemergency conditions. 

4.1.3.2.2.3 Buildings shall be designed and constructed to 
provide reasonable life safety for occupants and workers dur- 
ing construction and demolition. 

4.1.3.2.2.4 Buildings shall be designed and constructed to 
provide reasonable notification to occupants of fire and other 
emergency situations. 

4.1.3.2.2.5 Buildings shall be designed and constructed to 
provide reasonable signage and lighting to identify hazards, 
exits, means of egress, and other building safety features. 

4.1.3.3 Safety from Hazardous Materials. 

4.1.3.3.1 Safety-from-Hazardous-Materials Goal. The safety- 
from-hazardous-materials goal of this Code shall be to provide 
an environment for the occupants in a building or facility and 
to those adjacent to a building or facility that is reasonably safe 
from exposures to adverse affects from hazardous materials 
present therein. 

4.1.3.3.2 Safety-from-Hazardous-Materials Objectives. 

4.1.3.3.2.1 The storage, use, or handling of hazardous mate- 
rials in a building or facility shall be accomplished in a manner 
that provides a reasonable level of safety for occupants and for 
those adjacent to a building or facility from health hazards, 
illness, injury, or death during normal storage, use, or han- 
dling operations and conditions. 

4.1.3.3.2.2* The storage, use, or handling of hazardous mate- 
rials in a building or facility shall be accomplished in a manner 
that provides a reasonable level of safety for occupants and for 
those adjacent to a building or facility from illness, injury, or 
death due to the follovring conditions: 

(1 ) An unplanned release of the hazardous material 



(2) A fire impinging upon the hazardous material or the in- 
volvement of the material in a fire 

(3) The application of an external force on the hazardous 
material that is likely to result in an unsafe condition 

4.1.4 Property Protection. 

4.1.4.1 Property Protection Goal. The property protection 
goal of this Code shall be to limit damage created by a fire, explo- 
sion, or event associated with hazardous materials to a reasonable 
level to the building or facility and adjacent property. 

4.1.4.2 Property Protection Objectives. 

4.1.4.2.1* Prevention of Ignition. The facility shall be de- 
signed, constructed, and maintained, and operations associ- 
ated with the facility shall be conducted, to prevent uninten- 
tional explosions and fires that result in failure of or damage 
to adjacent compartments, emergency life safety systems, adja- 
cent properties, adjacent outside storage, and the facility's 
structural elements. 

4.1.4.2.2* Fire Spread and Explosions. In the event that a fire 
or explosion occurs, the building or facility shall be sited, de- 
signed, constructed, or maintained, and operations associated 
vAth the facility shall be conducted and protected, to reason- 
ably reduce the impact of unwanted fires and explosions on 
the adjacent compartments, emergency life safety systems, ad- 
jacent properties, adjacent outside storage, and the facility's 
structural elements. 

4.1.4.2.3 Structural Integrity. The facility shall be designed, 
constructed, protected, and maintained, and operations asso- 
ciated with the facility shall be conducted, to provide a reason- 
able level of protection for the faciUty, its contents, and adja- 
cent properties from building collapse due to a loss of 
structural integrity resulting from a fire. 

4.1.4.2.4 Hazardous Materials. The facility shall be designed, 
constructed, and maintained, and operations associated with 
the facility shall be conducted, to provide reasonable property 
protection from damage resulting from fires, explosions, and 
other unsafe conditions associated with the storage, use, and 
handling of hazardous materials therein. 

4.1.5 PubUc Welfare. 

4.1.5.1* Public Welfare Goal. The public welfare goal of this 
Corf? shall be to maintain a high probability that buildings and 
facilities that provide a public welfare role for a community 
continue to perform the function for their intended purpose 
following a fire, explosion, or hazardous materials event. 

4.1.5.2* Public Welfare Objective. Buildings and facilities that 
provide a public welfare role for a community shall be de- 
signed, constructed, maintained, and operated to provide rea- 
sonable assurance of continued function following a fire, ex- 
plosion, or hazardous materials event. 

4.2 Assumptions. 

4.2.1* Single Fire Source. 

4.2.1.1 The fire protection methods of this Code shall assume 
that multiple simultaneous fire incidents will not occur. 

4.2.1.2 The single fire source assumption shall not preclude 
the evaluation of multiple design fire scenarios as required by 
Section 5.4. 



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UNIFORM FIRE CODE 



4.2.2* Single Hazardous Material Release. 

4.2.2.1 The protection methods of this Code shall assume that 
multiple simultaneous unauthorized releases of hazardous 
materials from different locations will not occur. 

4.2.2.2 The single hazardous material release assumption 
shall not preclude the evaluation of multiple design scenarios 
as required by Section 5.4. 

4.2.3* Incidents Impinging on Hazardous Materials. The pro- 
tection methods of this Code shall assume that a fire, explo- 
sion, hazardous materials release, or external force that cre- 
ates a dangerous condition has the potential to impinge on 
hazardous materials being stored, handled, or used in the 
building or facility under normal conditions. (See Section 5. 4 for 
performance-based design scenarios.) 

4.3 Compliance Options. Compliance with the goals and ob- 
jectives of Section 4.1 shall be provided in accordance with 
either of the following: 

(1) The prescriptive-based provisions per 4.3.1 

(2) The performance-based provisions per 4.3.2 

4.3.1 Prescriptive-Based Option. 

4.3.1.1 A prescriptive-based option shall be in accordance 
with Chapter 1 through Chapter 4 and Chapter 10 through 
Chapter 73 of this Code. 

4.3.1.2 Where specific requirements contained in Chapter 20 
for occupancies differ from general requirements contained 
in Chapter 1 through Chapter 4 and Chapter 10 through 
Chapter 73, the requirements of Chapter 20 shall govern. 

4.3.2 Performance-Based Option. 

4.3.2.1 A performance-based option shall be in accordance 
with Chapter 1 through Chapter 5 of this Code. 

4.3.2.2 Prescriptive requirements shall be permitted to be 
used as part of the performance approach, if they, in conjunc- 
tion with the performance features, meet the overall goals and 
objectives of this Code. 

4.4 Fundamental Requirements. 

4.4.1 Multiple Safeguards. 

4.4.1.1 The design of every building or structure intended 
for human occupancy shall be such that reliance for property 
protection and safety to life does not depend solely on any 
single safeguard. 

4.4.1.2 Additional safeguard(s) shall be provided for prop- 
erty protection and life safety in the event that any single safe- 
guard is ineffective due to inappropriate human actions, 
building failure, or system failure. 

4.4.2 Appropriateness of Safeguards. Every building or struc- 
ture shall be provided with means of egress and other safe- 
guards of the kinds, numbers, locations, and capacities appro- 
priate to the individual building or structure, with due regard 
to the following: 

(1) 
(2) 
(3) 
(4) 
(5) 
(6) 



Characteristics of the occupancy 

Capabilities of the occupants 

Number of persons exposed 

Fire protection available 

Capabilities of response personnel 

Height and type of construction of the building or structure 



(7) Other factors necessary to provide occupants with a rea- 
sonable degree of safety 

(8) Other factors necessary to protect the building and con- 
tents from damage 

4.4.3 Means of Egress. 

4.4.3.1 Unobstructed Egress. 

4.4.3.1.1 In every occupied building or structure, means of 
egress from all parts of the building shall be maintained free 
and unobstructed. 

4.4.3.1.2 No lock or fastening shall be permitted that pre- 
vents free escape from the inside of any building other than in 
health care occupancies and detention and correctional occu- 
pancies where staff are continually on duty and effective pro- 
visions are made to remove occupants in case of fire or other 
emergency. 

4.4.3.1.3 Means of egress shall be accessible to the extent 
necessary to ensure reasonable safety for occupants having im- 
paired mobility. 

4.4.3.2 Awareness of Egress System. 

4.4.3.2.1 Every exit shall be clearly visible, or the route to 
reach every exit shall be conspicuously indicated. 

4.4.3.2.2 Each means of egress, in its entirety, shall be ar- 
ranged or marked so that the way to a place of safety is indi- 
cated in a clear manner. 

4.4.3.2.3 lighting. Illumination of means of egress shall be 
provided. [See 5.3.4(10).] 

4.4.4* Occupant Notification. In every building or structure of 
such size, arrangement, or occupancy that a fire itself could 
not provide adequate occupant warning, fire alarm systems 
shall be provided where necessary to warn occupants of the 
existence of fire. 

4.4.5 Vertical Openings. Every vertical opening between the 
floors of a building shall be suitably enclosed or protected, as 
necessary, to provide the following: 

(1) Reasonable safety to occupants while using the means of 
egress by preventing spread of fire, smoke, or fumes 
through vertical openings from floor to floor to allow oc- 
cupants to complete their use of the means of egress 

(2) Limitation of damage to the buildings and its contents 

4.4.6 System Design/Installation. Any fire protection system, 
building service equipment, feature of protection, or safe- 
guard provided to achieve the goals of this Code shall be de- 
signed, installed, and approved in accordance with applicable 
codes and standards referenced in Chapter 2. 

4.5 General Requirements. 

4.5.1 Authority Having Jurisdiction (AHJ). 

4.5.1.1 The AHJ shall determine whether the provisions of 
this Code are met. 

4.5.1.2 Where it is evident that a reasonable degree of safety 
is provided, any requirement shall be permitted to be modi- 
fied if its application would be hazardous under normal occu- 
pancy conditions in the judgment of the AHJ. 

4.5.2 Historic Structures and Cultural Resource Buildings. 

The provisions of this Code shall be permitted to be modified 
by the AHJ for buildings or structures identified and classified 
as historic structures in accordance with Section 20.17. 



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4.5.3 Provisions in Excess of Code Requirements. Nothing in 
this Code shall be construed to prohibit a better type of build- 
ing construction, an additional means of egress, or an other- 
wise safer condition than that specified by the minimum re- 
quirements of this Code. 

4.5.4 Conditions for Occupancy. No new construction or ex- 
isting building shall be occupied in whole or in part in viola- 
tion of the provisions of this Code unless the following condi- 
tions exist: 

(1) Apian of correction has been approved. 

(2) The occupancy classification remains the same. 

(3) No serious life safety hazard exists as judged by the AHJ. 

4.5.5 Warrant of Fitness. 

4.5.5. 1 Where compliance with this Code is effected by means 
of a performance-based design, the owner shall annually cer- 
tify compliance with the conditions and limitations of the de- 
sign by submitting a warrant of fitness acceptable to the AHJ. 

4.5.5.2 The warrant of fitness shall attest that the building 
features, systems, and use have been inspected and confirmed 
to remain consistent with design specifications outlined in the 
documentation required by 5.1.8 and 5.7.3 and that they con- 
tinue to satisfy the goals and objectives specified in Section 
4.1. (See 5.1.11.) 

4.5.6 Construction, Repair, and Improvement Operations. 

4.5.6.1 Buildings or portions of buildings shall be permitted 
to be occupied during construction, repair, alterations, or ad- 
ditions only where required means of egress and required fire 
protection features are in place and continuously maintained 
for the portion occupied or where alternative life safety mea- 
sures and building protection measures acceptable to the AHJ 
are in place. 

4.5.6.2 Escape Facilities. 

4.5.6.2.1 In buildings under construction, adequate escape 
facilities shall be maintained at all times for the use of con- 
struction workers. 

4.5.6.2.2 Escape facilities shall consist of doors, walkways, 
stairs, ramps, fire escapes, ladders, or other approved means 
or devices arranged in accordance with the general principles 
of the Code insofar as they can reasonably be applied to build- 
ings under construction. 

4.5.6.3 Flammable, hazardous, or explosive substances or 
equipment for repairs or alterations shall be permitted in a 
building while the building is occupied if the condition of use 
and safeguards provided do not create any additional danger 
or impediment to egress beyond the normally permissible 
conditions in the building and is such that materials are safe- 
guarded when the building is unoccupied. 

4.5.7* Changes of Occupancy. 

4.5.7.1 In any building or structure, whether or not a physical 
alteration is needed, a change from one occupancy classifica- 
tion to another shall be permitted only where such a structure, 
building, or portion thereof conforms with the requirements 
of this Code that apply to new construction for the proposed 
new use, except as follows: 

(1) Where, in the opinion of the AHJ, the proposed occu- 
pancy or change in use is not more hazardous than the 
existing use, based on life safety and fire risk, the AHJ 
shall be permitted to approve such change of occupancy 



provided compliance vnth the requirements of this Code 
for buildings of like occupancy or use are specifically in- 
corporated to safeguard the life, health, and welfare of 
persons. 
(2) Change of tenants or ownership shall not be construed to 
be a change of occupancy classification where the nature 
of use and assigned occvipancy classification remain the 
same. 

4.5.7.2 Where specifically permitted elsewhere in the Code, 
existing construction features shall be permitted to be contin- 
ued in use in conversions. 

4.5.8 Maintenance, Inspection, and Testing. 

4.5.8.1 Whenever or wherever any device, equipment, sys- 
tem, condition, arrangement, level of protection, fire-resistive 
construction, or any other feature is required for compliance 
with the provisions of this Code, such device, equipment, sys- 
tem, condition, arrangement, level of protection, fire-resistive 
construction, or other feature shall thereafter be continuously 
maintained in accordance with applicable NFPA requirements 
or requirements developed as part of a performance-based 
design, or as directed by the AHJ. [107:4.6.12.1] 

4.5.8.2 No existing life safety feature shall be removed or 
reduced where such feature is a requirement for new con- 
struction. [/W:4.6.12.2] 

4.5.8.3* Existing life safety features obvious to the public, if 
not required by the Code, shall be either maintained or re- 
moved. [iW:4.6.12.3] 

4.5.8.4 Any device, equipment, system, condition, arrange- 
ment, level of protection, fire-resistive construction, or any 
other feature requiring periodic testing, inspection, or opera- 
tion to ensure its maintenance shall be tested, inspected, or 
operated as specified elsewhere in this Code or as directed by 
the AHJ. [2W;4.6.12.4] 

4.5.8.5 Maintenance, inspection, and testing shall be per- 
formed under the supervision of a responsible person who 
shall ensure that testing, inspection, and maintenance are 
made at specified intervals in accordance with applicable 
NFPAstandards or as directed by the AHJ. [i0/;4.6.12.5] 



Chapter 5 Performance-Based Option 

5.1* General. 

5.1.1 Application. The requirements of this chapter shall ap- 
ply to facilities designed to the performance-based option per- 
:d by Section 4.3. 



mitted by Section 4.3. 



5.1.2 Goals and Objectives. The performance-based design 
shall meet the goals and objectives of this Code in accordance 
with Section 4.1 and Section 4.2. 

5.1.3* Approved Qualifications. The performance-based de- 
sign shall be prepared by a person with qualifications accept- 
able to the AHJ. 

5.1.4* Plan Submittal Documentation. When a performance- 
based design is submitted to the AHJ for review and approval, 
the owner shall document, in an approved format, each per- 
formance objective and applicable scenario, including any cal- 
culation methods or models used in establishing the proposed 
design's fire and life safety performance. 



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5.1.5* Independent Review. The AHJ shall be permitted to 
require an approved, independent third party to review the 
proposed design and provide an evaluation of the design to 
the AHJ at the expense of the owner. 

5.1.6 Sources of Data. Data sources shall be identified and 
documented for each input data requirement that is required 
to be met using a source other than a required design sce- 
nario, an assumption, or a facility design specification. 

5.1.6.1 The degree of conservatism reflected in such data 
shall be specified, and a justification for the source shall be 
provided. 

5.1.6.2 Copies of all references relied upon by the 
performance-based design to support assumptions, design 
features, or any other part of the design shall be made avail- 
able to the AHJ if requested. 

5.1.7 Final Determuiation. The AHJ shall make the final de- 
termination as to whether the performance objectives have 
been met. 

5.1.8* Operations and Maintenance Manual. An approved Op- 
erations and Maintenance (O&M) Manual shall be provided 
by the owner to the AHJ and the fire department and shall be 
maintained at the facility in an approved location. 

5.1.9* Information Transfer to the Fire Service. Where a 
performance-based design is approved and used, the designer 
shall ensure that information regarding the operating proce- 
dures of the performance-based designed fire protection sys- 
tem is transferred to the owner and to the local fire service for 
inclusion in the pre-fire plan. 

5.1.10* Design Feature Maintenance. 

5.1.10.1 The design features required for the facility to meet 
the performance goals and objectives shall be maintained by 
the owner and be readily accessible to the AHJ for the life of 
the facility. 

5.1.10.2 The facility shall be maintained in accordance with 
all documented assumptions and design specifications. 

5.1.10.2.1 Any proposed changes or variations from the ap- 
proved design shall be approved by the AHJ prior to the actual 
change. 

5.1.10.2.2 Any approved changes to the original design shall 
be maintained in the same manner as the original design. 

5.1.11* Annual Certification. Where a performance-based de- 
sign is approved and used, the property owner shall annually 
certify that the design features and systems have been main- 
tained in accordance with the approved original performance- 
based design and assumptions and any subsequent approved 
changes or modifications to the original performance-based 
design. 

5.1.12 Hazardous Materials. 

5.1.12.1 Performance-based designs for facilities containing 
high hazard contents shall identify the properties of hazard- 
ous materials to be stored, used, or handled and shall provide 
adequate and reliable safeguards to accomplish the following 
objectives, considering both normal operations and possible 
abnormal conditions: 



(1) Minimize the potential occurrence of unwanted re- 
leases, fire, or other emergency incidents resulting from 
the storage, use, or handling of hazardous materials 

(2) Minimize the potential failure of buildings, equipment, 
or processes involving hazardous materials by ensuring 
that such buildings, equipment, or processes are reliably 
designed and are suitable for the hazards present 

(3) Minimize the potential exposure of people or property 
to unsafe conditions or events involving an unintended 
reaction or release of hazardous materials 

(4) Minimize the potential for an unintentional reaction that 
results in a fire, explosion, or other dangerous condition 

(5) Provide a means to contain, treat, neutralize, or other- 
vrise handle plausible releases of hazardous materials to 
minimize the potential for adverse impacts to persons or 
property outside of the immediate area of a release 

(6) Provide appropriate safeguards to minimize the risk of 
and limit damage and injury that could result from an 
explosion involving hazardous materials that present ex- 
plosion hazards 

(7) Detect hazardous levels of gases or vapors that are dan- 
gerous to health and alert appropriate persons or miti- 
gate the hazard when the physiological warning proper- 
ties for such gases or vapors are inadequate to warn of 
danger prior to personal injury 

(8) Maintain power to provide for continued operation of 
safeguards and important systems that are relied upon to 
prevent or control an emergency condition involving 
hazardous materials 

(9) Maintain ventilation where ventilation is relied upon to 
minimize the risk of emergency conditions involving 
hazardous materials 

(10) Minimize the potential for exposing combustible haz- 
ardous materials to unintended sources of ignition and 
for exposing any hazardous material to fire or physical 
damage that can lead to endangerment of people or 
property 

5.1.12.2 A process hazard analysis and ofli'-site consequence 
analysis shall be conducted when required by the AHJ to en- 
sure that people and property are satisfactorily protected from 
potentially dangerous conditions involving hazardous materi- 
als. The results of such analyses shall be considered when de- 
termining active and passive mitigation measures used in ac- 
complishing the objectives of 4.1.3.3.2 and 4.1.4.2. 

5.1.12.3 Written procedures for pre-start-up safety reviews, 
normal and emergency operations, management of change, 
emergency response, and accident investigation shall be devel- 
oped prior to beginning operations at a facility designed in 
accordance with Section 5.1. Such procedures shall be devel- 
oped with the participation of employees. 

5.1.13 Special Definitions. A list of special terms used in this 
chapter shall be as follows: 

(1) Design Fire Scenario. (See 3.4.9.1.) 

(2) Design Specification. (See 3.4.5.) 

(3) Design Team. fSeg 5.4.6.) 

(4) Exposure Fire. f5ee 5.^^.7.) 

( 5 ) Fire Model. (See 3. 4. 8. ) 

(6) FireScen3.no. (See 3.4.9.) 

(7) Fuel Load. (See 3.4. 10.) 

(8) Input Data Specification. (See 3.4.12.) 

(9) Occupant Characteristics. (See 3.4.13.) 
(10) Performance Criteria. (See 3.4.14.) 



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(11) VroposedDesign. (See 3.4.15.) 

(12) Safety Factor. (See 3. 4.17.) 

(13) Safety Margin. (See 3.4. 2&j 

(14) Sensitivity Analysis. (See 3.4.2.1.) 

(15) Stakeholder. (See 5. 4.20.J 

(16) Uncertainty Analysis. (See 3. 4. 2. 2. ) 

(17) Verification Method. (See 3.4.22.) 

5.2 Performance Criteria. 

5.2.1 General. A design shall meet the objectives specified 
in Section 4.1 if, for each required design scenario, assump- 
tion, and design specification, the performance criteria of 

5.2.2 are met. 

5.2.2* Specific Performance Criteria. 

5.2.2.1* Fire Conditions. No occupant who is not intimate 
with ignition shall be exposed to instantaneous or cumulative 
untenable conditions. 

5.2.2.2* Explosion Conditions. The facility design shall pro- 
vide an acceptable level of safety for occupants and for indi- 
viduals immediately adjacent to the property from the effects 
of unintentional detonation or deflagration. 

5.2.2.3* Hazardous Materials Exposure. The facility design 
shall provide an acceptable level of safety for occupants and 
for individuals immediately adjacent to the property from the 
effects of an unauthorized release of hazardous materials or 
the unintentional reaction of hazardous materials. 

5.2.2.4* Property Protection. The facility design shall hmit the 
effects of all required design scenarios from causing an unac- 
ceptable level of property damage. 

5.2.2.5* Public Welfare. For facilities that serve a public wel- 
fare role as defined in 4.1.5, the facility design shall limit the 
effects of all required design scenarios from causing an unac- 
ceptable interruption of the facility's mission. 

5.2.2.6 Occupant Protection from Untenable Conditions. 

Means shall be provided to evacuate, relocate, or defend in 
place occupants not intimate with ignition for sufficient time 
so that they are not exposed to instantaneous or cumulative 
untenable conditions from smoke, heat, or flames. 

5.2.2.7 Emergency Responder Protection. Buildings shall be 
designed and constructed to reasonably prevent structural 
failure under fire conditions for sufficient time to enable fire 
fighters and emergency responders to conduct search and res- 
cue operations. 

5.2.2.8 Occupant Protection from Structural Failure. Build- 
ings shall be designed and constructed to reasonably prevent 
structural failure under fire conditions for sufficient time to 
protect the occupants. 

5.3 Retained Prescriptive Requirements. 

5.3.1 Systems and Features. All fire protection systems and 
features of the building shall comply with applicable NFFA 
standards for those systems and features. 

5.3.2 Electrical Systems. Electrical systems shall comply with 
applicable NFPA standards for those systems. 

5.3.3 General. The design shall comply with the following re- 
quirements in addition to the performance criteria of Section 
5.2 and the methods of Section 5.4 through Section 5.7: 



(1) Fundamental requirements in Section 10.1 

(2) Fire drills in Section 10.6 

(3) Smoking in Section 10.10 

(4) Open outdoor fires, incinerators, and outdoor fireplaces 
in Section 10.11 

(5) Fire department access in Section 18.2.3 

Exception: A performance-based design shall be permitted subject to 
acceptance by the AHJ where local conditions do not permit compliance 
with Section 18.2. 

(6) Access to structures or areas in Section 18.2 

(7) Fire protection markings in Section 10.12 

(8) Vacant buildings and premises in Section 10.13 

(9) Combustible vegetation in Section 10.14 

(10) Safeguards during building construction, alteration, 
and demolition operations in Chapter 16 

5.3.4 Means of Egress. The design shall comply with the fol- 
lowing NFPA 101, Life Safety Code, requirements in addition to 
the performance criteria of Section 5.2 and the methods of 
Section 5.4 through Section 5.7: 

(1) Changes in level in means of egress: 7.1.7 of NFPA 101 

(2) Guards: 7.1.8 of NFPA 101 

(3) Doors: 7.2.1 of NFPA 101 

(4) Stairs: 7.2.2 of NFPA 101 

Exception: The pmuisions of 7.2.2.5.1, 7.2.2.5.2, 7.2.2.6.2, 
7.2.2.6.3, and 7.2.2.6.4 of NFPA 101 shall be exempted. 

(5) Ramps: 7.2.5 of NFPA 101 

Exception: The proruisions of 7.2.5.3.1, 7.2.5.5, and 7.2.5.6.1 of 
NFPA 101 shall be exempted. 

(6) Fire escape ladders: 7.2.9 of NFPA 101 

(7) Alternating tread devices: 7.2.11 of NFPA 101 

(8) Capacity of means of egress: Section 7.3 of NFPA 101 

Exception: The provisions of 7.3.3 and 7.3.4 of NFPA 101 shall be 
exempted. 

(9) Impediments to egress: 7.5.2 of NFPA 101 

(10) Illumination of means of egress: Section 7.8 of NFPA 101 

(11) Emergency lighting: Section 7.9 of NFPA 101 

(12) Marking of means of egress: Section 7.10 of NFPA 101 

5.3.5 Equivalency. Equivalent designs for the features covered 
in the retained prescriptive requirements mandated by 5.3.1 
through 5.3.4 shall be addressed in accordance with the 
equivalency provisions of Section 1.4. 

5.4* Design Scenarios. 

5.4.1 General. 

5.4.1.1 The proposed design shall be considered to meet the 
goals and objectives if it achieves the performance criteria for 
each required design scenario. The AHJ shall approve the pa- 
rameters involved with required design scenarios. 

5.4.1.2* Design scenarios shall be evaluated for each re- 
quired scenario using a method acceptable to the AHJ and 
appropriate for the conditions. Each scenario shall be as 
challenging and realistic as any that could realistically oc- 
cur in the building. 



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5.4.1.3* Scenarios selected as design scenarios shall include, 
but not be limited to, those specified in 5.4.2 through 5.4.5. 

5.4.1.3.1 Design fire scenarios demonstrated by the design 
team to the satisfaction of the AHJ as inappropriate for the 
building use and conditions shall not be required to be evalu- 
ated fully. 

5.4.1.3.2 Fire Design Scenario 8 (see 5.4.2.8) shall not be re- 
quired to be applied to fire protection systems or features for 
which both the level of reliability and the design performance in 
the absence of the system or feature are acceptable to the AHJ. 

5.4.1.4 Each design scenario used in the performance-based 
design proposal shall be translated into input data specifica- 
tions, as appropriate for the calculation method or model. 

5.4.1.5 Any design scenario specifications that the design 
analyses do not explicitly address or incorporate and that are, 
therefore, omitted from input data specifications shall be 
identified, and a sensitivity analysis of the consequences of 
that omission shall be performed. 

5.4.1.6 Any design scenario specifications modified in input 
data specifications, because of limitations in test methods or 
other data generation procedures, shall be identified, and a 
sensitivity analysis of the consequences of the modification 
shall be performed. 

5.4.2 Required Design Scenarios — Fire. 

5.4.2.1* Fire Design Scenario 1. Fire Design Scenario 1 in- 
volves an occupancy-specific design scenario representative of 
a typical fire for the occupancy. 

5.4.2.1.1 This design scenario shall explicitly account for the 
following: 

(1) Occupant activities 

(2) Number and location 

(3) Room size 

(4) Furnishings and contents 

(5) Fuel properties and ignition sources 

(6) Ventilation conditions 

5.4.2.1.2 The first item ignited and its location shall be ex- 
plicitly defined. 

5.4.2.2* Fire Design Scenario 2. Fire Design Scenario 2 involves 
an ultrafast-developing fire in the primary means of egress with 
interior doors open at the start of the fire. This design scenario 
shall address the concern regarding a reduction in the number 
of available means of egress. 

5.4.2.3* Fire Design Scenario 3. Fire Design Scenario 3 involves 
a fire that starts in a normally unoccupied room that can poten- 
tially endanger a large number of occupants in a large room or 
other area. This design scenario shall address the concern re- 
garding a fire starting in a normally unoccupied room and mi- 
grating into the space that can, potentially, hold the greatest 
number of occupants in the building. 

5.4.2.4* Fire Design Scenario 4. Fire Design Scenario 4 involves 
a fire that originates in a concealed wall- or ceiling-space adjacent 
to a large occupied room. This design scenario shall address the 
concern regarding a fire originating in a concealed space that 
does not have either a detection system or suppression system 
and then spreading into the room within the building that can, 
potentially, hold the greatest number of occupants. 



5.4.2.5* Fire Design Scenario 5. Fire Design Scenario 5 in- 
volves a slowly developing fire, shielded from fire protection 
systems, in close proximity to a high occupancy area. This de- 
sign scenario shall address the concern regarding a relatively 
small ignition source causing a significant fire. 

5.4.2.6* Fire Design Scenario 6. Fire Design Scenario 6 in- 
volves the most severe fire resulting from the largest possible 
fuel load characteristic of the normal operation of the build- 
ing. This design scenario shall address the concern regarding 
a rapidly developing fire with occupants present. 

5.4.2.7* Fire Design Scenario 7. Fire Design Scenario 7 in- 
volves an outside exposure fire. This design scenario shall ad- 
dress the concern regarding a fire starting at a location remote 
from the area of concern and either spreading into the area, 
blocking escape from the area, or developing untenable con- 
ditions within the area. 

5.4.2.8* Fire Design Scenario 8. Fire Design Scenario 8 in- 
volves a fire originating in ordinary combustibles in a room or 
area with each passive or active fire protection system or fea- 
ture independently rendered ineffective. This set of design 
scenarios shall address concerns regarding each fire protec- 
tion system or fire protection feature, considered individually, 
being unreliable or becoming unavailable. This scenario shall 
not be required to be applied to fire protection systems or 
features for which both the level of reUability and the design 
performance in the absence of the system are acceptable to 
die AHJ. 

5.4.3 Required Design Scenarios — Explosion. 

5.4.3.1* Explosion Design Scenario 1. 

5.4.3.1.1 Explosion Design Scenario 1 is the detonation or 
deflagration of explosive materials being manufactured, 
stored, handled, or used in a facility. 

5.4.3.1.2 Explosion Design Scenario 1 shall address the con- 
cern regarding safety of individuals not intimate vnth the ex- 
plosion and property protection of adjacent properties and 
buildings. 

5.4.4* Required Design Scenarios — Hazardous Materials. 

5.4.4.1 Hazardous Materials Design Scenario 1. Hazardous 
Materials Design Scenario 1 involves an unauthorized release 
of hazardous materials from a single control area. This design 
scenario shall address the concern regarding the spread of 
hazardous conditions from the point of release. 

5.4.4.2 Hazardous Materials Design Scenario 2. Hazardous 
Materials Design Scenario 2 involves an exposure fire on a 
location where hazardous materials are stored, used, handled, 
or dispensed. This design scenario shall address the concern 
regarding how a fire in a facility affects the safe storage, han- 
dling, or use of hazardous materials. 

5.4.4.3 Hazardous Materials Design Scenario 3. Hazardous 
Materials Design Scenario 3 involves the application of an ex- 
ternal factor to the hazardous material that is likely to result in 
a fire, explosion, toxic release, or other unsafe condition. This 
design scenario shall address the concern regarding the initia- 
tion of a hazardous materials event by the application of heat, 
shock, impact, or water onto a hazardous material being 
stored, used, handled, or dispensed in the facility. 



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5.4.4.4 Hazardous Materials Design Scenario 4. 

5.4.4.4.1 Hazardous Materials Design Scenario 4 involves an 
unauthorized discharge with each protection system indepen- 
dendy rendered ineffective. This set of design hazardous ma- 
terials scenarios shall address concern regarding each protec- 
tion system or protection feature, considered individually, 
being unreliable or becoming unavailable. 

5.4.4.4.2* Hazardous Materials Design Scenario 4 shall not be 
required to be applied to protection systems or features for 
which both the level of reliability and the design performance 
in the absence of the system are acceptable to the AHJ. 



5,4.5 Required Design Scenarios - 
Use. 



' Safety During Building 



5.4.5.1* Building Use Design Scenario 1. Building Use Design 
Scenario 1 involves an event in which the maximum occupant 
load is in the assembly building and an emergency event occurs 
blocking the principal exit/entrance to the building. This design 
scenario shall address the concern of occupants having to take 
alternative exit routes under crowded conditions. 

5.4.5.2 Building Use Design Scenario 2. Building Use Design 
Scenario 2 involves a fire in an area of a building undergoing 
construction or demolition while the remainder of the build- 
ing is occupied. The normal fire suppression system in the 
area undergoing construction or demolition has been taken 
out of service. This design scenario shall address the concern 
regarding the inoperability of certain building fire safety fea- 
tures during construction and demolition in a partially occu- 
pied building. 

5.5 Evaluation of Proposed Designs. 

5.5.1 General. 

5.5.1.1 A proposed design's performance shall be assessed 
relative to each performance objective in Section 4.1 and each 
applicable scenario in Section 5.4, v«th the assessment con- 
ducted through the use of appropriate calculation methods. 

5.5.1.2 The choice of assessment methods shall require the 
approval of the AHJ. 

5.5.2 Use. The design professional shall use the assessment 
methods to demonstrate that the proposed design achieves 
the goals and objectives, as measured by the performance cri- 
teria in light of the safety margins and uncertainty analysis, for 
each scenario, given the assumptions. 

5.5.3 Input Data. 

5.5.3.1 Data. 

5.5.3.1.1 Input data for computer fire models shall be ob- 
tained in accordance with ASTM E 1591, Standard Guide for 
Data for Fire Models. 

5.5.3.1.2 Data for use in analytical models that are not 
computer-based fire models shall be obtained using appropri- 
ate measurement, recording, and storage techniques to en- 
sure the applicability of the data to the analytical method be- 
ing used. 

5.5.3.2 Data Requirements. A complete listing of input data 
requirements for all models, engineering methods, and other 
calculation or verification methods required or proposed as 
part of the performance-based design shall be provided. 



5.5.3.3 Uncertainty and Conservatism of Data. Uncertainty in 
input data shall be analyzed and, as determined appropriate 
by the AHJ, addressed through the use of conservative values. 

5.5.4 Output Data. The assessment methods used shall accu- 
rately and appropriately produce the required output data 
from input data based on the design specifications, assump- 
tions, and scenarios. 

5.5.5 Validity. Evidence shall be provided confirming that the 
assessment methods are valid and appropriate for the pro- 
posed facility, use, and conditions. 

5.6* Safety Factors. Approved safety factors shall be included 
in the design methods and calculations to reflect uncertainty 
in the assumptions, data, and other factors associated with the 
performance-based design. 

5.7 Documentation Requirements. 

5.7.1* General. 

5.7.1.1 All aspects of the design, including those described in 

5.7.2 through 5.7.14, shall be documented. 

5.7.1.2 The format and content of the documentation shall 
be acceptable to the AHJ. 

5.7.2* Technical References and Resources. 

5.7.2.1 The AHJ shall be provided vrith sufficient documenta- 
tion to support the validity, accuracy, relevance, and precision 
of the proposed methods. 

5.7.2.2 The engineering standards, calculation methods, and 
other forms of scientific information provided shall be appro- 
priate for the particular application and methodologies used. 

5.7.3 Facility Design Specifications. All details of the pro- 
posed facility design that affect the ability of the facility to 
meet the stated goals and objectives shall be documented. 

5.7.4 Performance Criteria. Performance criteria, with sources, 
shall be documented. 

5.7.5 Occupant Characteristics. Assumptions about occupant 
characteristics shall be documented. 

5.7.6 Design Scenarios. Descriptions of design hazards sce- 
narios shall be documented. 

5.7.7 Input Data. Input data to models and assessment meth- 
ods, including sensitivity analysis, shall be documented. 

5.7.8 Output Data. Output data from models and assessment 
methods, including sensitivity analysis, shall be documented. 

5.7.9 Safety Factors. Safety factors utilized shall be documented. 

5.7.10 Prescriptive Requirements. Retained prescriptive re- 
quirements shall be documented. 

5.7.11* Modelu^ Features. 

5.7.11.1 Assumptions made by the model user, and descrip- 
tions of models and methods used, including known limita- 
tions, shall be documented. 



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5.7.11.2 Documentation shall be provided that the assess- 
ment methods have been used validly and appropriately to 
address the design specifications, assumptions, and scenarios. 

5.7.12 Evidence of Modeler Capability. The design team's rel- 
evant experience with the models, test methods, databases, 
and other assessment methods used in the performance-based 
design proposal shall be docurnented. 

5.7.13 Performance Evaluation. The performance evaluation 
summary shall be documented. 

5.7.14 Use of Performance-Based Design Option. Design 
proposals shall include documentation that provides anyone 
involved in ownership or management of the facility with all of 
the following nodfication: 

( 1 ) The facility was approved as a performance-based design 
with certain specified design criteria and assumptions. 

(2) Any remodeling, modification, renovation, change in use, 
or change in the established assumptions requires a re- 
evaluation and re-approval. 



Chapter 6 Classification of Occupancy 

6.1 Classification of Occupancy. 

6.1.1 General. 

6.1.1.1 Occupancy Classification. The occupancy of a build- 
ing or structure, or portion of a building or structure, shall be 
classified in accordance with 6.1.2 through 6.1.13. Occupancy 
classification shall be subject to the ruling of the AHJ where 
there is a question of proper classification in any individual 
case. [102:6.1.1.1] 

6.1.1.2 Special Structures. Occupancies in special structures 
shall conform to the requirements of Section 20.16. [101£.1.1.2] 

6.1.2 Assembly. For requirements, see Section 20.1. [/W:6.1.2] 

6.1.2.1* Definition — Assembly Occupancy. An occupancy (1) 
used for a gathering of 50 or more persons for deliberation, wor- 
ship, entertainment, eating, drinking, amusement, awaiting 
transportation, or similar uses; or (2) used as a special amuse- 
ment building, regardless of occupant load. [/0/;6.1.2.1] 

6.1.2.2 Small Assembly Uses. Occupancy of any room or 
space for assembly purposes by fewer than 50 persons in an- 
other occupancy and incidental to such other occupancy shall 
be classified as part of the other occupancy and shall be sub- 
ject to the provisions applicable thereto. [101:6.1.2.2] 



6.1.3 Educational. 

[101:6.1.3] 



For requirements, see Section 20.2. 



6.1.3.1* Definition — Educational Occupancy. An occupancy 
used for educational purposes through the twelfth grade by 
six or more persons for 4 or more hours per day or more than 
12 hours per week. [101.-6.1.3.1] 

6.1.3.2 Other Occupancies. Other occupancies associated with 
educational institutions shall be in accordance with the appropri- 
ate parts of tills Code and NFPA 101. [/W.-6.1.3.2] 

6.1.3.3 Incidental Instruction. In cases where instruction is 
incidental to some other occupancy, the section of this Code 
and NFPA 101 governing such other occupancy shall apply. 
[101:6.1.3.5] 



6.1.4 Day Care. For requirements, see Section 20.3. [iW.-6.1.4] 

6.1.4.1* Definition — Day-Care Occupancy. An occupancy in 
which four or more clients receive care, maintenance, and 
supervision, by other than their relatives or legal guardians, 
for less than 24 hours per day. [i0i:6.1.4.1] 

6.1.4.2 Other. (Reserved) 

6.1.5 Health Care. For requirements, see Section 20.4. 
[/W:6.1.5] 

6.1.5.1* Definition — Health Care Occupancy. An occupancy 
used for purposes of medical or other treatment or care of 
four or more persons where such occupants are mostly inca- 
pable of self-preservation due to age, physical or mental dis- 
ability, or because of security measures not under the occu- 
pants' control. [7W;6. 1.5.1] 

6.1.5.2 Other. (Reserved) 

6.1.6 Ambulatory Health Care. For requirements, see Section 
20.6. [101:6.1.6] 

6.1.6.1* Definition - Ambulatory Health Care Occupancy. A 

building or portion thereof used to provide services or treat- 
ment simultaneously to four or more patients that provides, 
on an outpatient basis, one or more of the following: 

(1) Treatment for patients that renders the patients inca- 
pable of taking action for self-preservation under emer- 
gency conditions without the assistance of others 

(2) Anesthesia that renders the patients incapable of taking 
action for self-preservation under emergency conditions 
without the assistance of others 

(3) Emergency or urgent care for patients who, due to the 
nature of their injury or illness, are incapable of taking 
action for self-preservation under emergency conditions 
without the assistance of others [i0/:6.1.6.1] 

6.1.6.2 Oflier. (Reserved) 

6.1.7 Detention and Correctional. For requirements, see Sec- 
tion 20.7. [101:6.1.7] 

6.1.7.1* Definition — Detention and Correctional Occupancy. 

An occupancy used to house one or more persons under var- 
ied degrees of restraint or security where such occupants are 
mostly incapable of self-preservation because of security mea- 
sures not under the occupants' control. [70/;6.1.7.1] 

6.1.7.2* Nonresidential Uses. Within detention and correc- 
tional facilities, uses other than residential housing shall be in 
accordance with the appropriate chapter of this Code and 
NFPA 101. (See 22.1.2.3 and 23. 1.2.3 of NFPA 101.) [101:6.1.7.2] 

6.1.8 Residential. For requirements, see Sections 20.5 and 
20.8 through 20.11. [101:6.1.8] 

6.1.8.1 Definition — Residential Occupancy. An occupancy 
that provides sleeping accommodations for purposes other 
than health care or detention and correctional. [101:6.1.8.1] 

6.1.8.1.1* Definition — One- and Two-Family Dwelling Unit. A 

building that contains not more than two dwelling units with 
independent cooking and bathroom facilities. [101:6.1.8.1.1] 

6.1.8.1.2 Definition — Lodging or Rooming House. A build- 
ing or portion thereof that does not qualify as a one- or two- 
family dwelling, that provides sleeping accommodations for a 
total of 16 or fewer people on a transient or permanent basis, 
without personal care services, v«th or without meals, but with- 



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CLASSIFICATION OF OCCUPANCY 



1-53 



out separate cooking facilities for individual occupants. 
[iO/;6.1.8.1.2] 

6.1.8.1.3* Definition — Hotel. A building or groups of build- 
ings under the same management in which there are sleeping 
accommodations for more than 16 persons and primarily used 
by transients for lodging with or without meals. [i01.-6.1.8.1.3] 

6.1.8.1.4* Definition — Dormitory. A building or a space in a 
building in which group sleeping accommodadons are pro- 
^dded for more than 16 persons who are not members of the 
same family in one room, or a series of closely associated 
rooms, under joint occupancy and single management, with 
or without meals, but without individual cooking facilities. 
[i0i;6.1.8.1.4] 

6.1.8.1.5 Definition — Apartment Building. Abuilding or por- 
tion thereof containing three or more dwelling units with in- 
dependent cooking and bathroom facilities. [/W.'6.1.8.1.5] 

6.1.8.2 Other. (Reserved) 

6.1.9 Residential Board and Care. For requirements, see Sec- 
tion 20.5. [/01;6.1.9] 

6.1.9.1* Definition — Residential Board and Care Occupancy. 

A building or portion thereof that is used for lodging and 
boarding of four or more residents, not related by blood or 
marriage to the owners or operators, for the purpose of pro- 
viding personal care services. [/0/.-6. 1.9.1] 

6.1.9.2 Other. (Reserved) 

6.1.10 Mercantile. For requirements, see Section 20.12. 
[101:6.1.10] 

6.1.10.1* Definition — Mercantile Occupancy. An occupancy 
used for the display and sale of merchandise. [207:6.1.10.1] 

6.1.10.2 Other. (Reserved) 

6.1.11 Business. For requirements, see Section 20.13. 
[iW:6.1.11] 

6.1.11.1* Definition — Business Occupancy. An occupancy 
used for the transaction of business other than mercantile. 
[/W;6.1.11.1] 

6.1.11.2 Other. (Reserved) 

6.1.12 Industrial. For requirements, see Section 20.14. 
[i0/.-6.1.12] 

6.1.12.1* Definition — Industrial Occupancy. An occupancy 
in which products are manufactured or in which processing, 
assembling, mixing, packaging, finishing, decorating, or re- 
pair operations are conducted. [I0i;6.1.12.1] 

6.1.12.2 Other. (Reserved) 

6.1.13 Storage. For requirements, see Section 20.15. 
[i02:6.1.13] 

6.1.13.1* Definition — Storage Occupancy. An occupancy 
used primarily for the storage or sheltering of goods, mer- 
chandise, products, vehicles, or animals. [10/:6.1.13.1] 

6.1.13.2 Other. (Reserved) 

6.1.14 Multiple Occupancies. 

6.1.14.1 General. 

6.1.14.1.1 Multiple occupancies shall comply with the re- 
quirements of 6.1.14.1 and one of the following: 



(1) Mixed occupancies — 6.1.14.3 

(2) Separated occupancies — 6.1. 14.4[i07:6.1. 14.1.1] 

6.1.14.1.2 Where exit access from an occupancy traverses an- 
other occupancy, the multiple occupancy shall be treated as a 
mixed occupancy. [20/;6. 1.14.1. 2] 

6.1.14.1.3* Where incidental to another occupancy, areas 
used as follows shall be permitted to be considered part of 
the predominant occupancy and shall be subject to the pro- 
visions of this Corfe and NFPA 101 that apply to the predomi- 
nant occupancy: 

(1) Mercantile, business, industrial, or storage use 
(2)*Nonresidential use with an occupant load fewer than that 

estabhshed by Section 6.1 for the occupancy threshold 

[207:6.1.14.1.3] 

6.1.14.2 Definitions. 

6.1.14.2.1 Multiple Occupancy. A building or structure in 
which two or more classes of occupancy exist. [202:6.1.14.2.1] 

6.1.14.2.2 Mixed Occupancy. A multiple occupancy where 
the occupancies are intermingled. [202.-6.1.14.2.2] 

6.1.14.2.3 Separated Occupancy. A multiple occupancy 
where the occupancies are separated by fire resistance-rated 
assemblies. [202:6.1.14.2.3] 

6.1.14.3 Mixed Occupancies. 

6.1.14.3.1 Each portion of the building shall be classified as 
to its use in accordance with Section 6.1. [202:6.1.14.3.1] 

6.1.14.3.2 The means of egress facilities, type of construction, 
protection, and other safeguards in the building shall comply 
with the most restrictive fire and life safety requirements of the 
occupancies involved. [202:6.1.14.3.2] 

6.1.14.4 Separated Occupancies. 

6.1.14.4.1 Where separated occupancies are provided, each 
part of the building comprising a distinct occupancy, as de- 
scribed in this chapter, shall be completely separated from 
other occupancies by fire-resistive assemblies as specified in 
6.1.14.4.2, 6.1.14.4.3, and Table 6.1.14.4.1(a) and Table 

6.1.14.4.1 (b), unless separation is provided by approved exist- 
ing separations. [202:6.1.14.4.1] 

6.1.14.4.2 Occupancy separations shall be classified as 3-hour 
fire resistance-rated, 2-hour fire resistance-rated, or 1-hour 
fire resistance-rated and shall meet the requirements of 
Chapter 8 of NFPA 101. [202:6.1.14.4.2] 

6.1.14.4.3 The fire resistance rating specified in Table 
6.1.14.4.1(a) and Table 6.1.14.4.1(b) shall be permitted to 
be reduced by 1 hour, but in no case shall it be reduced to 
less than 1 hour, where the building is protected through- 
out by an approved automatic sprinkler system in accor- 
dance with NFPA 13 and supervised in accordance with 
13.3.1.7 unless prohibited by the "daggered" entries in the 
tables. [202:6.1.14.4.3] 

6.1.14.4.4 Occupancy separations shall be vertical, horizon- 
tal, or both or, when necessary, of such other form as required 
to provide complete separation between occupancy divisions 
in the building. [202:6,1.14.4.4] 



2006 Edition 



1-54 










UNIFORM FIRE CODE 












Table 6.1.14.4.1(a) Required Separation 


of Occupancies ( 


[hours)', 


Parti 












Occupancy 


Assembly 
<300 


Assembly 
>300 to 
<1000 


Assembly 
>1000 


Educational 


Day-Care 

>12 Day-Care 
Clients Homes 


Health 
Care 


Ambulatory 

Health 

Care 


Detention & 
Correctional 


One-& 

Two-Family 

Dwellings 


Lodging 

or 
Rooming 
Houses 


Hotels 

& 

Dormitories 


Assembly 
<300 










2 


2 


1 


2t 


2 


2+ 


2 


2 


2 


Assembly >300 
to <1000 









2 


2 


2 


2+ 


2 


2+ 


2 


2 


2 


Assembly 
>1000 








2 


2 


2 


2+ 


2 


2+ 


2 


2 


2 


Educational 










2 


2 


2+ 


2 


2+ 


2 


2 


2 


Day-Care 
>12 
Clients 












1 


2+ 


2 


2+ 


2 


2 


2 


Day-Care 
Homes 














2t 


2 


2t 


2 


2 


2 


Health Care 
















2+ 


2t 


2+ 


2+ 


2t 


Ambulatory 
Health Care 


















2+ 


2 


2 


2 


Detention & 
Correctional 




















2+ 


2+ 


2+ 


One-& 
Two- 
Family 
Dwellings 






















1 


1 


Lodging or 
Rooming 
Houses 
























1 


Hotels & 

Dormitories 



NP: Not permitted. 

* The fire resistance rating is permitted to be reduced by 1 hour, but in no case to less than I hour, where the 
building is protected throughout by an approved automatic sprinkler system in accordance with NFPA 13 and 
supervised in accordance with 13.3.1.7. 

^^ The 1-hour reduction due to the presence of sprinklers in accordance with the asterisk footnote is not permit- 
ted. [20i:Table 6.1.14.4.1(a)] 



Chapter 7 Reserved 



Chapter 8 Reserved 



Chapter 9 Reserved 



Chapter 10 General Fire Safety 

10.1 Fimdamental Requirements. 

10.1.1 Every new and existing building or structure shall be 
constructed, arranged, equipped, maintained, and operated 
in accordance with this Code so as to provide a reasonable level 
of life safety, property protection, and public welfare from the 
actual and potential hazards created by fire, explosion, and 
other hazardous conditions. 

10.1.2* Life Safety Code. Every new and existing building shall 
comply with this Code and NFPA 101, Life Safety Code. 

10.1.3 Building Code. Where a building code has been 
adopted, all new construction shall comply with this Code and 
with the building code. 



10.1.4 Any person who deliberately, or through negligence, 
sets fire to or causes the burning of any combustible material 
in such a manner as to endanger the safety of any person or 
property shall be deemed to be in violation of this Code. 

10.1.5 The AHJ shall have the authority to prohibit any or all 
open flames or other sources of ignition where circumstances 
make such conditions hazardous. 

10.2 Owner/Occupant Responsibilities. 

10.2.1 The owner, operator, or occupant shall be responsible 
for compliance with this Code. 

10.2.2 The AHJ shall be permitted to require the owner, opera- 
tor, or occupant to provide tests or test reports, without expense 
to the AHJ, as proof of compliance with the intent of this Code. 

10.2.3 The owner, operator, or occupant of a building that is 
deemed unsafe by the AHJ shall abate, through corrective ac- 
tion approved by the AHJ, the condition causing the building 
to be unsafe either by repair, rehabilitation, demolition, or 
other corrective action approved by the AHJ. 

10.2.4 The owner, operator, or occupant, or any person in 
control of a building or premises shall keep records of all 
maintenance, inspections, and testing of fire protection sys- 
tems, fire alarm systems, smoke control systems, emergency 
evacuation and relocation drills, emergency plans, emergency 
power, elevators, and other equipment as required by the AHJ. 



2006 Edition 



GENERAL FIRE SAFETY 



1-55 



Table 6.1.14.4.1(b) Required Separation of Occupancies (hours)*, Part 2 



Board & Board & Mercantile, 

Apartment Care, Care, Mercantile, Btdk 



Storage, 
Industrial, Industrial, Industrial, Low& Storage, 

General Special High Ordinary High 



Occupancy 


Buildings 


Small 


Lai^e 


Mercantile 


MaU 


RetaU 


Business 


Purpose 


PiUTpose 


Hazard 


Hazard 


Hazard 


Assembly 


2 


2 


2 


2 


2 


3 


1 


2 


2 


3 


2 


3 


<300 


























Assembly 


2 


2 


2 


2 


2 


3 


2 


2 


2 


3 


2 


3 


>300 to 


























<1000 


























Assembly 


2 


2 


2 


2 


2 


3 


2 


3 


2 


3 


3 


3 


>1000 


























Educational 


2 


2 


2 


2 


2 


3 


2 


3 


3 


3 


3 


3 


Dare-Care 


2 


2 


2 


2 


2 


3 


2 


3 


3 


3 


3 


3 


>12 


























Clients 


























Day-Care 


2 


2 


2 


2 


2 


3 


2 


3 


3 


3 


2 


3 


Homes 


























Health Care 


r 


2+ 


2^ 


2+ 


2^ 


2+ 


2+ 


2t 


2t 


2+ 


2^ 


2+ 


Ambulatory 


2 


2 


2 


2 


2 


2+ 


1 


2 


2 


2+ 


2 


2t 


Health 


























Care 


























Detention & 


2t 


2t 


2+ 


2+ 


2+ 


2+ 


2+ 


2+ 


2+ 


NP 


2+ 


NP 


Correctional 


























One-& 


1 


1 


2 


2 


2 


3 


2 


2 


2 


3 


2 


3 


Two- 


























Family 


























Dwellings 


























Lodging or 


1 


2 


2 


2 


2 


3 


2 


2 


2 


3 


2 


3 


Rooming 


























Houses 


























Hotels & 


1 


2 


2 


2 


2 


3 


2 


2 


2 


3 


2 


3 


Dormitories 


























Apartment 




2 


2 


2 


2 


3 


2 


2 


2 


3 


2 


3 


Buildings 


























Board & 






1 


2 


2 


3 


2 


3 


3 


3 


3 


3 


Care, 


























Small 


























Board & 








2 


2 


3 


2 


3 


3 


3 


3 


3 


Care, 


























Lai^e 


























Mercantile 













3 


2 


2 


2 


3 


2 


3 


Mercantile, 












3 


2 


3 


3 


3 


2 


3 


Mall 


























Mercantile, 














2 


2 


2 


3 


2 


2 


Bulk 


























Retail 


























Business 
















2 


2 


2 


2 


2 


Industrial, 


















1 


1 


1 


1 


General 


























Purpose 


























Industrial, 




















1 


1 


1 


Special 


























Piurpose 


























Industrial, 






















1 


1 


High 


























Hazard 


























Storage, 
























1 


Low& 


























Ordinary 


























Hazard 


























Storage, 


























High 


























Hazard 



























NP: Not permitted. 

* The fire resistance rating is permitted to be reduced by 1 hour, but in no case to less than 1 hour, where the 
building is protected throughout by an approved automatic sprinkler system in accordance with NFPA 13 and 
supervised in accordance with 13.3.1.7. 

+ The 1-hour reduction due to the presence of sprinklers in accordance with the asterisk footnote is not permit- 
ted. [iO/:Table 6.1.14.4.1(b)]. 



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UNIFORM FIRE CODE 



10.2.5 All records required to be kept shall be maintained 
until their useful life has been served, as required by law, or as 
required by the AHJ. 

10.3 Occupancy. 

10.3.1 No new construction or existing building shall be oc- 
cupied in whole or in part in violation of the provisions of this 
Code. 

10.3.2 Existing buildings that are occupied at the time of 
adoption of this Code shall remain in use provided that the 
following conditions are met: 

(1) The occupancy classification remains the same. 

(2) No condition deemed hazardous to life or property exists 
that would constitute an imminent danger. 

10.3.3* Buildings or portions of buildings, except for routine 
maintenance or repair, shall not be occupied during construc- 
tion, repair, or alteration without the approval of the AHJ if 
required means of egress are impaired or required fire protec- 
tion systems are out of service. 

10.3.4 Change of Use or Occupancy ClassiOcation. 

10.3.4.1 In any building or structure, whether or not a physi- 
cal alteration is needed, a change from one use or occupancy 
classification to another shall comply with 4.6.7 of NFPA 101. 
[102:4.6.11] 

10.3.4.2 Occupancy classifications and subclassifications, as 
defined, shall be in accordance with Chapter 6. 

10.4 Maintenance, Inspection, and Testing. Also see 4.5.8. 

10.4.1 Whenever or wherever any device, equipment, system, 
condition, arrangement, level of protection, fire-resistive con- 
struction, or any other feature is required for compliance with 
the provisions of this Code, such device, equipment, system, 
condition, arrangement, level of protection, fire-resistive con- 
struction, or other feature shall thereafter be continuously 
maintained in accordance with applicable NFPA requirements 
or requirements developed as part of a performance-based 
design, or as directed by the AHJ. [i0/;4.6.12.1] 

10.4.2 No existing life safety feature shall be removed or re- 
duced where such feature is a requirement for new construc- 
tion. [i0i:4.6.12.2] 

10.4.3* Existing life safety features obvious to the public, if not 
required by the Code, shall be either maintained or removed. 
[/W:4.6.12.3] 

10.4.4 Any device, equipment, system, condition, arrange- 
ment, level of protection, fire-resistive construction, or any 
other feature requiring periodic testing, inspection, or opera- 
tion to ensure its maintenance shall be tested, inspected, or 
operated as specified elsewhere in this Code or as directed by 
the AHJ. [i0/;4.6.12.4] 

10.4.5 Maintenance, inspection, and testing shall be per- 
formed under the supervision of a responsible person who 
shall ensure that testing, inspection, and maintenance are 
made at specified intervals in accordance with applicable 
NFPA standards or as directed by the AHJ. [i0i:4.6.12.5] 

10.5 Building Evacuation. 

10.5.1 No person shall fail to leave a building when notified 
to do so when directed by the AHJ as a result of a known or 
perceived emergency. 



10.5.2* No person shall fail to leave any overcrowded premises 
when ordered to do so by the AHJ. 

10.6* Fire Drills. 

10.6.1 Where Required. Emergency egress and relocation 
drills conforming to the provisions of this Code shall be con- 
ducted as specified by the provisions of Chapter 20 of this Code 
or Chapters 11 through 42 of NFPA 101, or by appropriate 
action of the AHJ. Drills shall be designed in cooperation with 
the local authorities. [iW:4.7.1] 

10.6.2* Drill Frequency. Emergency egress and relocation 
drills, where required by Chapter 20 of this Code or Chapters 
11 through 42 of NFPA 101, or the AHJ, shall be held with 
sufficient frequency to familiarize occupants with the drill pro- 
cedure and to establish conduct of the drill as a matter of 
routine. Drills shall include suitable procedures to ensure that 
all persons subject to the drill participate. [101:4.7.2] 

10.6.3 Competency. Responsibility for the planning and con- 
ducting of drills shall be assigned only to competent persons 
qualified to exercise leadership. 

10.6.4 Orderly Evacuation. When conducting drills, emphasis 
shall be placed on orderly evacuation rather than on speed. 
[101:4.7.3] 

10.6.5* Simulated Conditions. Drills shall be held at expected 
and unexpected times and under varying conditions to simu- 
late the unusual conditions that can occur in an actual emer- 
gency. [101:4.7.4] 

10.6.6 Relocation Area. Drill participants shall relocate to a 
predetermined location and remain at such location until a 
recall or dismissal signal is given. [101:4.7.5] 

10.6.7* A written record of each drill shall be completed by 
the person responsible for conducting the drill and main- 
tained in an approved manner. [101:4.7.6] 

10.7 Reporting of Fires and Other Emergencies. 

10.7.1 Fire Reporting. 

10.7.1.1 The person discovering any unwanted fire, regard- 
less of magnitude, shall immediately notify the fire depart- 
ment. 

10.7.1.2 Facilities that have established on-premises fire- 
fighting organizations and have coordinated and arranged 
procedures approved by the AHJ shall not need to notify the 
fire department. 

10.7.1.3* The owner, manager, occupant, or any person in 
control of such building or premises, upon discovery of an 
unwanted fire or evidence of there having been an unwanted 
fire even though it has apparentiy been extinguished, shall 
immediately notify the fire department. 

10.7.1.4 No person shall make, issue, post, or maintain any 
regulation or order, written or verbal, that would require any 
person to take any unnecessary delaying action prior to report- 
ing a fire to the fire department. 

10.7.2 Notification of unauthorized discharge of hazardous 
materials shall be in accordance with Chapter 60. 

10.7.3 No person shall deliberately or maliciously turn in an 
alarm of fire when in fact that person knows that no fire exists. 

10.7.4 It shall be a violation of this Code for any person to 
willfully make any false, fraudulent, misleading, or unfounded 



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report or statement or to willfully misrepresent any fact with 
the intention of misleading any fire department personnel or 
that interferes with the operation of the fire department. 

10.8 Tampering wth Fire Safety Equipment. 

10.8.1 No person shall render any portable or fixed fire- 
extinguishing system or device or any fire-warning system in- 
operative or inaccessible. 

10.8.1.1 As necessary during emergencies, maintenance, 
drills, prescribed testing, alterations, or renovations, portable 
or fixed fire-extinguishing systems or devices or any fire- 
warning system shall be permitted to be made inoperative or 
inaccessible. 

10.8.2 No person shall render a system or device inoperative 
during an emergency unless by direction of the incident com- 
mander. 

10.8.3 No person, except a person authorized by the AHJ, 
shall remove, unlock, destroy, or tamper with in any manner 
any locked gate, door, or barricade; chain; enclosure; sign; 
tag; or seal that has been required by the AHJ pursuant to this 
Code. 

10.9 Emei^ency Plans. 

10.9.1 Where Required. Emergency plans shall be provided 
for high-rise, health care, ambulatory health care, residential 
board and care, assembly, day-care centers, special amuse- 
ment buildings, detention and correctional occupancies, un- 
derground and windowless structures, facilities storing or han- 
dling materials covered by Chapter 20, or where required by 
the AHJ. 

10.9.2* Plan Requirements. Emergency plans shall be devel- 
oped in accordance with NFPA 1600, Standard on Disaster/ 
Emergency Management and Business Continuity Programs, and 
shall include the procedures for reporting of emergencies, 
occupant and staff response to emergencies, the type and cov- 
erage of building fire protection systems, and other items re- 
quired by the AHJ. 

10.9.2.1 Review. When required, emergency plans shall be 
submitted to the AHJ for review. 

10.9.2.2 Maintenance. Emergency plans shall be reviewed and 
updated annually. Revised plans shall be submitted for review 
and updates shall be provided whenever changes are made in 
the occupancy or physical arrangement of the building or fire 
protection systems or features. 

10.9.3 The owner shall provide floor plans to the fire depart- 
ment in a manner approved by the AHJ and the fire department. 

10.10 Smoking. 

10.10.1 Where smoking is considered a fire hazard, the AHJ 
shall be authorized to order the owner in writing to post "No 
Smoking" signs in conspicuous, designated locations where 
smoking is prohibited. 

10.10.2 In areas where smoking is permitted, noncombus- 
tible ashtrays shall be provided. 

10.10.3 Removal or destruction of any required "No Smok- 
ing" sign shall be prohibited. 

10.10.4 Smoking or depositing any lighted or smoldering 
substance in a place where required "No Smoking" signs are 
posted shall be prohibited. 



10.11 Open Fires, Incinerators, and Commercial Fireplaces. 

10.11.1 Permits. Permits, where required, shall comply with 
Section 1.12. 

10.11.1.1 Permits shall not be required for cooking and rec- 
reational fires. 

10.11.1.2 Where burning is conducted on pubhc property or 
the property of someone other than the permit applicant, the 
permit applicant shall demonstrate that permission has been 
obtained by the appropriate government agency, tlie owner, 
or the owner's authorized agent. 

10.11.1.3 When limits for atmospheric conditions or hours 
restrict burning, such limits shall be designated in the permit 
restrictions. 

10.11.1.4 Instructions or stipulations of permit shall be ad- 
hered to. 

10.11.2 Open Fires. 

10.11.2.1 Permitted open fires shall be located not less than 
50 ft (15 m) from any structure. 

10.11.2.2 Burning hours shall be prescribed by the AHJ. 

10.11.2.3 Recreational fires shall not be located within 25 ft 
(7.6 m) of a structure or combustible material unless con- 
tained in an approved manner. 

10.11.2.4 Conditions that could cause a fire to spread to 
within 25 ft (7.6 m) of a structure shall be eliminated prior to 
ignition. 

10.11.3 Open fires and cooking fires shall be constantiy at- 
tended by a competent person until such fire is extinguished. 
This person shall have a garden hose connected to the water 
supply or other fire-extinguishing equipment readily available 
for use. 

10.11.4 The AHJ shall have the authority to prohibit any or all 
open fires when atmospheric conditions or local circum- 
stances make such fires hazardous. 

10.11.5 During that period of the year declared by the AHJ to 
be the dry season, it shall be unlawful to set fires to any brush 
or forest-covered land. 

10.11.6 On such occasions when the chief executive of the 
jurisdiction declares a dry season and establishes special regu- 
lations on the use of any form of fire or smoking material, the 
AHJ shall have the authority to assist in the enforcement of 
such regulations. 

10.11.7 For other than one- and two-family dwellings, no hi- 
bachi, gas-fired grill, charcoal grill, or other similar devices 
used for cooking, heating, or any other purpose, shall be used 
or kindled on any balcony or under any overhanging portion 
or within 10 ft (3 m) of any structure. Listed electric ranges, 
grills, or similar electrical apparatus shall be permitted. 

10.11.8 Every commercial incinerator and commercial bar- 
becue fireplace shall be equipped and maintained with a 
spark arrestor and shall be maintained in good condition, 
working order, and repair at all times. 

10.11.9 Discontinuance. The AHJ shall be authorized to re- 
quire any fire to be immediately discontinued if the fire is 
determined to constitute a hazardous condition. 



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UNIFORM FIRE CODE 



10.12 Fire Protection Markings. 

10.12.1 Premises Identification. 

10.12.1.1* New and existing buildings shall have approved ad- 
dress numbers placed in a position to be plainly legible and 
visible from the street or road fronting the property. 

10.12.1.2 Address numbers shall contrast with their back- 
ground. 

10.12.1.3 Address numbers shall be arable numerals or al- 
phabet letters. 

10.12.2 Shaftways to Be Marked. 

10.12.2.1 Every outside opening accessible to the fire depart- 
ment that opens direcdy on any hoistway or shaftway commu- 
nicating between two or more floors in a building shall be 
plainly marked with the a sign in accordance with 10.12.2.2. 

10.12.2.2 Shaftway signs shall be in red letters at least 6 in. 
(15.2 cm) high on a white background stating "SHAFTWffi" 

10.12.2.3 Such warning signs shall be placed so as to be 
readily discernible from the outside of the building. 

10.12.3* Stairway Marking. 

10.12.3.1 Enclosed stairs meeting either of the following two 
conditions shall comply with 10.12.3.1.1 through 10.12.3.1.8: 

(1) The stair is a new enclosed stair serving three or more 
stories. 

(2) The stair is an existing enclosed stair serving five or more 
stories. [iW:7.2.2.5.4.1] 

10.12.3.1.1 The stairs shall be provided with special signage 
within the enclosure at each floor landing. [101:7.2.2.5.4.1 (A)] 

10.12.3.1.2 The signage shall indicate the floor level. 
[1W;7.2.2.5.4.1(B)] 

10.12.3.1.3 The signage shall indicate the terminus of the top 
and bottom of the stair enclosure. [i0/;7.2.2.5.4.1 (C) ] 

10.12.3.1.4 The signage shall indicate the identification of 
the stair enclosure. [/0I;7.2.2.5.4.1(D)] 

10.12.3.1.5 The signage shall indicate the floor level of, and 
the direction to, exit discharge. [/W;7.2.2.5.4.1(E)] 

10.12.3.1.6 The signage shall be located inside the enclosure 
approximately 60 in. (1525 mm ) above the floor landing in a 
position that is visible when the door is in the open or closed 
position. [20/:7.2.2.5.4.1(F)] 

10.12.3.1.7 The signage shall comply with 14.14.6.5.1 and 
14.14.6.5.2. [/0i.-7.2.2.5.4.1(G)] 

10.12.3.1.8 The floor level designation shall also be tactile in 
accordance with ICC/ ANSI All 7.1, American National Standard 
for Accessible and Usable Building andFaciUties. [101:7.2.2.5.4.1 (H)] 

10.12.3.2 Wherever an enclosed stair requires travel in an 
upward direction to reach the level of exit discharge, special 
signs with directional indicators showing the direction to the 
level of exit discharge shall be provided at each floor level 
landing from which upward direction of travel is required, 
unless otherwise provided in 10.12.3.2.1 and 10.12.3.2.2, and 
the folJowing also shall apply: 

(1) Such signage shall comply with 14.14.6.5.1. 

(2) Such signage shall be visible when-the door is in the open 
or closed position. [101:7.2.2.5.4.2] 



10.12.3.2.1 The requirement of 10.12.3.2 shall not apply where 
signs required by 10.12.3.1.1 are provided. [101:7.2.2.5.4.2 (A)] 

10.12.3.2.2 The requirement of 10.12.3.2 shall not apply to 
stairs extending not more than one story below the level of 
exit discharge where the exit discharge is clearly obvious. 
[101:7.2.2.5.4.2(B)] 

10.12.3.3 The sign shall be painted or stenciled on the wall or 
on a separate sign securely attached to the wall. [101:7.2.2.5.4.3] 

10.12.3.4 Letters and numerals shall be of bold type and of 
contrasting color to the background. 

10.12.3.5 The stairway identification letter shall be located at 
the top of the sign in minimum 1 in. (25 mm) high lettering 
and shall be in accordance witii 14.14.6.5.2. [101:7.2.2.5.4.4] 

10.12.3.6 Roof access or the lack thereof shall be designated 
by a sign that reads ROOF ACCESS or NO ROOF ACCESS and 
located under the stairway identification letter. Lettering shall 
be a minimum of 1 in. (25 mm) high and shall be in accor- 
dance witii 14.14.6.5.2. [101:7.2.2.5.4.5] 

10.12.3.7 The floor level number shall be located in the 
middle of the sign in minimum 5 in. (125 mm) high numbers 
and shall be in accordance with 14.14.6.5.2. [101:7.2.2.5.4.6] 

10.12.3.7.1 Mezzanine levels shall have the letter "M" or 
other appropriate identification letter preceding the floor 
number. [101:7.2.2.5.4.6] 

10.12.3.7.2 Basement levels shall have the letter "B" or other 
appropriate identification letter preceding the floor level 
number. [101:7.2.2.5.4.6] 

10.1 2.3.8 The lower and upper terminus of the stairway shall 
be placed at the bottom of the sign in minimum 1 in. (2.5 cm) 
high bold block lettering. 

10.12.3.9 These signs shall be maintained in an approved 
manner. 

10.12.3.10 Existing approved signs shall be permitted. 
10.13 Vacant Buildings and Premises. 

10.13.1 Every person owning or having charge or control of 
any vacant building or premises shall remove all combustible 
storage, waste, refuse, and vegetation and shall lock, barri- 
cade, or otherwise secure all windows, doors, and other open- 
ings to prohibit entry by unauthorized persons. 

10.13.1.1 The requirement of 10.13.1 shall not apply to vaca- 
tion or resort facilities or buildings used on a seasonal basis or 
the temporary vacancy of a building for tenant change or re- 
modeling purposes. 

10.13.2 All fire protection systems shall be maintained in ser- 
vice in vacant buildings. 

10.13.2.1* With the approval of the AHJ, fire protection and 
fire alarm systems in vacant buildings shjill be permitted to be 
removed from service. 

10.13.2.2 When required by the AHJ, other systems or com- 
ponents pertaining to fire protection shall be maintained. 

10.13.3 The AHJ shall have the authority to require an in- 
spection and test of any fire protection system or fire alarm 
system that has been out of service for 30 days or more before 
restored back into service. 



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10.14 Combustible Vegetation. 

10.14.1 Combustible vegetation, including natural cut Christ- 
mas trees, shall be in accordance with Table 10.14.1. 

10.14.2 In any occupancy, limited quantities of combustible 
vegetation shall be permitted where the AHJ determines that 
adequate safeguards are provided based on the quantity and 
nature of the combustible vegetation. 



Table 10.14.1 Provisions for Christmas Trees by Occupancy 

Cut Tree Cut Tree 

Permitted Permitted 
with Without 

Automatic Automatic Balled 

No Trees Sprinkler Sprinkler Tree 

Occupancy Permitted Systems Systems Permitted 



Ambulatory 
health 
care 








X 


Apartment 
buildings 




Within 
unit 


Within 
unit 


X 


Assembly 


X 








Board and 
care 


X 








Business 




X 




X 


Day-care 




X 




X 


Detention 
and 
correctional 


X 








Dormitories 


X 








Educational 


X 








Healtii 
care 








X 


Hotels 


X 








Industrial 




X 


X 


X 


Lodging 
and 
rooming 




X 




X 


Mercantile 




X 




X 


One and 
two 
family 




X 


X 


X 


Storage 




X 


X 


X 



10.14.3* Provisions for Fire Retardance. 

10.14.3.1 Artificial vegetation and artificial Christmas trees 
shall be labeled or otherwise identified or certified by the 
manufacturer as being fire retardant. 

10.14.3.2 Such fire retardance shall be demonstrated by each 
individual decorative vegetation item, including any decora- 
tive lighting, in an approved manner. 

10.14.4 Vegetation and Christmas trees shall not obstruct cor- 
ridors, exit ways, or other means of egress. 

10.14.5 Only listed electrical lights and wiring shall be used 
on natural or artificial combustible vegetation, natural or arti- 
ficial Christmas trees, and other similar decorations. 

1 0. 14.6 Electrical lights shall be prohibited on metal artificial 
trees. 

10.14.7 Open flames such as from candles, lanterns, kero- 
sene heaters, and gas-fired heaters shall not be located on or 
near combustible vegetation, Christmas trees, or other similar 
combustible materials. 

10.14.8 Combustible vegetation and natural cut Christmas 
trees shall not be located near heating vents or other fixed or 
portable heating devices that could cause it to dry out prema- 
turely or to be ignited. 

10.14.9 Provisions for Natural Cut Trees. 

10.14.9.1 Where a natural cut tree is permitted, the bottom 
end of the trunk shall be cut off with a straight fresh cut at least 
V2 in. (13 mm) above the end prior to placing the tree in a 
stand to allow the tree to absorb water. 

10.14.9.2 The tree shall be placed in a suitable stand with 
water. 

10.14.9.3 The water level shall be maintained above the fresh 
cut and checked at least once daily. 

10.14.9.4* The tree shall be removed from the building imme- 
diately upon evidence of dryness. 

10.14.10 Exterior Vegetation. 

10.14.10.1 Cut or uncut weeds, grass, vines, and other vegeta- 
tion shall be removed when determined by the AHJ to be a fire 
hazard. 

10.14.10.2 When the AHJ determines that total removal of 
growth is impractical due to size or environmental factors, ap- 
proved fuel breaks shall be established. 

10.14.10.3 Designated areas shall be cleared of combustible 
vegetation to establish the fuel breaks. 

10.15 Special Outdoor Events, Carnivals, and Fairs. 

10.15.1 Permits. Permits, where required, shall comply with 
Section 1.12. 

10.15.2 The AHJ shall be permitted to regulate all outdoor 
events such as carnivals and fairs as it pertains to access for emer- 
gency vehicles; access to fire protection equipment; placement of 
stands, concession booths, and exhibits; and the control of haz- 
ardous conditions dangerous to life and property. 

10.15.3 Life Safety Evaluation. The AHJ shall be permitted to 
order a life safety evaluation in accordance with 12.4.1 of 
NFPA 101. 



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UNIFORM FIRE CODE 



10.15.4 Standby Fire Personnel. Where required by the AHJ, 
standby fire personnel shall be provided and comply with 
1.7.15. 

10.15.5 Portable Fire Extinguishers. A minimum of one por- 
table fire extinguisher shall be provided for each conces- 
sion stand where required by the AHJ in accordance with 
Section 13.6. 

10.15.6 Smoke Alarms. A minimum of one single station 
smoke alarm shall be located in all stock or equipment trailers 
when they are used for sleeping purposes. 

10.15.7 Electrical Equipment. Electrical equipment and in- 
stallations shall comply with Section ILL 

10.15.8 Cooking. Concession stands utilized for cooking shall 
have a minimum of 10 ft (3 m) of clearance on two sides and 
shall not be located within 10 ft (3 m) of amusement rides or 
devices. 

10.15.9 Communications. Where required by the AHJ, a 
method of notifying the fire department in the event of an 
emergency shall be provided. 

10.15.9.1 Methods of notifying the fire department shall con- 
sist of a telephone, an alarm system connected to the fire de- 
partment or other approved agency, or other approved 
means. 

10.15.9.2 Methods of notifying the fire department shall be 
readily available to the public. 

10.15.10 Internal Combustion Power Sources. 

10.15.10.1 Fueling. Fuel tanks shall be of adequate capacity to 
permit uninterrupted operation during, normal operating 
hours. 

10.15.10.2 Refueling. Refiieling shall be conducted only when 
not in use. 

10.15.10.3 Protection. Internal combustion power sources shall 
be isolated from contact with the public by either physical 
guards, fencing, or an enclosure. 

10.15.10.4 Fire Extinguishers. A minimum of one portable 
fire extinguisher with a rating of not less than 2-A:10-B:C shall 
be provided. 

10.15.11 Crop Maze. 

10.15.11.1 Permits. Permits, where required, shall comply 
with Section 1.12. 

10.15.11.2 The owner or operator of a crop maze amusement 
attraction shall advise all employees of the fire and life safety 
regulations established in this subsection prior to the employ- 
ees assuming their respective duties. 

10.15.11.3 The owner or operator of a crop maze or their 
employees shall provide safety instructions to the visitors and 
patrons of a crop maze prior to their entrance to the maze. 

10.15.11.4 A minimum of two employees shall be on duty to 
monitor a crop maze during hours of operation. A minimum 
of one of the employees shall be located on an elevated plat- 
form a minimum of 10 ft (3 m) above the maze. 

10.15.11.5 The owner or operator of a crop maze shall con- 
tact the local fire department and provide the fire department 
with the opportunity to prepare a pre-plan of the crop maze 
amusement attraction prior to the start of seasonal operations. 



10.15.11.6* No open flame-producing devices or equipment 
shall be permitted within the confines of the crop maze. 

10.15.11.7 No smoking shall be permitted within the con- 
fines of the crop maze. 

10.15.11.8 No more than 200 person per acre, including 
adults and children, shall occupy the crop maze at any one 
time. 

10.15.11.9 Motorized vehicles shall not be parked within 75 ft 
(23 m) of a crop maze. 

10.15.11.10 A fuel break of a minimum of 20 ft (6 m) wide 
shall be cleared between a crop maze and any vehicles or veg- 
etation outside the maze. 

10.15.11.11 A public address system shall be readily available 
to employees at a crop maze to assist them in making an- 
nouncements to the visitors or patrons of a crop maze in the 
event of an emergency. A bull horn or loud speaker shall suf- 
fice as a public address system. 

10.15.11.12 The entrance and exit from a crop maze shall not 
be blocked or obstructed at any time the maze is open for 
business and occupied by the public. 

10.15.11.13 Fireworks. 

10.15.11.13.1 Fireworks shall not be discharged v\dthin a 
minimum of 300 ft (91 m) of any crop maze at any time. 

10.15.11.13.2 The use of display fireworks shall comply with 
Chapter 65 in addition to the requirements of I0.I5.II.13. 

10.16* Outside Storage. 

10.16.1 Outside storage of combustible materials shall not be 
located within 10 ft (3 m) of a property line. 

10.16.2 The separation distance shall be allowed to be re- 
duced to 3 ft (0.9 m) for storage not exceeding 6 ft (1.8 m) in 
height. 

10.16.3 The separation distance shall be allowed to be re- 
duced where the AHJ determines that no hazard to the adjoin- 
ing property exists. 

10.16.4 Combustible material shall not be stored beneath a 
building or structure unless specifically constructed or pro- 
tected for this purpose. 

10.16.5 Combustible storage in the open shall not exceed 
20 ft (6.1m) in height. 

10.17 Parade Floats. 

10.17.1 Permits. Permits, where required, shall comply with 
Section 1. 1 2. 

10.17.2 Decorative Material. Decorative material on parade 
floats shall be noncombustible or flame retardant. 

10.17.3 Fire Protection. Motorized parade floats and towing 
apparatus shall be provided with a minimum 2-A:10-B:C-rated 
portable fire extinguisher readily accessible to the operator. 

10.18 Powered Industrial Trucks. Powered industrial trucks 
shall be operated and maintained in accordance with 
NFPA 505, Fire Safety Standard for Powered Industrial Trucks In- 
cluding Type Designations, Areas of Use, Conversions, Maintenance, 
and Operations. 



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1-61 



10.19* Combustible Materials. 

10.19.1 General. Storage of combustible materials shall be or- 
derly. 

10.19.2 Permits. Permits, where required, shall comply with 
Section 1.12. 

10.19.3 CeUing Clearance. 

10.19.3.1 Storage shall be maintained 2 ft (610 mm) or more 
from the ceiling in nonsprinklered areas of buildings. 

10.19.3.2* The clearance between the deflector and the top of 
storage shall be 18 in. (457 mm) or greater. [13:8.6.6.1] 

10.19.3.2.1 The clearance between the deflector and the top 
of storage shall be permitted to be less than 18 in. (46 cm) 
when permitted by NFPA 13. 

10.19.3.3 Where other standards specify greater clearance to 
storage minimums, they shall be followed. [13:8.6.6.2] 

10.19.4 Means of Egress. Combustible material shall not be 
stored in exits. 

10.19.5 Equipment Rooms. 

10.19.5.1 Combustible material shall not be stored in boiler 
rooms, mechanical rooms, or electrical equipment rooms. 

10.19.5.2 Materials and supplies for the operation and main- 
tenance of the equipment in the room shall be permitted. 

10.19.6 Attic, Under-Floor, and Concealed Spaces. Attic, 
under-floor, and concealed spaces used for storage of combus- 
tible materials shall comply with the protection from hazards 
requirements for storage rooms in NFPA 101. 

10.19.7 Fueled Equipment. Fueled equipment, including but 
not limited to motorcycles, mopeds, lawn-care equipment, 
and portable cooking equipment, shall not be stored, oper- 
ated, or repaired within a building except under one of the 
following conditions: 

(1) The building or room has been constructed for such use 
in accordance with the building code. 

(2) The use is allowed by other provisions of this Code. 



Chapter 11 Building Services 

11.1 Electrical Fire Safety. 

11.1.1 Section 11.1 shall apply to new, existing, permanent, 
or temporary electrical appliances, equipment, fixtures, or 
wiring. 

11.1.1.1 Existing installations shall be permitted to be contin- 
ued in use provided the lack of conformity does not present an 
imminent hazard danger. 

11.1.2 All electrical appliances, fixtures, equipment, or wir- 
ing shall be installed and maintained in accordance with 
NFPA 70, National Electrical Code. 

11.1.3 Permanent wiring shall be installed and maintained in 
accordance with NFPA 70. 

11.1.4 Permanent wiring abandoned in place shall be tagged 
or otherwise identified at its termination and junction points 
as "Abandoned in Place" or removed from all accessible areas 
and insulated from contact with other live electrical wiring or 
devices. 



11.1.5 Extension cords shall not be used as a substitute for 
permanent wiring. 

11.1.5.1 Multiplug Adapters. Multiplug adapters, such as mtilti- 
plug extension cords, cube adapters, strip plugs, and other de- 
vices, shall be listed and used in accordance with their listing. 

11.1.5.2 Relocatable Power Taps. 

11.1.5.2.1 Relocatable power taps shall be of the polarized or 
grounded type with overcurrent protection and shall be listed. 

11.1.5.2.2 The relocatable power taps shall be directiy con- 
nected to a permanently installed receptacle. 

11.1.5.2.3 Relocatable power tap cords shall not extend 
through walls, ceilings, or floors; under doors or floor cover- 
ings; or be subject to environmental or physical damage. 

11.1.5.3 Extension Cords. 

11.1.5.3.1 Extension cords shall be plugged directly into an 
approved receptacle, power tap, or multiplug adapter and 
shall, except for approved multiplug extension cords, serve 
only one portable appliance. 

11.1.5.3.2 The ampacity of the extension cords shall not be 
less than the rated capacity of the portable appliance supplied 
by the cord. 

11.1.5.3.3 The extension cords shall be maintained in good 
condition without sphces, deterioration, or damage. 

11.1.5.3.4 Extension cords shall be grounded when servicing 
grounded portable appliances. 

11.1.5.3.5 Extension cords and flexible cords shall not be af- 
fixed to structures; extend through walls, ceilings, or floors, or 
under doors or floor coverings; or be subject to environmental 
or physical damage. 

11.1.6 Temporary 'VWring. 

11.1.6.1 Other Articles. Except as specifically modified in Ar- 
ticle 590, all other requirements of NFPA 70 for permanent wir- 
ing shall apply to temporary wiring installations. [70:590.2 (A) ] 

11.1.6.2 J^jproval. Temporary wiring methods shall be ac- 
ceptable only if approved based on the conditions of use 
and any special requirements of the temporary installation. 
[70:590.2(B)] 

11.1.6.3 During the Period of Construction. Temporary elec- 
trical power and lighting installations shall be permitted dur- 
ing the period of construction, remodeling, maintenance, re- 
pair, or demolition of buildings, structures, equipment, or 
similar activities. [70:590.3 (A)] 

11.1.6.4 90 Days. Temporary electrical power and lighting in- 
stallations shall be permitted for a period not to exceed 90 
days for holiday decorative lighting and similar purposes. 
[70:590.3(8)] 

11.1.6.5 Emergencies and Tests. Temporary electrical power 
and lighting installations shall be permitted during emergen- 
cies and for tests, experiments, and developmental work. 
[70:590.3(C)] 

11.1.6.6 Removal. Temporary wiring shall be removed imme- 
diately upon completion of construction or purpose for which 
the wiring was installed. [70:590. 3(D) ] 



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11.1.7 Building Disconnect Access. 

11.1.7.1* Means shall be provided for the fire department to 
disconnect the electrical service to a building, structure, or 
facility when the electrical installation is covered under the 
scopeofNrPA70. 

11.1.7.2 The disconnecting means shall be maintained acces- 
sible to the fire department. 

11.2 Heating, Ventilation, and Air-Conditioning. 

11.2.1 Air-Conditioning, Heating, Ventilating Ductwork, and 
Related Equipment. Air-conditioning, heating, ventilating duct- 
work, and related equipment shall be in accordance with 
NFPA90A, Standard for the Installation of Air-Conditioning and Venti- 
toing S)iiteOT5, or NFPA90B, Standard for the InstaUatum of Warm Air 
Heating and Air-Conditianing Systems, as applicable, unless such in- 
stallations are approved existing installations, which shall be per- 
mitted to be continued in service. [iOI:9.2.1] 

11.2.2 Ventilating or Heat-Producing Eqiupment. Ventilating 
or heat-producing equipment shall be in accordance with 
NFPA91, Standard for Exhaust Systems for Air Conveying of Vapors, 
Gases, Mists, and Noncombustible Particulate Solids, NFPA 211, 
Standard for Chimneys, Fireplaces, Vents, and Solid Fuel-Burning 
Appliances; NFPA 31, Standard for the Installation of Oil-Burning 
Equipment, NFPA 54, National Fuel Gas Code, or NFPA 70, as 
applicable, unless such installations are approved existing in- 
stallations, which shall be permitted to be continued in ser- 
vice. [/0/:9.2.2] 

11.2.3 Commercial Cooking Equipment. Commercial cook- 
ing equipment shall be in accordance with Chapter 50, unless 
such installations are approved existing installations, which 
shall be permitted to be continued in service. [707:9.2.3] 

11.2.4 Ventilating Systems in Laboratories Using Chemicals. 

Ventilating systems in laboratories using chemicals shall be in- 
stalled in accordance with Chapter 26 and NFPA 45, Standard 
on Fire Protection for Laboratories Using Chemicals, or NFPA 99, 
Standard for Health Care Facilities, as appropriate. [/W:9.2.4] 

11.3 Elevators, Escalators, and Conveyors. 

11.3.1 Fire Fighters' Emergency Operations. 

11.3.1.1 All new elevators shall conform to the fire fighters' 
emergency operations requirements of ASME A17.1, Safety 
Code for Elevators and Escalators. [707:9.4.3.1] 

11.3.1.2 All existing elevators having a travel distance of 25 ft 
(7620 mm) or more above or below the level that best serves 
the needs of emergency personnel for fire fighting or rescue 
purposes shall conform to the fire fighters' emergency opera- 
tions requirements of ASME Al 7.3, Safety Code for ExistingEkua- 
tors and Escalators [707:9.4.3.2] 

11.3.2 Number of Cars. The number of elevator cars permit- 
ted in a hoistway shall be in accordance with 8.6.8.3 of NFPA 
101. [707:9.4.4] 

11.3.3* Elevator Machine Rooms. Elevator machine rooms that 
contain solid-state equipment for elevators, other than existing 
elevators, having a travel distance exceeding 50 ft (15 m) above 
the level of exit discharge or exceeding 30 ft (9150 mm) below 
the level of exit discharge shall be provided with independent 
ventilation or air-conditioning systems to maintain temperature 
during fire fighters' emergency operations for elevator operation 
(see 11.3.1). The operating temperature shall be established by 
the elevator equipment manufacturer's specifications. When 



standby power is connected to the elevator, the machine room 
ventilation or air-conditioning shall be connected to standby 
power. [707:9.4.5] 

11.3.4 Elevator Testing. Elevators shall be subject to periodic 
inspections and tests as specified in ASME Al 7.1, Safety Code for 
Elevators and Escalators. All elevators equipped with fire fight- 
ers' emergency operations in accordance with 11.3.1 shall be 
subject to a monthly operation with a written record of the 
findings made and kept on the premises as required by ASME 
A17.1. [707:9.4.6] 

11.3.5 Openings. Conveyors, elevators, dumbwaiters, and 
pneumatic conveyors serving various stories of a building shall 
not open to an exit. [707:9.4.7] 

11.4 Utilities. Equipment using fuel gas and related gas pip- 
ing shall be installed in accordance with NFPA 54, National Fuel 
Gas Code, or NFPA 58, Liquefied Petroleum Gas Code. (See Chapter 
69 for LP-Gas fuel supply and storage installations.) 

11.4.1 Existing installations shall be permitted to be contin- 
ued in service, subject to approval by the AHJ. 

11.4.2 Aboveground gas meters, regulators, and piping ex- 
posed to vehicular damage shall be protected in accordance 
with 60.1.2.13. 

11.5 Heating Appliances. 
11.5.1 General. 

11.5.1.1 The installation of stationary oil-burning equipment 
and appliances including, but not limited to, industrial-, 
commercial-, and residential-type steam, hot water, or warm 
air heating plants; domestic-type range burners and space 
heaters; portable oil-burning equipment, and all accessory 
equipment and control systems, whether electric, thermo- 
static, or mechanical, and all electrical v^firing connected to 
oil-fired equipment and to the installation of oil storage and 
supply systems connected to oil-fired equipment shall comply 
with Section 11.5 and NFPA 31, Standard for the Installation of 
Oil-Burning Equipment. [31:1.1.1] 

11.5.1.2 Section 11.5 shall also apply to those multi-fueled appli- 
ances in which fiiel oil is one of the optional fuels. [31:1.1.3] 

11.5.1.3* Section 11.5 shall not apply to internal combustion 
engines, oil lamps, or portable devices not specifically covered 
in NFPA 31. (See Chapter 11 of NFPA 31 for portable devices that are 
covered in this standard.) [31:1.1.4] 

11.5.1.4 The installation of gas-fired heating appliances shall 
comply with Section 11.5 and NFPA 54. (See Chapter 69 for LP- 
Gas fuel supply and storage installations.) 

11.5.1.5 All heating appliances shall be approved or listed. 

11.5.1.6 Permits. Permits, where required, shall comply with 
Section 1.12. 

11.5.1.7 Electrical wiring and utilization equipment used in 
connection with oil-burning appliances or equipment shall be 
installed in accordance with Section 11.1. [31:4.4.1] 

11.5.1.8 The grade of fuel oil used in an oil burner shall be 
that for which the burner is approved and as stipulated by the 
manufacturer. Crankcase oil, used oil, or oil containing gaso- 
line shall not be used. (For use of oil fuels other than those described 
in this paragraph, see Section 1.5 of NFPA 31.) 



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Exception: Where acceptable to the AHJ, an oil-burning appliance 
designed to bum crankcase oil or used oil shall be permitted to be used 
only in commercial or industrial occupancies. Oil-burning appliances 
intended for firing crankcase oils shall be listed for use with crankcase 
oils. (See Chapter 12 ofNFPA 31 for appliances intended for firing 
used oil.) The appliances shall be installed in accordance with the 
manufacturers' instructions and with the terms of its listing. (See Sec- 
tion 4.6 ofNFPA 31.) [31:4.5.1] 

11.5.1.9 Clothes Dryers. 

11.5.1.9.1 Clothes dryers shall be cleaned to maintain the lint 
trap, and the mechanical and heating components free from 
excessive accumulations of lint. 

11.5.1.9.2 The requirements of 11.5.1.9.1 shall not apply to 
clothes dryers in individual dwelling units of residential oc- 
cupancies. 

11.5.2 Kerosene Burners and Oil Stoves. 

11.5.2.1 Kerosene burners and oil stoves shall be equipped 
with a primary safety control furnished as an integral part of 
the appliance by the manufacturer to stop the flow of oil in the 
event of flame failure. Barometric oil feed shall not be consid- 
ered a primary safety control. 

11.5.2.2 A conversion range oil burner shall be equipped 
with a thermal (heat-actuated) valve in the oil supply line, lo- 
cated in the burner compartment of the stove. 

11.5.2.3 Only listed kerosene heaters shall be used. The fol- 
lowing safeguards shall apply. 

( 1 ) Provide adequate ventilation 

(2) Do not place on carpeting 

(3) Keep 3 ft (0.9 m) away from combustible furnishings or 
drapes 

(4) Use only approved Type 1-K water clear kerosene 

(5) Allow to cool before refueling 

11.5.3 Portable Electric Heater. 

11.5.3.1 The AHJ shall be permitted to prohibit use of por- 
table electric heaters in occupancies or situations where such 
use or operation would present an undue danger to life or 
property. 

11.5.3.2 Portable electric heaters shall be designed and lo- 
cated so that they cannot be easily overturned. 

11.5.3.3 All portable electric heaters shall be listed. 

11.5.4 Vents. All chimneys, smokestacks, or similar devices for 
conveying smoke or hot gases to the outer air and the stoves, 
furnaces, incinerators, boilers, or any other heat-producing 
devices or appliances shall be installed and maintained in ac- 
cordance with NFPA 54 and NFPA 211. 

11.6 Rubbish Chutes, Incinerators, and Laundry Chutes. 

11.6.1 Enclosure. 

11.6.1.1 Rubbish chutes and laundry chutes shall be sepa- 
rately enclosed by walls or partitions in accordance with the 
provisions of Section 8.3 ofNFPA 101. [/W:9.5.1.1] 

11.6.1.2 Inlet openings serving chutes shall be protected in 
accordance with Section 8.3 ofNFPA 101. [101:9.^.1.2] 

11.6.1.3 The doors of chutes specified in 11.6.1.2 shall open 
only to a room that is designed and used exclusively for access- 
ing the chute opening. [/W:9.5.1.3] 



1 1 .6. 1 .4 The room used for accessing the chute opening shall 
be separated from other spaces in accordance with Section 8.7 
ofNFPA iOi. [iW:9.5.1.4] 

11.6.1.5 The requirements of 11.6.1.1 through 11.6.1.4 shall 
not apply where otherwise permitted by the following: 

(1) Existing installations having properly enclosed service 
chutes and properly installed and maintained service 
openings shall be permitted to have inlets open to a cor- 
ridor or normally occupied space. 

(2) Rubbish chutes and laundry chutes shall be permitted to 
open into rooms not exceeding 400 ft^ (37 m^) that are 
used for storage, provided that the room is protected by 
automatic sprinklers. [i0i:9.5.1.5] 

11.6.2 Installation and Maintenance. Rubbish chutes, laundry 
chutes, and incinerators shall be installed and maintained in 
accordance with NFPA 82, Standard on Incinerators and Waste 
and Linen Handling Systems and Equipment, unless such installa- 
tions are approved existing installations, which shall be per- 
mitted to be continued in service. [/0/:9.5.2] 

11.7 Stationary Generators and Standby Power Systems. 

11.7.1 Stationary Combustion Engines and Gas Turbines In- 
stallation. Stationary generator sets shall be installed in accor- 
dance with NFPA 37, Standard for the Installation and Use of Star 
tionary Combustion Engines and Gas Turbines, and NFPA 70. 

11.7.2 Emergency and Standby Power Systems. 

11.7.2.1 General. Stationary generators for emergency use or 
standby power required by this Code, the building code, or 
other codes and standards shall be installed in accordance 
with NFPAllO, Standard for Emergency and Standby Power Systems. 

11.7.2.2 Acceptance. Newly installed stationary generators for 
emergency use or for standby power for fire protection sys- 
tems and features shall demonstrate the capacity of the energy 
converter, with its controls and accessories, to survive without 
damage from common and abnormal disturbances in actual 
load circuits by any of the following means: 

(1) By tests on separate prototype models 

(2) By acceptance tests on the system components as per- 
formed by the component suppliers 

(3) By listing for emergency service as a completely factory- 
assembled and factory-tested apparatus 

11.7.3 Stored Electrical Energy Emergency and Standby Power 
System Installation. Stored electrical energy systems required 
by this Code, the building code, or other NFPA codes and stan- 
dards shall be installed in accordance with NFPA 111, Standard 
on Stored Electrical Energy Emergency and Standi^ Power Systems, 
and NFPA 70. 

11.7.4 Maintenance and Testing. 

11.7.4.1 Stationaiy generators used for standby power shall 
be tested and maintained in accordance with NFPA 110 and 
NFPA 37. 

11.7.4.2 Stationary generators required by this Code, the 
building code, or other NFPA codes and standards shall be 
maintained in accordance with NFPA 110. 

11.7.4.3 Stored electrical energy systems required by this 
Code, the building code, or other NFPA codes and standards 
shall be maintained in accordance with NFPA 111. 



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11.8* Smoke Control. 

11.8.1 Newly installed smoke-control systems shall be in- 
spected by the AHJ and tested in accordance with the criteria 
established in the approved design documents. 

11.8.2 Smoke-control systems shall have an approved mainte- 
nance and testing program to ensure operational integrity. 

11.8.3 All smoke-control systems and devices shall be main- 
tained in a reliable operating condition and shall be replaced 
or repaired where defective. 

11.8.4 The AHJ shall be notified when any smoke-control sys- 
tem is out of service for more than 4 hours in a 24-hour period 
and again upon restoration of service of such systems. 

11.8.5 The AH} shall be permitted to require the building to be 
evacuated or an approved fire watch to be provided for all por- 
tions left unprotected by the fire protection system shutdown un- 
til the fire protection system has been returned to service. 

11.9 Emergency Command Center. Where required, emer- 
gency command centers shall comply with Section 11.9. 

11.9.1 The location, design, and fire department access of 
the emergency command center shall be approved by the fire 
department. 

11.9.2 The emergency command center shall be separated 
from the remainder of the building by a fire barrier having a 
fire resistance rating of not less than 1 hour. 

11.9.3 The emergency command center room shall be a 
minimum of 96 ft^ (8.9 m^) with a minimum dimension of 8 ft 
(2.4 m). 

11.9.4 The following shall be provided in the emergency 
command center: 

(1) The fire department communication unit 

(2) A telephone for fire department use with controlled ac- 
cess to the public telephone system 

(3) Schematic building plans indicating the typical floor plan 
and detailing the building core means of egress, fire pro- 
tection systems, fire-fighting equipment, and fire depart- 
ment access 

(4) Work table 

11 .9.5 Where otherwise required, the following devices or firnc- 
tions shall be provided within the emergency command center: 

( 1 ) The emergency voice/alarm communication system unit 

(2) Fire detection and alarm system annunciator unit 

(3) Annunciator visually indicating the location of the eleva- 
tors and whether they are operational 

(4) Status indicators and controls for air-handling systems 

(5) Controls for unlocking stairway doors simultaneously 

(6) Sprinkler valve and waterflow detector display panels 

(7) Emergency and standby power status indicators 

(8) Fire pump status indicators 

(9) Generator supervision devices and manual start and 
transfer features 

(10) Public address system, where specifically required by 
other sections of this Code 

(11) Controls required for smoke control 

11.9.6 Emergency Command Center Acceptance Testing. De- 
vices, equipment, components, and sequences shall be indi- 
vidually tested in accordance with appropriate standards and 
manufacturers' documented instructions. 



Chapter 12 Features of Fire Protection 

12.1 General. This chapter shall apply to new, existing, per- 
manent, or temporary buildings. 

12.2 Construction. 

12.2.1* Where required by this Code, a type of building con- 
struction shall comply with NFPA 220, Standard on Types of 
Building Construction. 

12.2.2 Fire safety construction features for new and existing 
occupancies shall comply with this Code and the referenced 
edition of NFPA ;0i. 

12.3 Fire-Resistant Assemblies. 

1 2.3. 1 The design and construction of fire walls and fire barrier 
walls that are required to separate buildings or subdivide a build- 
ing to prevent the spread of fire shall comply with Section 12.3 
and NFPA 221, Standard for Fire Walls and Fire Barrier Walls. 

12.3.2* Maintenance of Fire-Resistive Construction. 

12.3.2.1 Required fire-resistive construction, including fire 
barriers, fire walls, exterior walls due to location on property, 
fire-resistive requirements based on type of construction, 
draft-stop partitions, and roof coverings, shall be maintained 
and shall be properly repaired, restored, or replaced where 
damaged, altered, breached, penetrated, removed, or improp- 
erly installed. 

12.3.2.2 Where required fire-rated gypsum wallboard walls or 
ceilings are damaged to the extent that through openings ex- 
ist, the damaged gypsum wallboard shall be replaced or re- 
turned to the required level of fire resistance using a listed 
repair system or using materials and methods equivalent to 
the original construction. 

12.4 Fire Doors and Windows. 

12.4.1 The installation and maintenance of assemblies and 
devices used to protect openings in walls, floors, and ceilings 
against the spread of fire and smoke within, into, or out of 
buildings shall comply with Section 12.4 and NFPA 80, Stan- 
dard for Fire Doors andFire Windows. [80:1-1.1] 

12.4.2 The fire performance evaluation of these assemblies 
shall be in accordance with NFPA 251, Standard Methods of Tests 
of Fire Endurance of Building Construction and Materials, for hori- 
zontal access doors; NFPA 252, Standard Methods of Fire Tests of 
Door Assemblies, for fire doors and shutters; and NFPA 257, Stan- 
dard on Fire Test for Window and Glass Block Assemblies, for fire 
windows and glass block. [80:1-1.1] 

12.4.3* Section 12.4 shall not apply to incinerator doors, 
record room doors, and vault doors. [80:1-1.2] 

1 2.4.4 For requirements on the installation of hoistway doors 
for elevators and dumbwaiters, see the applicable sections of 
ASME A17.1, Safety Code for Elevators and Escalators, or CAN 
35.B44, Safely Code for Elevators. Requirements for horizontally 
sliding, vertically sliding, and swinging doors as used in this 
Code do not apply to hoistway doors for elevators and dumb- 
waiters. [80:1-1.3] 

12.4.5 Section 12.4 shall not cover fire-resistant glazing materi- 
als and horizontally sliding accordion or folding assemblies fabri- 
cated for use as walls and tested as wall assemblies in accordance 
with NFPA 251. The AHJ shall be consulted for the design and 
installation of such materials and assemblies. [80:1-1.4] 



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12.5 Interior Finish. Interior finish in buildings and struc- 
tures shall meet the requirements of NFPA 101, and this Code. 

12.6 Furnishings, Contents, Decorations, and Treated Fin- 
ishes. Furnishings, contents, decorations, and treated finishes 
in buildings and structures shall meet the requirements of 
NFPA 101, and this Code. 

12.7 Fire Barriers. 

12.7.1 General. Fire barriers used to provide enclosure, sub- 
division, or protection under NFPA 101 and this Code shall be 
classified in accordance with one of the following fire resis- 
tance ratings: 

(1) 3-hour fire resistance rating 

(2) 2-hour fire resistance rating 

(3) 1-hour fire resistance rating 
(4)*V§-hour fire resistance rating [101:8.3.1] 

12.7.2 WaUs. 

12.7.2.1 The fire-resistive materials, assemblies, and systems 
used shall be limited to those permitted in this Code and this 
chapter. [102:8.3.2.1] 

12.7.2.1.1* Fire resistance-rated glazing tested in accordance 
widi NFPA251 shall be permitted. [702:8.3.2.1.1] 

12.7.2.1.2 New fire resistance-rated glazing shall bear the 
identifier "W-XXX" where "XXX" is the fire resistance rating 
in minutes. Such identification shall be permanently affixed. 
[202:8.3.2.1.2] 

12.7.2.2 The construction materials and details for fire- 
resistive assemblies and systems for walls described shall com- 
ply with all other provisions of this Code, except as modified 
herein. [202:8.3.2.2] 

12.7.2.3 Interior walls and partitions of nonsymmetrical con- 
struction shall be evaluated from both directions and assigned 
a fire resistance rating based on the shorter duration obtained 
in accordance with NFPA251; ASTM E 119, Standard Test Meth- 
ods for Fire Tests of Building Construction and Materials; or UL 263, 
Standard for Fire Tests of Building Construction and Materials. 
When the wall is tested with the least fire-resistive side exposed 
to the furnace, the wall shall not be required to be subjected to 
tests from the opposite side. [202:8.3.2.3] 

12.7.3 Fire Doors and Windows. 

12.7.3.1 Openings required to have a fire protection rating 
by Table 12.7.4.2 shall be protected by approved, listed, la- 
beled fire door assemblies and fire window assemblies and 
their accompanying hardware, including all frames, closing 
devices, anchorage, and sills in accordance with the require- 
ments of Section 12.4, except as otherwise specified in this 
Code. [202:8.3.3.1] 

12.7.3.2* Fire protection ratings for products required to 
comply with 12.7.3 shall be as determined and reported by a 
nationally recognized testing agency in accordance with 
NFPA 252; ASTM E 2074, Standard Test Method far Fire Tests of 
Door Assemblies, Including Positive Pressure Testing of Side-Hinged 
and Pivoted Swinging Door Assemblies; UL lOB, Standard for Fire 
Tests of Door Assemblies; or UL IOC, Standard for Positive Pressure 
Fire Tests of Door Assemblies; or NFPA 257; ASTM E 2010, Standard 
Test Method for Positive Pressure Fire Tests of Window Assemblies; or 
UL9, Standard for Fire Tests of Window Assemblies. [202:8.3.3.2] 



12.7.3.2.1 Fire protection-rated glazing shall be evaluated 
under positive pressure in accordance with NFPA 257. 
[202:8.3.3.2.1] 

12.7.3.2.2 All products required to comply with 12.7.3.2 shall 
bear an approved label. [202:8.3.3.2.2] 

12.7.3.3 Unless otherwise specified, fire doors shall be self- 
closing or automatic-closing in accordance with 14.5.4. 
[202:8.3.3.3] 

12.7.3.4 Floor fire door assemblies, shall be tested in accor- 
dance v«th NFPA 288, Standard Methods of Fire Tests of Floor Fire 
Door Assemblies Installed Horizontally in Fire Resistance-Rated Floor 
Systems, and shall achieve a fire resistance rating not less than 
the assembly being penetrated. Floor fire doors assemblies 
shall be listed and labeled. [202:8.3.3.4] 

12.7.3.5 Fire protection-rated glazing shall be permitted in 
fire barriers having a required fire resistance rating of 1 hour 
or less and shall be of an approved type with the appropriate 
fire protection rating for the location in which the barriers are 
installed. [202:8.3.3.5] 

12.7.3.6* Glazing in fire window assemblies, other than in ex- 
isting fire window installations of wired glass and other fire- 
rated glazing material, shall be of a design that has been tested 
to meet the conditions of acceptance of NFPA 257; ASTM E 
2010, Standard Test Method for Positive Pressure Fire Tests of Window 
Assemblies; or UL 9, Standard for Fire Tests of Window Assemblies. 
Fire protection-rated glazing in fire door assemblies, other 
than in existing fire-rated door assemblies, shall be of a design 
that has been tested to meet the conditions of acceptance of 
NFPA 252; ASTM E 2074, Standard Test Method for Fire Tests of 
Door Assemblies, Including Positive Pressure Testing of Side-Hinged 
and Pivoted Swinging Door Assemblies; UL lOB, Standard for Fire 
Tests of Door Assemblies; or UL IOC, Standard for Positive Pressure 
Fire Tests of Door Assemblies. [202:8.3.3.6] 

12.7.3.7 Wired glass of 14 in. (6 mm) in thickness and labeled 
for fire protection purposes shall be permitted to be used in ap- 
proved opening protectives, provided the maximum size speci- 
fied by the listing is not exceeded. Other glazing materials that 
have been tested and labeled to indicate the type of opening to 
be protected for fire protection purposes shall be permitted to be 
used in approved opening protectives in accordance with their 
listing, with the maximum sizes tested. [202:8.3.3.7] 

12.7.3.8 Nonsymmetrical fire protection-rated glazing sys- 
tems shall be tested with each face exposed to the furnace, and 
the assigned fire protection rating shall be that of the shortest 
duration obtained from the two tests conducted in compli- 
ance with NFPA 257; ASTM E 2010, Standard Test Method for 
Positive Pressure Fire Tests of Window Assemblies; or UL 9, Standard 
for Fire Tests of Window Assemblies. [202:8.3.3.8] 

12.7.3.9 The total combined area of glazing in fire-rated win- 
dow assemblies and fire-rated door assemblies used in fire bar- 
riers shall not exceed 25 percent of the area of the fire barrier 
that is common with any room, unless the installation meets 
one of the following criteria: 

(1) The installation is an existing fire window installation of 
wired glass and other fire-rated glazing material in ap- 
proved metal frames. 

(2) The installation is an existing fire window installation of 
wired glass and other fire-rated glazing materials in ap- 
proved frames. 

(3) The fire protection-rated glazing material is installed in 
approved existing frames. [202:8.3.3.9] 



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12.7.3.10 Fire protection-rated glazing shall bear identifica- 
tion as described in 12.V.3.10.1 or 12.7.3.10.2 and shall be per- 
manently affixed. [701:8.3.3.10] 

12.7.3.10.1 Fire protection-rated glazing used in doors shall 
bear a four-part identification in the form of D — H (or NH) 
— T (or NT) — XXX with the component parts defined as 
follows: 

(1) D, which indicates that the glazing is to be used in fire 
door assemblies and that the glazing meets the fire endur- 
ance requirements of the test standard 

(2) H, which indicates that the glazing meets the hose stream 
requirements of the test standard 

(3) NH, which indicates that the glazing does not meet the 
hose stream requirements of the test standard 

(4) T, which indicates that the glazing has a maximum trans- 
mitted temperature endpoint of not more than 450°F 
(250''C) above ambient at the end of 30 minutes of stan- 
dard fire test exposure 

(5) NT, which indicates that the glazing does not have a tem- 
perature rise rating 

(6) XXX, which is the placeholder that specifies the fire pro- 
tection rating period, in minutes [i0i:8. 3. 3.10.1] 

12.7.3.10.2 Fire protecdon-rated glazing used in fire 
resistance-rated walls and partitions shall bear the identifica- 
tion OH-XXX as follows: 

( 1 ) OH indicates that the glazing meets both the fire endurance 
and the hose stream requirements of NFPA 257; ASTM E 
2010, Standard Test Method far Positive Pressure Fire Tests ofWin- 
dmv Assemblies; or UL 9, Standard for Fire Tests of Window Assem- 
blies; and is permitted to be used in openings. 

(2) XXX indicates the fire protection rating period, in min- 
utes, that was tested. [701:8.3.3.10.2] 

12.7.4 Opening Protectives. 

12.7.4.1 Every opening in a fire barrier shall be protected to 
limit the spread of fire and restrict the movement of smoke 
from one side of the fire barrier to the other. [101:8.3.4.1] 

12.7.4.2* The fire protection rating for opening protectives in 
fire barriers, fire-rated smoke barriers, and fire-rated smoke par- 
titions shall be in accordance with Table 12.7.4.2. [101:8.3.4.2] 

12.7.4.3 Existing fire door assemblies having a y4-hour fire 
protection rating shall be permitted to continue to be used in 
vertical openings and in exit enclosures in lieu of the 1-hour 
rating required by Table 12.7.4.2. [101:8.3.4.3] 

12.7.4.4 Where a 20-minute fire protection-rated door is re- 
quired in existing buildings, an existing 1% in. (44 mm) solid- 
bonded wood-core door, an existing steel-clad (tin-clad) wood 
door, or an existing solid-core steel door with positive latch 
and closer shall be permitted, unless otherwise specified by 
Chapter 11 through Chapter 42 of NFPA 101. [101:8.3.4.4] 

12.7.5 Penetrations. The provisions of 12.7.5 shall govern the 
materials and methods of construction used to protect through- 
penetrations and membrane penetrations in fire walls, fire bar- 
rier walls, and fire resistance-rated horizontal assemblies. The 
provisions of 12.7.5 shall not apply to approved existing materials 
and methods of construction used to protect existing through- 
penetrations and existing membrane penetrations in fire walls, 
fire barrier walls, or fire resistance-rated horizontal assemblies, 
unless otherwise required by Chapter 12 through Chapter 42 of 
NFPA 101. [101:8.3.5] 



Table 12.7.4.2 Minimum Fire Protection Ratings for 
Opening Protectives in Fire Resistance-Rated Assemblies 





WaUsand 


Fire Door 


Fire Window 




Partitions 


Assemblies 


Assemblies 


Component 


(hr) 


(hr) 


(hr) 


Elevator hoistways 


2 


IVs 


NP 




1 


1 


NP 


Vertical shafts 


2 


r/s 


NP 


(including 


1 


1 


NP 


stairways, exits, 


1/2 


Vb 


NP 


and refuse 








chutes) 








Fire barriers 


3 


3 


NP 




2 


P/2 


NP 



1/2 



Horizontal exits 

Exit access 
corridors* 

Smoke barriers* 



Smoke 
partitions' 



1/2 



% 



1/s 

11/2 

1/3 
1/3 

1/3 

1/3 



1/3 

NP 

% 

1/3 
% 
1/3 



*.t 



NP: Not permitted. 

* Fire doors are not required to have a hose stream test per NFPA 252; 
ASTM E 2074, Standard Test Method for Fire Tests of Door Assemblies, Includ- 
ing Positive Pressure Testing of Side-Hinged and Pivoted Swinging Door As- 
semblies; UL lOB, Standard for Fire Tests of Door Assemblies; or UL IOC, 
Standard for Positive Pressure Fire Tests of Door Assemblies. 
^ For residential board and care, see 32.2.3.1 and 33.2.3.1 of NFPA 
101. [107:Table 8.3.4.2] 



12.7.5.1* Firestop Systems and Devices Required. Penetra- 
tions for cables, cable trays, conduits, pipes, tubes, combustion 
vents and exhaust vents, wires, and similar items to accommo- 
date electrical, mechanical, plumbing, and communications 
systems that pass through a wall, floor, or floor/ceiling assem- 
bly constructed as a fire barrier shall be protected by a firestop 
system or device. The firestop system or device shall be tested 
in accordance with ASTM E 814, Standard Test Method for Fire 
Tests of Through Penetration Fire Stops, or UL 1479, Standard for 
Fire Tests of Through-Penetration Firestops, at a minimum positive 
pressure differential of 0.01 in. water column (2.5 N/m^) be- 
tween the exposed and the unexposed surface of the test as- 
sembly. [101:8.3.5.1] 

12.7.5.1.1 The requirements of 12.7.5.1 shall not apply where 
otherwise permitted by any one of the following: 

( 1 ) Where penetrations are tested and installed as part of an 
assembly tested and rated in accordance with NFPA 251; 
ASTM E 119, Standard Test Methods for Fire Tests of Building 
Construction and Materials; or UL 263, Standard for Fire Tests 
of Building Construction and Materials 

(2) Where penetrations through floors are enclosed in a shaft 
enclosure designed as a fire barrier 

(3) Where concrete, grout, or mortar has been used to fill the 
annular spaces around cast-iron, copper, or steel piping 
that penetrates one or more concrete or masonry fire 



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resistance-rated assemblies and both of the following cri- 
teria are also met: 

(a) The nominal diameter of each penetrating item shall 
not exceed 6 in. (1 50 mm) , and the opening size shall 
not exceed 1 ft^ (0.09 m^). 

(b) The thickness of the concrete, grout, or mortar shall 
be the full thickness of the assembly. 

(4) Where firestopping materials are used with the penetrat- 
ing items in 12.7.5.1.1(1) through 12.7.5.1.1(3) and both 
of the following criteria are also met: 

(a) The penetration shall be limited to only one floor. 

(b) The firestopping material shall be capable of prevent- 
ing the passage of flame and hot gases sufficient to 
ignite cotton waste when subjected to the time- 
temperature fire conditions of NFPA 251, ASTM E 
119, or UL 263 under a minimum positive pressure 
difierential of 0.01 in. water column (2.5 N/m^) at 
the location of the penetration for the time period 
equivalent to the required fire resistance rating of the 
assembly penetrated. [101:8.3.5. 1.1] 

12.7.5.1.2 The maximum nominal diameter of the following 
penetrating items shall be not greater than 4 in. (100 mm), 
and the aggregate area of all penetrating items shall not ex- 
ceed 0.7 ft^(0.06 m^) in any 100 ft^ (9.3 m^) of floor or wall 



(1) Steel, ferrous, or copper cables 

(2) Cable or wire with steel jackets 

(3) Cast-iron, steel, or copper pipes 

(4) Steel conduit or tubing [101:8.3.5.1.2] 

12.7.5.1.3 Firestop systems and devices shall have an F rating 
of at least 1 hour, but not less than the required fire-resistive 
rating of the fire barrier penetrated. [/W:8.3.5.1.3] 

12.7.5.1.4 Penetrations in fire-rated horizontal assemblies 
shall be required to have a T rating of at least 1 hour, but not 
less than the rating of the horizontal assembly, and shall not 
be required for the following: 

(1) Floor penetrations contained within the cavity of a wall 
assembly 

(2) Penetrations through floors or floor assemblies where the 
penetration is not in direct contact with combustible ma- 
terial [i0/:8.3.5.1.4] 

12.7.5.2 Sleeves. Where the penetrating item uses a sleeve to 
penetrate the wall or floor, the sleeve shall be securely set in 
the wall or floor, and the space between the item and the 
sleeve shall be filled with a material that complies with 
12.7.5.1. [/0/:8,3.5.2] 

12.7.5.3 Insulation and Coverings. Insulation and coverings 
for penetrating items shall not pass through the wall or floor 
unless the insulation or covering has been tested as part of the 
firestop system or device. [101:8.3.5.3] 

12.7.5.4 Transmission of Mbrations. Where designs take trans- 
mission of vibrations into consideration, any vibration isolation 
shall meet one of the following conditions: 

(1 ) It shall be provided on either side of the wall or floor. 

(2) It shjdl be designed for the specific purpose. [702:8.3.5.4] 

12.7.5.5 Transitions. 

12.7.5.5.1 Where piping penetrates a fire resistance-rated 
wall or floor assembly, combustible piping shall not connect to 



noncombustible piping within 36 in. (915 mm) of the firestop 
system or device without demonstration that the transition will 
not reduce the fire resistance rating, except in the case of 
previously approved installations. [/Oi:8.3.5.5.1] 

12.7.5.5.2 Unshielded couplings shall not be used to connect 
noncombustible piping to combustible piping unless it can be 
demonstrated that the transition complies with the fire- 
resistive requirements of 12.7.5.1. [707:8.3.5.5.2] 

12.7.5.6 Membrane Penetrations. 

12.7.5.6.1 Membrane penetrations for cables, cable trays, 
conduits, pipes, tubes, combustion vents and exhaust vents, 
wires, and similar items to accommodate electrical, mechani- 
cal, plumbing, and communications systems that pass through 
a membrane of a wall, floor, or floor/ceiling assembly con- 
structed as a fire barrier shall be protected by a firestop system 
or device and shall comply with 12.7.5.1 through 12.7.5.5.2. 
[707:8.3.5.6.1] 

12.7.5.6.2 The firestop system or device shall be tested in 
accordance with ASTM E 814, Standard Test Method for Fire Tests 
of Through Penetration Fire Stops, or UL 1479, Standard for Fire 
Tests of Through-Penetration Firestops, at a minimum positive 
pressure differential of 0.01 in. water column (2.5 N/m^) be- 
tween the exposed and the unexposed surface of the test as- 
sembly, unless one of the following applies: 

(1) Membrane penetrations of ceilings that are not an inte- 
gral part of a fire resistance-rated floor/ceiling or roof/ 
ceiling assembly shall be permitted. 

(2) Membrane penetrations of steel, ferrous, or copper con- 
duits, pipes, tubes, or combustion vents or exhaust vents 
shall be permitted where the annular space is protected 
vrith an approved material, and the aggregate area of the 
openings does not exceed 0.7 ft^ (0.06 m^) in any 100 ft^ 
(9.3 m^) of ceiling area. 

(3) Electrical outlet boxes and fittings shall be permitted, pro- 
vided that such devices are listed for use in fire resistance- 
rated assemblies and are installed in accordance with their 
listing. 

(4) The annular space created by the membrane penetration of 
a fire sprinkler shall be permitted, provided that the space is 
covered by a metal escutcheon plate. [707:8.3.5.6.2] 

12.7.5.6.3 Where walls or partitions are required to have a 
fire resistance rating of not less than 1 hour, recessed fixtures 
shall be installed in the wall or partition in such a manner that 
the required fire resistance is not reduced, unless one of the 
following is met: 

(1) Any steel electrical box not exceeding 0.1 ft^ (0.01 m^) shall 
be permitted where the aggregate area of the openings pro- 
vided for the boxes does not exceed 0.7 ft^ (0.06 m^) in any 
100 ft^ (9.3 m^) of wall area, and, where outlet boxes are 
installed on opposite sides of the wall, the boxes shall be 
separated by one of the following: 

(a) Horizontal distance of not less than 24 in. (610 mm) 

(b) Horizontal distance of not less than the depth of the 
wall cavity, where the vrall cavity is filled with cellulose 
loose-fill, rock wool, or slag wool insulation 

(c)*Solid fireblocking 

(d) Other listed materials and methods 



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UNIFORM FIRE CODE 



(2) Membrane penetrations for any listed electrical outlet 
box made of any material shall be permitted, provided 
that such boxes have been tested for use in fire resistance- 
rated assemblies and are installed in accordance with the 
instructions included in the listing. 

(3) The annular space created by the membrane penetration of 
a fire sprinkler shall be permitted, provided that the space is 
covered by a metal escutcheon plate. [/W:8. 3.5.6.3] 

12.7.5.7 Openings for Air-Handling Ductwork. Openings in 
fire barriers for air-handling ductwork or air movement shall be 
protected in accordance with 9.2.1 of NFPA 101. [101:83.5.7] 

12.7.5.8 Joints. 

12.7.5.8.1 The provisions of 12. V. 5. 8 shall govern the materi- 
als and methods of construction used to protect joints in be- 
tween and at the perimeter of fire barriers or, where fire bar- 
riers meet other fire barriers, the floor or roof deck above, or 
the outside walls. The provisions of 12.7.5.8 shall not apply to 
approved existing materials and methods of construction used 
to protect existing joints in fire barriers, unless otherwise re- 
quired by Chapters 12 through 42 of NFPA 101. [iW:8.3.6.1] 

12.7.5.8.2 Joints made within or at the perimeter of fire bar- 
riers shall be protected with a joint system that is capable of 
limiting the transfer of smoke. [i0i:8.3.6.2] 

12.7.5.8.3 Joints made within or between fire barriers shall be 
protected with a smoke-tight joint system that is capable of 
limiting the transfer of smoke. [7W:8.3.6.3] 

12.7.5.8.4 Testing of the joint system in a fire barrier shall be 
representative of the actual installation suitable for the re- 
quired engineering demand without compromising the fire 
resistance rating of the assembly or the structural integrity of 
the assembly 1101:8.3.6.4] 

12.7.5.8.5 Joints made within or between fire resistance- 
rated assemblies shall be protected with a joint system that is 
designed and tested to prevent the spread of fire for a time 
period equal to that of the assembly in which the joint is lo- 
cated. Such materials, systems, or devices shall be tested as 
part of the assembly in accordance with the requirements of 
ASTM E 1966, Standard Test Method for Fire-Resistive Joint Systems, 
or UL 2079, Standard for Tests for Fire Resistance of Building Joint 
Systems. [20/:8.3.6.5] 

12.7.5.8.6 All joint systems shall be tested at their maximum 
joint width in accordance with the requirements of ASTM E 
1966, Standard Test Method for Fire-Resistive Joint Systems, or UL 
2079, under a minimum positive pressure differential of 
0.01 in. water column (2.5 N/m^) for a time period equal to 
that of the assembly. All test specimens shall comply with the 
minimum height or length required by the standard. Wall as- 
semblies shall be subjected to a hose stream test in accordance 
witii NFPA 251, ASTM E 119, or UL 263. [i0i:8.3.6.6] 

12.8 Smoke Partitions. 

12.8.1* General. Where required elsewhere in this Code, 
smoke partitions shall be provided to limit the transfer of 
smoke. [10jr:8.4.1] 

12.8.2 Continuity. The following shall apply to smoke parti- 
tions: 

(1) They shall extend from the floor to the underside of the 
floor or roof deck above, through any concealed spaces, 
such as those above suspended ceilings, and through in- 
terstitial structural and mechanical spaces. 



(2)*They shall be permitted to extend from the floor to the 
underside of a monolithic or suspended ceiling system 
where the following conditions are met: 

(a) The ceiling system forms a continuous membrane. 

(b) A smoke-tight joint is provided between the top of the 
smoke partition and the bottom of the suspended 
ceiUng. 

(c) The space above the ceiling is not used as a plenum. 
(3) Smoke partitions enclosing hazardous areas shall be per- 
mitted to terminate at the underside of a monolithic or 
suspended ceiling system where the following conditions 
are met: 

(a) The ceiling system forms a continuous membrane. 

(b) Asmoke-Ught joint is provided between the top of the 
smoke partition and the bottom of the suspended 
ceiling, 

(c) Where the space above the ceiling is used as a ple- 
num, return grilles from the hazardous area into the 
plenums are not permitted. [101:8.4^.2] 

12.8.3 Opening Protectives. 

12.8.3.1 Doors in smoke partitions shall comply with 12.8.3.2 
through 12.8.3.5. [101:8.4.3.1] 

12.8.3.2 Doors shall comply with the provisions of 12.8.3.2. 
[/0/:8.4.3.2] 

12.8.3.3 Doors shall not include louvers. [i02:8.4.3.3] 

12.8.3.4* Door clearances shall be in accordance with 12.4.1. 
[101:8.4.3.4] 

12.8.3.5 Doors shall be self-closing or automatic-closing in 
accordance with 14.5.4. [/0/:8.4.3.5] 

12.8.4 Penetrations. The provisions of 12.8.4 shall govern the 
materials and methods of construction used to protect 
through-penetrations and membrane penetrations of smoke 
partitions. [702:8.4.4] 

12.8.4.1 Penetrations for cables, cable trays, conduits, pipes, 
tubes, vents, wires, and similar items to accommodate electri- 
cal, mechanical, plumbing, and communications systems that 
pass through a smoke partition shall be protected by a system 
or material that is capable of limiting the transfer of smoke. 
[/0I:8.4.4.1] 

12.8.4.2 Where designs take transmission of vibrations into 
consideration, any vibration isolation shall meet one of the 
following conditions: 

(1) It shall be provided on either side of the smoke partition. 

(2) It shall be designed for the specific purpose. [/0i:8.4.4.2] 

12.8.5 Joints. 

12.8.5.1 The provisions of 12.8.5 shall govern the materials 
and methods of construction used to protect joints in between 
and at the perimeter of smoke partitions or, where smoke par- 
titions meet other smoke partitions, the floor or roof deck 
above, or the outside walls. The provisions of 12.8.5 shall not 
apply to approved existing materials and methods of construc- 
tion used to protect existing joints in smoke partitions, unless 
otherwise required by Chapter 12 through Chapter 42 of 
NFPA iOi. [/01:8.4.5.1] 

12.8.5.2 Joints made within or at the perimeter of smoke par- 
titions shall be protected with a joint system that is capable of 
limiting the transfer of smoke. [i0/:8.4.5.2] 



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12.8.6 Air-Transfer Openings. 

12.8.6.1 General. The provisions of 12.8.6 shall govern the 
materials and methods of construction used to protect air- 
transfer openings in smoke partitions. [202:8.4.6.1] 

12.8.6.2* Smoke Dampers. Air-transfer openings in smoke 
partitions shall be provided with approved smoke dampers 
designed and tested in accordance with the requirements of 
UL 555S, Standard far Smoke Dampers, to limit the transfer of 
smoke. [202:8.4,6.2] 

12.8.6.3 Smoke Damper Ratings. Smoke damper leakage rat- 
ings shall be not less than Class II. Elevated temperature rat- 
ings shall be not less than 250°r (140°C). [202:8.4.6.3] 

12.8.6.4 Smoke Detectors. Dampers in air-transfer openings 
shall close upon detection of smoke by approved smoke detec- 
tors installed in accordance with NFPA 72, National Fire Alarm 
Code. [202:8.4.6.4] 

12.9 Smoke Barriers. 

12.9.1* General. Where required by Chapter 12 through Chap 
ter 42 of NFPA 101, smoke barriers shall be provided to subdivide 
building spaces for the purpose of restricting the movement of 
smoke. [202:8.5.1] 

12.9.2* Continuity. 

12.9.2.1 Smoke barriers required by this Code shall be con- 
tinuous from an outside wall to an outside wall, from a floor to 
a floor, or from a smoke barrier to a smoke barrier, or by use of 
a combination thereof [202:8.5.2.1] 

12.9.2.2 Smoke barriers shall be continuous through all con- 
cealed spaces, such as those found above a ceiling, including 
interstitial spaces. [202:8.5.2.2] 

12.9.2.3 A smoke barrier required for an occupied space be- 
low an interstitial space shall not be required to extend 
through the interstitial space, provided that the construction 
assembly forming the bottom of the interstitial space provides 
resistance to the passage of smoke equal to that provided by 
the smoke barrier. [202:8.5.2.3] 

12.9.3 Fire Barrier Used as Smoke Barrier. Afire barrier shall 
be permitted to be used as a smoke barrier, provided that it 
meets the requirements of 12.9. [202:8.5.3] 

12.9.4 Opening Protectives. 

12.9.4.1* Doors in smoke barriers shall close the opening leav- 
ing only the minimum clearance necessary for proper operation 
and shall be without undercuts, louvers, or grilles. [202:8.5.4.1] 

12.9.4.2 Where required by Chapter 12 through Chapter 42 
of NFPA 101, doors in smoke barriers shall comply with the 
requirements of 8.2.2.5 of NFPA 101. [202:8.5.4.2] 

12.9.4.3 Latching hardware shall not be required on doors in 
smoke barriers where permitted by Chapter 12 through Chap- 
ter 42 of NFPA 101. [202:8.5.4.3] 

12.9.4.4* Doors in smoke barriers shall be self-closing or 
automatic-closing in accordance with 14.5.4 and shall comply 
with the provisions of 12.7.3. [202:8.5.4.4] 

12.9.4.5 Fire window assemblies shall comply with 8.3.3 of 
NFPA 202. [202:8.5.4.5] 

12.9.5 Ducts and Air-Transfer Openings. 

12.9.5.1 General. The provisions of 12.9.5 shall govern the 
materials and methods of construction used to protect ducts 
and air-transfer openings in smoke barriers. [202:8.5.5.1] 



12.9.5.2 Smoke Dampers. Where a smoke barrier is pen- 
etrated by a duct or air-transfer opening, a smoke damper 
designed and tested in accordance with the requirements of 
UL 555S shall be installed. Where a smoke barrier is also con- 
structed as a fire barrier, a combination fire/smoke damper 
designed and tested in accordance with the requirements of 
UL 555 and UL 555S shall be installed. [202:8.5.5.2] 

12.9.5.3 Smoke Damper Exemptions. Smoke dampers shall 
not be required under any of the following conditions: 

(1) Where specifically exempted by provisions in Chapter 12 
through Chapter 42 of NFPA 101 

(2) Where ducts or air-transfer openings are part of an engi- 
neered smoke control system 

(3) Where the air in ducts continues to move and the air- 
handling system installed is arranged to prevent recir- 
culation of exhaust or return air under fire emergency 
conditions 

(4) Where the air inlet or outlet openings in ducts are limited 
to a single smoke compartment 

(5) Where ducts penetrate floors that serve as smoke barriers 
[202:8.5.5.3] 

12.9.5.4 Installation. 

12.9.5.4.1 Air-conditioning, heating, ventilating ductwork, 
and related equipment, including smoke dampers and combi- 
nation fire and smoke dampers, shall be installed in accor- 
dance with NFPA 90A, Standard for the Installation of Air- 
Conditioning and Ventilating Systems. [202:8.5.5.4.1] 

12.9.5.4.2 The equipment specified in 12.9.5.4.1 shall be in- 
stalled in accordance with the requirements of 12.9.5, the 
manufacturer's installation instructions, and the equipment 
listing. [202:8.5.5.4.2] 

12.9.5.5 Access and Identification. Access to the dampers 
shall be provided for inspection, testing, and maintenance. 
The access openings shall not reduce the fire resistance rating 
of the fire barrier assembly. [202:8.5.5.5] 

12.9.5.6 Smoke Damper Ratings. Smoke damper leakage rat- 
ings shall be not less than Class II. Elevated temperature rat- 
ings shall be not less than 250°F (140°C). [202:8.5.5.6] 

12.9.5.7 Smoke Detectors. 

12.9.5.7.1 Required smoke dampers in ducts penetrating 
smoke barriers shall close upon detection of smoke by ap- 
proved smoke detectors in accordance with NFPA 72, unless 
one of the following conditions exists: 

(1) The ducts penetrate smoke barriers above the smoke bar- 
rier doors, and the door release detector actuates the 
damper. 

(2) Approved smoke detector installations are located within 
the ducts in existing installations. [202:8.5.5.7.1] 

12.9.5.7.2 Where a duct is provided on one side of the smoke 
barrier, the smoke detectors on the duct side shall be in accor- 
dance with 12.9.5.7.1. [202:8.5.5.7.2] 

12.9.5.7.3 Required smoke dampers in air-transfer openings 
shall close upon detection of smoke by approved smoke detec- 
tors in accordance with NFPA 72. [202:8.5.5.7.3] 

12.9.6 Penetrations. 

12.9.6.1 The provisions of 12.9.6 shall govern the materials and 
methods of construction used to protect through-penetrations 
and membrane penetrations of smoke barriers. [202:8.5.6.1] 



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12.9.6.2 Penetrations for cables, cable trays, conduits, pipes, 
tubes, vents, wires, and similar items to accommodate electri- 
cal, mechanical, plumbing, and communications systems that 
pass through a wall, floor, or floor/ceiling assembly con- 
structed as a smoke barrier, or through the ceiling membrane 
of the roof/ceiling of a smoke barrier assembly, shall be pro- 
tected by a system or material capable of restricting the trans- 
fer of smoke. [101:8.5.6.2] 

12.9.6.3 Where a smoke barrier is also constructed as a fire 
barrier, the penetrations shall be protected in accordance 
with the requirements of Section 12.8 to limit the spread of 
fire for a time period equal to the fire resistance rating of the 
assembly and 12.9.6 to restrict the transfer of smoke, unless 
the requirements of 12.9.6.4 are met. [i<?i:8.5.6.3] 

12.9.6.4 Where sprinklers penetrate a single membrane of a 
fire resistance-rated assembly in buildings equipped through- 
out with an approved automatic fire sprinkler system, non- 
combustible escutcheon plates shall be permitted, provided 
that the space around each sprinkler penetration does not 
exceed Va in. (13 mm), measured between the edge of the 
membrane and the sprinkler. [i0i:8.5.6.4] 

12.9.6.5 Where the penetrating item uses a sleeve to pen- 
etrate the smoke barrier, the sleeve shall be securely set in the 
smoke barrier, and the space between the item and the sleeve 
shall be filled with a material capable of restricting the transfer 
of smoke. [i0/:8.5.6.5] 

12.9.6.6 Where designs take transmission of vibrations into 
consideration, any vibration isolation shall meet one of the 
following conditions: 

(1) It shall be provided on either side of the fire barrier. 

(2) It shall be designed for the specific purpose. [70/:8.5.6.6] 

12.9.7 Joints. 

12.9.7.1 The provisions of 12.9.7 shall govern the materials and 
methods of construction used to protect joints in between and at 
the perimeter of smoke barriers or, where smoke barriers meet 
other smoke barriers, the floor or roof deck above, or the outside 
walls. The provisions of 12.9.7 shall not apply to approved exist- 
ing materials and methods of construction used to protect exist- 
ing joints in smoke barriers, unless otherwise required by Chap- 
ter 12 through Chapter 42 of NFPA 101. [101:8.5.'7.l] 

12.9.7.2 Joints made within or at the perimeter of smoke bar- 
riers shall be protected with a joint system that is capable of 
limiting the transfer of smoke. [207:8.5.7.2] 

12.9.7.3 Joints made within or between smoke barriers shall 
be protected with a smoke-tight joint system that is capable of 
limiting the transfer of smoke. [iW:8.5.7.3] 

12.9.7.4 Smoke barriers that are also constructed as fire bar- 
riers shall be protected with a joint system that is designed and 
tested to resist the spread of fire for a time period equal to the 
required fire resistance rating of the assembly and restrict the 
transfer of smoke. [iW:8.5.7.4] 

12.9.7.5 Testing of the joint system in a smoke barrier that 
also serves as fire barrier shall be representative of the actual 
installation suitable for the required engineering demand 
without compromising the fire resistance rating of the assem- 
bly or the structural integrity of the assembly. [207:8.5.7.5] 



Chapter 13 Fire Protection Systems 

13.1 General. 

13.1.1 The AHJ shall have the authority to require that con- 
struction documents for all fire protection systems be submit- 
ted for review and approval and a permit be issued prior to the 
installation, rehabilitation, or modification. (For additionalin- 
formation concerning construction documents, see Section 1.14.) Fur- 
ther, the AHJ shall have the authority to require that full ac- 
ceptance tests of the systems be performed in the AHJ's 
presence prior to final system certification. 

13.1.1.1 Permits. Permits, where required, shall comply with 
Section 1.12. 

13.1.2 The property owner shall be responsible for the proper 
testing and maintenance of the equipment and systems. 

13.1.3 Obstructions shall not be placed or kept near fire hy- 
drants, fire department inlet connections, or fire protection 
system control valves in a manner that would prevent such 
equipment or fire hydrants from being immediately visible 
and accessible. 

13.1.4 Aminimum clear space shall be maintained to permit 
access to and operation of fire protection equipment, fire de- 
partment inlet connections, or fire protection system control 
valves, as approved by the AHJ. The fire department shall not 
be deterred or hindered from gaining immediate access to 
fire protection equipment. 

13.1.5 Detailed records documenting all systems and equip- 
ment testing and maintenance shall be kept by the property 
owner and shall be made available upon request for review by 
the AHJ. 

13.1.6 Existing systems shall be in accordance with 1.3.6.2 
and 10.3.2. 

13.1.7 All fire protection systems and devices shall be main- 
tained in a reliable operating condition and shall be replaced 
or repaired where defective. 

13.1.8 The AHJ shall be notified when any fire protection 
system is out of service and on restoration of service. 

13.1.9 When a fire protection system is out of service for 
more than 4 hours in a 24-hour period, the AHJ shall be per- 
mitted to require the building to be evacuated or an approved 
fire watch to be provided for all portions left unprotected by 
the fire protection system shutdown until the fire protection 
system has been returned to service. 

13.1.10 In the event of a failure of a fire protection system or 
an excessive number of accidental activations, the AHJ shall be 
permitted to require an approved fire watch until the system is 
repaired. 

13.1.11* For occupancies of an especially hazardous nature or 
where special hazards exist in addition to the normal hazard 
of the occupancy, or where access for fire apparatus is unduly 
difficult, or where the size or configuration of the building or 
contents limits normal fire suppression efforts, the AHJ shall 
have the authority to require additional safeguards consisting 
of additional fire safety equipment, more than one type of fire 
safety equipment, or special systems suitable for the protec- 
tion of the hazard involved. 



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13.2 Standpipe Systems. 

13.2.1 General. The design and installation of standpipe sys- 
tems shall be in accordance with Section 13.2 and NFPA 14, 
Standard for the Installation of Standpipe and Hose Systems. 

13.2.2 Where Required. 

13.2.2.1 Where required by this Code or the referenced codes 
and standards listed in Chapter 2, standpipe systems shall be 
installed in accordance with 13.2.1. 

13.2.2.2 New buildings shall be equipped with a Class I stand- 
pipe system installed in accordance with the provisions of Sec- 
tion 13.2 where any of the following conditions exist: 

(1) More than three stories above grade 

(2) More than 50 ft (15 m) above grade and containing inter- 
mediate stories or balconies 

(3) More than one story below grade 

(4) More than 20 ft (6.1 m) below grade 

1 3.2.2.3 High-rise buildings shall be protected throughout by 
a Class I standpipe system in accordance with Section 13.2.2. 
[/W:11.8.2.2] 

13.2.2.4* In new assembly occupancies, regular stages over 
1000 ft^ (93 m^) in area and all legitimate stages shall be 
equipped with VA in. (38 mm) hose lines for first aid fire 
fighting at each side of the stage. [702:12.4.5.12.1] 

13.2.2.4.1 In existing assembly occupancies, stages over 
1000 ft^ (93 m^) in area shall be equipped with VA in. 
(38 mm) hose lines for first aid fire fighting at each side of the 
stage. [/W:13.4.5.12.1] 

13.2.2.4.2 Hose connections shall be in accordance with 
NFPA 13, Standard far the Installation of Sprinkler Systems, unless 
Class II or Class III standpipes in accordance with NFPA 14 are 
used. [/W:12.4.5.I2.2; 207:13.4.5.12.2] 

13.2.2.5 New and Existing Detention and Correctional Facili- 
ties. Standpipe and hose systems shall be provided in accor- 
dance with 9.7.4.2 of NFPA 101 as follows, unless otherwise 
permitted by 13.2.2.5.1: 

(1) Class I standpipe systems shall be provided for any build- 
ing over two stories in height. 

(2) Class III standpipe and hose systems shall be provided for 
all nonsprinklered buildings over two stories in height. 
[202:22.3.5.5; 202:23.3.5.5] 

13.2.2.5.1 The requirements of 13.2.2.5 shall not apply where 
otherwise permitted by the following: 

(1) Formed hose, 1 in. (25 mm) in diameter, on hose reels 
shall be permitted to provide Class II service. 

(2) Separate Class I and Class II systems shall be permitted in 
lieu of a Class III system. [707:22.3.5.6; 707:23.3.5.6 ] 

13.2.3 Inspection, Testing, and Maintenance. 

13.2.3.1 A standpipe system installed in accordance with this 
Code shall be properly maintained to provide at least the same 
level of performance and protection as designed. 

13.2.3.2 The ovmer shall be responsible for maintaining the 
standpipe system and keeping it in good working condition. 

13.2.3.3 A standpipe system installed in accordance with this 
Code shall be inspected, tested, and maintained in accordance 
with NFPA 25, Standard for the Inspection, Testing, and Mainte- 
nance of Water-Based Fire Protection Systems. 



13.2.3.4 Existing Systems. Where an existing standpipe sys- 
tem, including yard piping and fire department connection, is 
modified, the new piping shall be tested in accordance with 
11.4.1 of NFPA 14. [14:11.4.7] 

13.3 Automatic Sprinklers. 

13.3.1 General. 

13.3.1.1* Automatic sprinklers shall be installed and maintained 
in full operating condition in the occupancies specified in this 
Code or in the codes or standards referenced in Chapter 2. 

13.3.1.2 Installations shall be in accordance with NFPA 13, 
Standard for the Installation of Sprinkler Systems; NFPA 13R, Stan- 
dard for the Installation of Sprinkler Systems in Residential Occupan- 
cies up to and Including Four Stories in Height, or NFPA 1 3D, Stan- 
dard for the Installation of Sprinkler Systems in One- and Two-Family 
Dwellings and Manufactured Homes, as appropriate. 

13.3.1.3 Existing systems shall be in accordance with 1.3.6.2 
and 10.3.2. 

13.3.1.4 Sprinkler piping serving not more than six sprin- 
klers for any isolated hazardous area shall be permitted to be 
connected directiy to a domestic water supply system having a 
capacity sufficient to provide 0.15 gpm/ft (6.1 mm/min) 
throughout the entire enclosed area. An indicating shutofl^ 
valve, supervised in accordance withl3.3.1.7 or NFPA 13, shall 
be installed in an accessible, visible location between the 
sprinklers and the connection to the domestic water supply. 
[707:9.7.1.2] 

13.3.1.5* In areas protected by automatic sprinklers, auto- 
matic heat-detection devices required by other sections of this 
Co^fe shall not be required. [707:9.7.1.3] 

13.3.1.6 Automatic sprinkler systems installed to make use of 
an alternative permitted by this Code shall be considered re- 
quired systems and shall meet the provisions of this Code that 
apply to required systems. [707:9.7.1.4] 

13.3.1.7 Supervision. 

13.3.1.7.1* Supervisory Signals. Where supervised automatic 
sprinkler systems are required by another section of this Code, 
supervisory attachments shall be installed and monitored for 
integrity in accordance with NFPA 72, and a distinctive super- 
visory signal shall be provided to indicate a condition that 
would impair the satisfactory operation of the sprinkler sys- 
tem. System components and parameters that shall be moni- 
tored shall include, but shall not be limited to, control valves, 
fire pump power supplies and running conditions, water tank 
levels and temperatures, tank pressure, and air pressure on 
dry-pipe valves. Supervisory signals shall sound and shall be 
displayed either at a location vrithin the protected building 
that is constantiy attended by qualified personnel or at an ap- 
proved, remotely located receiving facility. [707:9.7.2.1] 

13.3.1.7.2 Alarm Signal Transmission. Where supervision of 
automatic sprinkler systems is provided in accordance with 
another provision of this Code, waterflow alarms shall be trans- 
mitted to an approved, proprietary alarm-receiving facility, a 
remote station, a central station, or the fire department. Such 
connection shall be in accordance with 13.7.1.4. [707:9.7.2.2] 

13.3.1.8 The following practices shall be observed to pro- 
vide sprinklers of other than ordinary-temperature classifi- 
cation unless other temperatures are determined or unless 



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high-temperature sprinklers are used throughout and tem- 
perature selection shall be in accordance with Table 
13.3.1.8(a), Table 13.3.1.8(b), and Figure 13.3.1.8: 

(1) Sprinklers in the high-temperature zone shall be of the 
high-temperature classification, and sprinklers in the 
intermediate-temperature zone shall be of the 
intermediate-temperature classification. 

(2) Sprinklers located within 12 in. (305 mm) to one side or 
30 in. (762 mm) above an uncovered steam main, heating 
coil, or radiator shall be of the intermediate-temperature 
classification. 

(3) Sprinklers within 7 ft (2.1 m) of a low-pressure blowoff 
valve that discharges free in a large room shall be of the 
high-temperature classification. 

(4) Sprinklers under glass or plastic skylights exposed to the 
direct rays of the sun shall be of the intermediate- 
temperature classification. 

(5) Sprinklers in an unventilated, concealed space, under an 
uninsulated roof, or in an unventilated attic shall be of 
the intermediate-temperature classification. 

(6) Sprinklers in unventilated show windows having high- 
powered electric lights near the ceiling shall be of the 
intermediate-temperature classification . 

(7) Sprinklers protecting commercial-type cooking equip- 
ment and ventilation systems shall be of the high- or extra 
high-temperature classification as determined by use of a 
temperature-measuring device. (See 7.9.6 of NFPA 13.) 

(8) Sprinklers protecting residential areas installed near specific 
heat sources identified in Table 13.3.1.8(c) shall be installed 
in accordance with Table 13.3.1.8(c). [13:8.3.2.5] 

13.3.2 Where Required. 

13.3.2.1 Where required by this Codeor the referenced codes 
and standards listed in Chapter 2, automatic sprinkler systems 
shall be installed in accordance with 13.3.1. 

13.3.2.2 Basements exceeding 2500 ft^ (232 m^) in new 
buildings shall be protected throughout by an approved auto- 
matic sprinkler system. 

13.3.2.3 New buildings housing emergency fire, rescue, or 
ambulance services shall be protected throughout by ap- 
proved automatic sprinkler systems. 

13.3.2.4* Exterior Roofs and Canopies. In buildings pro- 
tected by automatic sprinklers, automatic sprinkler protection 
shall be provided for the exterior spaces in accordance with 
13.3.2.4. 

13.3.2.4.1* Unless the requirements of 13.3.2.4.2 or 13.3.2.4.3 
are met, sprinklers shall be installed under exterior roof or 
canopies exceeding 4 ft (1.2 m) in width. [13:8.14.7.1] 

13.3.2.4.2 Sprinklers shall be permitted to be omitted where 
the canopy or roof is of noncombustible or limited combus- 
tible construction. [13:8.14.7.2] 

13.3.2.4.3 Sprinklers shall be permitted to be omitted from 
exterior exit corridors when the exterior walls of the corridor 
are at least 50 percent open and when the corridor is entirely 
of noncombustible construction. [13:8.14.7.3] 

13.3.2.4.4* Sprinklers shall be installed under roofs or cano- 
pies over areas where combustibles are stored or handled. 

[13:8.14.7.4] 



B = 0.5774 X A 

c=^.^547xA 




SI units: 1 in. = 25.4 mm; 1 ft = 0.31 m. 

FIGURE 13.3.1.8 HCIgh-Temperature and Intermediate- 
Temperature Zones at Unit Heaters. [13:Figure 8.3.2.5] 



13.3.2.5 New Assembly Occupancies. 

13.3.2.5.1 The following assembly occupancies shall be pro- 
tected throughout by an approved, supervised automatic 
sprinkler system in accordance with NFPA 13: 

( 1 ) Bars with live entertainment 

(2) Dance halls 

(3) Discotheques 

(4) Nightclubs 

(5) Assembly occupancies with festival seating [/Oi:12. 3.5.1] 

13.3.2.5.2 Buildings containing assembly occupancies with 
occupant loads of more than 300 shall be protected by an 
approved, supervised automatic sprinkler system in accor- 
dance with Section 13.3 of this Code as follows (see also 12.1.6, 
12.2.6, 12.3.2, and 12.3.6 of NFPA 101): 

(1) Throughout the story containing the assembly occupancy 

(2) Throughout all stories below the story containing the as- 
sembly occupancy 

(3) In the case of an assembly occupancy located below the 
level of exit discharge, throughout all stories intervening 
between that story and the level of exit discharge, includ- 
ing the level of exit discharge [70i:12.3.5.2] 

13.3.2.5.3 The requirements of 13.3.2.5.2 shall not apply to 
the following: 

(l)*Assembly occupancies consisting of a single multipurpose 
room of less than 12,000 ft^ (1115 m^) that are not used for 
exhibition or display and are not part of a mixed occupancy 



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Table 13.3.1.8(a) Temperature Ratings of Sprinklers Based on Distance from Heat Sources 



Type of Heat Condition 



Ordinary Degree Rating 



Intermediate Degree Rating 



High Degree Rating 



(1) Heating ducts 

(a) Above 

(b) Side and below 

(c) Diffuser 



More than 2 ft 6 in. 
More than 1 ft in. 
Any distance except as shown 

under Intermediate Degree 

Rating column 



(2) Unit heater 

(a) Horizontal discharge 



(b) Vertical downward 
discharge (for sprinklers 
below unit heater, see 
Figure 13.3.1.8) 

(3) Steam mains (uncovered) 

(a) Above 

(b) Side and below 

(c) BlowofF valve 



More than 2 ft 6 in. 
More than 1 ft in. 
More than 7 ft in. 



2 ft 6 in. or less 
1 ft in. or less 
Downward discharge: Cylinder 

with 1 ft in. radius from 

edge extending 1 ft in. 

below and 2 ft 6 in. above 
Horizontal discharge: 

Semicylinder with 2 ft 6 in. 

radius in direction of flow 

extending 1 ft in. below 

and 2 ft 6 in. above 

Discharge side: 7 ft in. to 20 ft 
in. radius pie-shaped 
cylinder (seeFigure 13.3.1.8) 
extending 7 ft in. above 
and 2 ft in. below heater; 
also 7 ft in. radius cylinder 
more than 7 ft in. above 
unit heater 

7 ft in. radius cylinder 
extending upward from an 
elevation 7 ft in. above unit 
heater 



7 ft in. radius cylinder 
extending 7 ft in. above 
and 2 ft in. below unit 
heater 



7 ft in. radius cylinder 
extending from the top of 
the unit heater to an 
elevation 7 ft in. above unit 
heater 



2 ft 6 in. or less 
1 ft in. or less 



7 ft in. or less 



For SI units, 1 in. = 25.4 mm; 1 ft = 0.3048 m. 
[13:Table 8.3.2.5(a)] 



Table 13.3.1.8(b) Ratings of Sprinklers in Specified Locations 



Location 



Ordinary Degree Rating 



Intermediate Degree Rating 



High Degree Rating 



Skylights 

Attics Ventilated 

Peaked roof: metal or thin Ventilated 

boards, concealed or not 

concealed, insulated or 

uninsulated 
Flat roof: metal, not concealed Ventilated or unventilated 



Flat roof: metal, concealed, Ventilated 

insulated or uninsulated 
Show windows Ventilated 



Glass or plastic 

Unventilated 

Unventilated 



Note: For uninsulated roof, 
climate and insulated or 
uninsulated occupancy 
can necessitate 
intermediate sprinklers. 
Check on job. 

Unventilated 

Unventilated 



Note: A check of job condition by means of thermometers might be necessary. 
[13:Table 8.3.2.5(b)] 



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UNIFORM FIRE CODE 



Table 13.3.1.8(c) Ratings of Sprinklers in Specified Residential Areas 





Minimum Distance from 


Minimum Distance from Edge 




Edg, 


e of Source to 




of Source to 




Ordinary-Temperattire 


Intermediate-Temperature 






Sprinkler 




Sprinkler 




Heat Source 


in. 


mm 


in. 




mm 


Side of open or recessed 


36 


914 


12 




305 


fireplace 












Front of recessed fireplace 


60 


1524 


36 




914 


Coal- or wood-burning stove 


42 


1067 


12 




305 


Kitchen range 


18 


457 


9 




229 


Wall oven 


18 


457 


9 




229 


Hot air flues 


18 


457 


9 




229 


Uninsulated heat ducts 


18 


457 


9 




229 


Uninsulated hot water pipes 


12 


305 


6 




152 


Side of ceiling- or 


24 


607 


12 




305 


wall-mounted hot air 












diffusers 












Front of wall-mounted hot 


36 


914 


18 




457 


air diffusers 












Hot water heater or furnace 


6 


152 


3 




76 


Light fixture: 












W-250 W 


6 


152 


3 




76 


250 W-499 W 


12 


305 


6 




152 



[13:Table 8.3.2.5(c)] 



(2) Gymnasiums, skating rinks, and swimming pools used ex- 
clusively for participant sports with no audience facilities 
for more than 300 persons 
Locations in stadia and arenas as follows: 



(3) 



(a) 



(b) 
(c) 



(4) 



Over the floor area used for contest, performance, or 
entertainment 
Over the seating areas 

Over open-air concourses where an approved engi- 
neering analysis substantiates the ineffectiveness of 
the sprinkler protection due to building height and 
combustible loading 
Locations in unenclosed stadia and arenas as follows: 

(a) Press boxes of less than 1000 ft^ (93 m^) 

(b) Storage facilities of less than 1000 ft^ (93 m^) if en- 
closed with not less than 1-hour fire resistance-rated 
construction 

(c) Enclosed areas underneath grandstands that comply 
with 25.3.4 [iW:12.3.5.3] 

13.3.2.5.4 Where another provision of Chapter 12 of NFPA 101 
requires an automatic sprinkler system, the sprinkler system shall 
be installed in accordance with NFPA 13. [i0/:12.3.5.4] 

13.3.2.5.5 Fire Protection. Every stage shall be protected by 
an approved, supervised automatic sprinkler system in compli- 
ance with Section 13.3. [101:12.4.5.10] 

13.3.2.5.5.1 Protection shall be provided throughout the stage 
and in storerooms, workshops, permanent dressing rooms, and 
other accessory spaces contiguous to stages. [/0/:12.4.5,10.1] 

13.3.2.5.5.2 Sprinklers shall not be required for stages 
1000 ft^ (93 m ) or less in area and 50 ft (15 m) or less in 
height where the following criteria are met: 



(1) Curtains, scenery, or other combustible hangings are not 
retractable vertically. 

(2) Combustible hangings are Umited to borders, legs, a single 
main curtain, and a single backdrop. [/W:12.4.5.10.2] 

13.3.2.5.5.3 Sprinklers shall not be required under stage ar- 
eas less than 48 in. (1220 mm) in clear height that are used 
exclusively for chair or table storage and lined on the inside 
with % in. (16 mm) Type X gypsum wallboard or the approved 
equivalent. [/0/:12.4.5.10.3] 

13.3.2.6 Existing Assembly Occupancies. 

13.3.2.6.1 Where the occupant load exceeds 100, the follow- 
ing assembly occupancies shall be protected throughout by an 
approved, supervised automatic sprinkler system in accor- 
dance with NFPA 13: 

( 1 ) Bars with live entertainment 

(2) Dance halls 

(3) Discotheques 

(4) Nightclubs 

(5) Assembly occupancies with festival seating [702:13.3.5.1] 

13.3.2.6.2 Any assembly occupancy used or capable of being 
used for exhibition or display purposes shall be protected 
throughout by an approved automatic sprinkler system in ac- 
cordance with Section 13.3 where the exhibition or display 
area exceeds 15,000 ft^ (1400 m"^). [202:13.3.5.2] 

13.3.2.6.3 The sprinUers specified by 13.3.2.6.2 shall not be 
required where otherwise permitted in the following locations: 

( 1 ) Locations in stadia and arenas as follows: 

(a) Over the floor area used for contest, performance, or 
entertainment 



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(b) Over the seating areas 

(c) Over open-air concourses where an approved engi- 
neering analysis substantiates the ineffectiveness of 
the sprinkler protection due to building height and 
combustible loading 

(2) Locations in unenclosed stadia and arenas as follows: 

(a) Press boxes of less than 1000 ft^ (93 m^) 

(b) Storage facilities of less than 1000 ft^ (93 m^) if en- 
closed with not less than 1-hour fire resistance-rated 
construction 

(c) Enclosed areas underneath grandstands that comply 
with 25.3.4 [iW:13.3.5.3] 

13.3.2.6.4 Where another provision of this chapter and 
Chapter 13 of NFPA 101 requires an automatic sprinkler sys- 
tem, the sprinkler system shall be installed in accordance with 
NFPA 13. [/W:13.3.5.4] 

13.3.2.6.5 Fire Protection. Every stage shall be protected by 
an approved automatic sprinkler system in compliance with 
Section 13.3. [701:13.4.5.10] 

13.3.2.6.5.1 Protection shall be provided throughout the 
stage and in storerooms, workshops, permanent dressing 
rooms, and other accessory spaces contiguous to such stages. 
[/W:13.4.5.10.1] 

13.3.2.6.5.2 Sprinklers shall not be required for stages 
1000 ft^ (93 m") or less in area where the following criteria are 
met: 

(1) Curtains, scenery, or other combustible hangings are not 
retractable vertically. 

(2) Combustible hangings are limited to borders, legs, a single 
main curtain, and a single backdrop. [201:13.4.5.10.2] 

13.3.2.6.5.3 Sprinklers shall not be required under stage ar- 
eas less than 48 in. (1220 mm) in clear height that are used 
exclusively for chair or table storage and lined on the inside 
with % in. (16 mm) Type X gypsum wallboard or the approved 
equivalent. [/W:13. 4.5.10.3] 

13.3.2.7 New Educational Occupancies. 

13.3.2.7.1 Every portion of educational buildings below the 
level of exit discharge shall be protected throughout by an 
approved, supervised automatic sprinkler system in accor- 
dance with Section 13.3. [/0i:14.3.5.1] 

13.3.2.7.2 Buildings with unprotected openings in accor- 
dance with 8.6.6 of NFPA 101 shall be protected throughout by 
an approved, supervised automatic sprinkler system in accor- 
dance with Section 13.3. [iW:14.3.5.4] 

13.3.2.7.3 Where another provision of Chapter 14 of NFPA 101 
requires an automatic sprinkler system, the sprinkler system shall 
be installed in accordance with NFPA 13. [iOi:14.3.5.5] 

13.3.2.8 Existing Educational Occupancies. 

13.3.2.8.1 Where student occupancy exists below the level of 
exit discharge, every portion of such floor shall be protected 
throughout by an approved automatic sprinkler system in ac- 
cordance with Section 13.3. [jr0/:15.3.5.1] 

13.3.2.8.2 Where student occupancy does not exist on floors 
below the level of exit discharge, such floors shall be separated 
from the rest of the building by 1-hour fire resistance-rated 
construction or shall be protected throughout by an approved 
automatic sprinkler system in accordance with Section 13.3. 
[101:153.5.2] 



13.3.2.8.3 Automatic sprinkler protection shall not be re- 
quired where student occupancy exists below the level of exit 
discharge, provided that both of the follov«ng criteria are met: 

(1) The approval of the AHJ shall be required. 

(2) Wmdows for rescue and ventilation shall be provided in 
accordance with 15.2.11.1 ofNFPAiOi. [/Oi:15.3.5.3] 

13.3.2.8.4 Buildings with unprotected openings in accor- 
dance with 8.6.6 of NFPA 101 shall be protected throughout by 
an approved, supervised automatic sprinkler system in accor- 
dance with Section 13.3. [iW:15.3.5.4] 

13.3.2.8.5 \\Tiere another provision of Chapter 15 of NFPA 101 
requires an automatic sprinkler system, the sprinkler system shall 
be installed in accordance wid:i NFPA 13. [102:15.3.5.5] 

13.3.2.9 New Health Care Occupancies. 

13.3.2.9.1* Buildings containing health care occupancies 
shall be protected throughout by an approved, supervised au- 
tomatic sprinkler system in accordance with Section 13.3, un- 
less otherwise permitted by 13.3.2.9.3. [101:18.3.5.1] 

13.3.2.9.2 The sprinkler system required by 13.3.2.9.1 shall 
be installed in accordance with NFPA 13. [101:18.3.5.3] 

13.3.2.9.3 In Type 1 and Type II construction, alternative pro- 
tection measures shall be permitted to be substituted for sprin- 
kler protection, without causing a building to be classified as 
nonsprinklered, in specified areas where the AHJ has prohib- 
ited sprinklers. [101:18.3.5.4] 

13.3.2.9.4* Listed quick-response or listed residential sprin- 
klers shall be used throughout smoke compartments contain- 
ing patient sleeping rooms. [101:18.3.5.5] 

13.3.2.9.5* Sprinklers in areas where cubicle curtains are in- 
stalled shall be in accordance with NFPA 13. [101:18.3.5.9] 

13.3.2.10 Existing Health Care Occupancies. 

13.3.2.10.1 Buildings containing nursing homes shall be pro- 
tected throughout by an approved, supervised automatic 
sprinkler system in accordance with Section 13.3 and Section 
9.7 of NFPA 101, unless otherwise permitted by 13.3.2.10.4. 
[101:19.3.5.1] 

13.3.2.10.2 Where required by 19.1.6 of NFPA 101, buildings 
containing hospitals or limited care faciUties shall be pro- 
tected throughout by an approved, supervised automatic 
sprinkler system in accordance with Section 13.3 and Section 
9.7 of NFPA 101, unless otherwise permitted by 13.3.2.10.4. 
[101:19.3.5.2] 

13.3.2.10.3* The sprinkler system required by 13.3.2.10.1 or 
13.3.2.10.2 shall be installed in accordance with NFPA 13. 
[101:19.3.5.3] 

13.3.2.10.4 In Type 1 and Type 11 construction, alternative 
protection measures shall be permitted to be substituted for 
sprinkler protection, without causing a building to be classi- 
fied as nonsprinklered, in specified areas where the AHJ has 
prohibited sprinklers. [101:19.3.5.4] 

13.3.2.10.5* Where this Code permits exceptions for fully 
sprinklered buildings or smoke compartments, the sprinkler 
system shall meet the following criteria: 

(1) It shall be in accordance with Section 13.3. 

(2) It shall be installed in accordance with NFPA 13, unless it 
is an approved existing system. 



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UNIFORM FIRE CODE 



(3) It shall be electrically connected to the fire alarm system. 

(4) It shall be fully supervised. 

(5) In Type I and Type II construction, where the AHJ has 
prohibited sprinklers, approved alternative protection 
measures shall be permitted to be substituted for sprin- 
kler protection in specified areas without causing a build- 
ing to be classified as nonsprinklered. [/Oi:19.3.5.6] 

13.3.2.10.6* Where this Code permits exceptions for fully 
sprinklered buildings or smoke compartments and specifically 
references this paragraph, the sprinkler system shall meet the 
following criteria: 

(1) It shall be installed throughout the building or smoke 
compartment in accordance with Section 13.3. 

(2) It shall be installed in accordance with NFPA 13, unless it 
is an approved existing system. 

(3) It shall be electrically connected to the fire alarm system. 

(4) It shall be fully supervised. 

(5) It shall be equipped with listed quick-response or listed 
residential sprinklers throughout all smoke compart- 
ments containing patient sleeping rooms. 

(6) Standard-response sprinklers shall be permitted to be 
continued to be used in approved existing sprinkler sys- 
tems where quick-response and residential sprinklers 
were not listed for use in such locations at the time of 
installation. 

(7) Standard-response sprinklers shall be permitted for use in 
hazardous areas protected in accordance with 19.3.2.1 of 
NFPA iOi. [iW:19.3.5.7] 

13.3.2.10.7 Isolated hazardous areas shall be permitted to be 
protected in accordance with 13.3.1.4. For new installations in 
existing health care occupancies, where more than two sprin- 
klers are installed in a single area, waterflow detection shall be 
provided to sound the building fire alarm or to notify, by a 
signal, any constantly attended location, such as PBX, security, 
or emergency room, at which the necessary corrective action 
shall be taken. [/0/:19.3.5.8] 

13.3.2.10.8* Newly introduced cubicle curtains in sprin- 
klered areas shall be installed in accordance with NFPA 13. 
[207:19.3.5.9] 

13.3.2.11 New Detention and Correctional Facilities. 

13.3.2.11.1 All buildings classified as Use Condition 11, Use 
Condition 111, Use Condition IV, or Use Condition V shall be 
protected throughout by an approved, supervised automatic 
sprinkler system in accordance with 13.3.2.11.2. [202:22.3.5.2] 

13.3.2.11.2 The automatic sprinkler system required by 

13.3.2.11.1 shall be as follows: 

(1) In accordance with Section 13.3 

(2) Installed in accordance with NFPA 13 

(3) Electrically connected to the fire alarm system 

(4) Fully supervised [202:22.3.5.3] 

13.3.2.12 Existing Detention and Correctional Facilities. 

13.3.2.12.1* Where required by Table 23.1.6.5 of NFPA 101, fa- 
cilities shall be protected throughout by an approved, supervised 
automatic sprinkler system in accordance with 13.3.2.12.2. 
[202:23.3.5.2] 

13.3.2.12.2 Where this Ckide permits exceptions for fully sprin- 
klered detention and correctional occupancies or sprinklered 
smoke compartments, the sprinkler system shall be as follows: 

(1) In accordance with Section 13.3 



(2) Installed in accordance with NFPA 13 

(3) Electrically connected to the fire alarm system 

(4) Fully supervised [202:23.3.5.3] 

13.3.2.13 New Hotels and Dormitories. 

13.3.2.13.1 All buildings, other than those complying with 

13.3.2.13.2, shall be protected throughout by an approved, 
supervised automatic sprinkler system in accordance with 

13.3.2.13.3. [202:28.3.5.1] 

13.3.2.13.2 Automatic sprinkler protection shall not be re- 
quired in buildings where all guest sleeping rooms or guest 
suites have a door opening directly to either of the following: 

(1) Outside at the street or grade level 

(2) Exterior exit access arranged in accordance with 7.5.3 of 
NFPA 101 in buildings up to and including three stories in 
height above grade [202:28.3.5.2] 

13.3.2.13.3 Where an automatic sprinkler system is installed, 
either for total or partial building coverage, the system shall be 
in accordance with Section 13.3, as modified by 13.3.2.13.4; in 
buildings up to and including four stories in height above 
grade, systems in accordance with NFPA 13R shall be permit- 
ted. [202:28.3.5.3] 

13.3.2.13.4 The provisions for draft stops and closely spaced 
sprinklers in NFPA 13 shall not be required for openings com- 
plying with 8.6.8.2 of NFPA 101 where the opening is within 
the guest room or guest suite. [202:28.3.5.4] 

13.3.2.13.5 Listed quick-response or listed residential sprin- 
klers shall be used throughout guest rooms and guest room 
suites. [202:28.3.5.6] 

13.3.2.13.6 Open parking structures that corhply with 
NFPA 88A, Standard far Parking Structures, and are contiguous 
with hotels or dormitories shall be exempt from the sprinkler 
requirements of 13.3.2.13.1. [202:28.3.5.7] 

13.3.2.14 Existing Hotels and Dormitories. 

13.3.2.14.1 All high-rise buildings, other than those where 
each guest room or guest suite has exterior exit access in ac- 
cordance with 7.5.3 of NFPA 101, shall be protected through- 
out by an approved, supervised automatic sprinkler system in 
accordance with 13.3.2.14.2. [202:29.3.5.1] 

13.3.2.14.2* Where an automatic sprinkler system is installed, 
either for total or partial building coverage, the system shall be 
in accordance with Section 13.3, as modified by 13.3.2.14.3 
and 13.3.2.14.4; in buildings up to and including four stories 
in height above grade, systems in accordance vrith NFPA 13R 
shall be permitted. [202:29.3.5.3] 

13.3.2.14.3 The provisions for draft stops and closely spaced 
sprinklers in NFPA 13 shall not be required for openings com- 
plying with 8.6.8.2 of NFPA 101 where the opening is vrithin 
the guest room or guest suite. [202:29.3.5.4] 

13.3.2.14.4 In guest rooms and in guest room suites, sprinkler 
installations shall not be required in closets not exceeding 24 ft^ 
(2.2 m^) and in bathrooms not exceeding 55 ft^ (5.1 m^). 
[202:29.3.5.5] 

13.3.2.15 New Apartment Buildings. 

13.3.2.15.1 All buildings, other than those complying with 
13.3.2.15.2, shall be protected throughout by an approved, 
supervised automatic sprinkler system installed in accordance 
witii 13.3.2.15.3. [202:30.3.5.1] 



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13.3.2.15.2 Sprinkler systems shall not be required in build- 
ings where every dwelling unit provides one of the following: 

(1) An exit door opening directly to the street or yard at 
ground level 

(2) Direct access to an outside stair that complies with 7.2.2 of 
NFPA 101 and serves a maximum of two units, both lo- 
cated on the same floor 

(3) Direct access to an interior stair serving only that unit and 
separated from all other portions of the building by fire 
barriers having a 1-hour fire resistance rating with no 
openings therein [1W:30.3.5.2] 

13.3.2.15.3 Where an automatic sprinkler system is installed, 
either for total or partial building coverage, the system shall be 
installed in accordance with Section 13.3, as modified by 

13.3.2.15.4 and 13.3.2.15.5. In buildings up to and including 
four stories in height above grade, systems in accordance with 
NFPA 13R shall be permitted. [iW:30.3.5.3] 

13.3.2.15.4 In buildings sprinklered in accordance with 
NFPA 13, closets less than 12 ft^ (1.1 m^) in area in individual 
dwelling units shall not be required to be sprinklered. Closets 
that contain equipment such as washers, dryers, furnaces, or wa- 
ter heaters shall be sprinklered regardless of size. [i0i:30.3.5.4] 

13.3.2.15.5 The draft stop and closely spaced sprinkler re- 
quirements of NFPA 13 shall not be required for convenience 
openings complying with 8.6.8.2 of NFPA 101 where the con- 
venience opening is vrithin the dweUing unit. [/W:30.3.5.5] 

13.3.2.15.6 Listed quick-response or listed residential sprin- 
klers shall be used throughout all dwelling units. [/W:30.3.5.6] 

13.3.2.15.7 Open parking structures complying with NFPA 88A, 
Standard for Parking Structures, that are contiguous vrith apartment 
buildings shall be exempt firom the sprinkler requirements of 
13.3.2.15.1. [707:30.3.5.7] 

13.3.2.15.8 Buildings with unprotected openings in accor- 
dance with 8.6.6 of NFPA 101 shall be protected throughout by 
an approved, supervised automatic sprinkler system in accor- 
dance with 30.3.5 of NFPA 101. [707:30.3.5.8] 

13.3.2.16 Existing Apartment Buildings. 

13.3.2.16.1* Where an automatic sprinkler system is installed, 
either for total or partial building coverage, the system shall be 
installed in accordance with Section 13.3, as miodified by 
13.3.2.16.2 and 13.3.2.16.3. In buildings up to and including 
four stories in height above grade, systems in accordance with 
NFPA 13R shall be permitted. [707:31.3.5.3] 

13.3.2.16.2 In individual dwelling units, sprinkler installation 
shall not be required in closets not exceeding 24 ft^ (2.2 m^) 
and in bathrooms not exceeding 55 ft^ (5.1 m^). Closets that 
contain equipment such as washers, dryers, furnaces, or water 
heaters shall be sprinklered regardless of size. [707:31.3.5.4] 

13.3.2.16.3 The draft stop and closely spaced sprinkler re- 
quirements of NFPA 13 shall not be required for convenience 
openings complying with 8.6.8.2 of NFPA 101 where the con- 
venience opening is within the dwelling unit. [707:31.3.5.5] 

13.3.2.16.4 Buildings using Option 3 shall be provided with 
automatic sprinkler protection installed in accordance with 
13.3.2.16.4.1 through 13.3.2.16.6. [707:31.3.5.9] 

13.3.2.16.4.1 Automatic sprinklers shall be installed in the 
corridor, along the corridor ceiling, utilizing the maximum 



spacing requirements of the standards referenced in 
13.3.2.16.1. [707:31.3.5.9.1] 

13.3.2.16.4.2 An automatic sprinkler shall be installed within 
every dwelling unit that has a door opening to the corridor, with 
such sprinkler positioned over the center of the door, unless the 
door to the dwelling unit has not less than a 20-minute fire pro- 
tection rating and is self-closing. [707:31.3.5.9.2] 

13.3.2.16.4.3 The workmanship and materials of the sprin- 
kler installation specified in 31.3.5.9 shall meet the require- 
ments of Section 9.7 of NFPA 101. [707:31.3.5.9.3] 

13.3.2.16.4.4 Where Option 3 is being used to permit the use of 
1% in. (44 mm) thick, solid-bonded wood core doors in accor- 
dance with 31.2.2.1.3, sprinklers shall be provided within the exit 
enclosures in accordance with NFPA 13. [707:31.3.5.9.4] 

13.3.2.16.5 Buildings using Option 4 shall be protected 
throughout by an approved automatic sprinkler system in ac- 
cordance with 13.3.2.16.1 and meeting the requirements of 
Section 1 3.3 for supervision for buildings more than six stories 
in height. [707:31.3.5.10] 

13.3.2.16.6* Where sprinklers are being used as an option to 
any requirement in this Code, the sprinklers shall be installed 
throughout the space in accordance with the requirements of 
that option. [707:31.3.5.11] 

13.3.2.17 Lodging and Rooming Houses. 

13.3.2.17.1 All new lodging or rooming houses, other than 
those meeting 13.3.2.17.2, shall be protected throughout by 
an approved automatic sprinkler system in accordance with 
13.3.2.17.3. [707:26.3.6.1] 

13.3.2.17.2 An automatic sprinkler system shall not be re- 
quired where every sleeping room has a door opening directly 
to the outside of the building at street or ground level, or has a 
door opening directiy to the outside leading to an exterior 
stairway that meets the requirements of 26.2.1.1.2 of NFPA 
101. [707:26.3.6.2] 

13.3.2.17.3 Where an automatic sprinkler system is required 
or is used as an alternative method of protection, either for 
total or partial building coverage, the system shall be in accor- 
dance vrith Section 13.3 of this Code and 13.3.2.17.3.1 through 
13.3.2.17.3.6. [707:26.3.6.3] 

13.3.2.17.3.1 Activation of the automatic sprinkler system 
shall actuate the fire alarm system in accordance with 13.7. 
[707:26.3.6.3.1] 

13.3.2.17.3.2 Systems in accordance with NFPA 13R shall be 
permitted in buildings up to and including four stories in 
height. [707:26.3.6.3.2] 

13.3.2.17.3.3* Systems in accordance with NFPA 13D shall be 
permitted where the following requirements are met: 

(1) The lodging or rooming house shall not be part of a 
mixed occupancy. 

(2) Entrance foyers shall be sprinklered. 

(3) Lodging or rooming houses with sleeping accommoda- 
tions for more than eight occupants shall be treated as 
two-family dwellings with regard to the vifater supply. 
[707:26.3.6.3.3] 

13.3.2.17.3.4 In buildings sprinklered in accordance with 
NFPA 13, closets less than 12 ft^ (1.1 m^) in area in individual 
dwelling units shall not be required to be sprinklered. 
[707:26.3.6.3.4] 



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13.3.2.17.3.5 In buildings sprinklered in accordance with 
NFPA 13, closets that contain equipment such as washers, dry- 
ers, furnaces, or water heaters shall be sprinklered regardless 
of size. [/0i:26.3.6.3.5] 

13.3.2.17.3.6 In existing lodging or rooming houses, sprinkler 
installations shall not be required in closets not exceeding 24 ft^ 
(2.2 m^) and in bathrooms not exceeding 55 ft^ (5.1 m^). 
[/W:26.3.6.3.6] 

13.3.2.18 One- and Two-Family Dwellings. 

13.3.2.18.1 All new one- and two-family dwellings shall be 
protected throughout by an approved automatic sprinkler sys- 
tem in accordance with 13.3.2.18.2. [/W:24.3.5.1] 

13.3.2.18.2 Where an automatic sprinkler system is installed, 
either for total or partial building coverage, the system shall be 
in accordance with Section 9.7 of NFPA 101; in buildings up to 
and including four stories in height, systems in accordance 
with NFPA 13R and with NFPA 13D shall also be permitted. 
[iO/:24.3.5.2] 

13.3.2.19 New Residential Board and Care Occupancies. 

13.3.2.19.1 Large Facilities. 

13.3.2.19.1.1 General. All buildings shall be protected through- 
out by an approved automatic sprinkler system installed in accor- 
dance with NFPA 13 and provided with quick-response or resi- 
dential sprinklers throughout. [207:32.3.3.5.1] 

13.3.2.19.1.2 Supervision. Automatic sprinkler systems shall 
be provided with electrical supervision in accordance with 
13.3.1.7. [707:32.3.3.5.4] 

13.3.2.19.2 SmaU Facilities. 

13.3.2.19.2.1* All facilities, other than those meeting the re- 
quirement of 13.3.2.19.2.2, shall be protected throughout by 
an approved automatic sprinkler system, installed in accor- 
dance with 13.3.2.19.2.3, using quick-response or residential 
sprinklers. [707:32.2.3.5.1] 

13.3.2.19.2.2* In conversions, sprinklers shall not be required 
in small board and care homes serving eight or fewer residents 
when all occupants have the ability as a group to move reliably 
to a point of safety within 3 minutes. [707:32.2.3.5.2] 

13.3.2.19.2.3 Where an automatic sprinkler system is in- 
stalled, for either total or partial building coverage, the follow- 
ing requirements shall be met: 

(1) The system shall be in accordance with NFPA 13 and 
shall initiate the fire alarm system in accordance with 
13.7.2.15.1.1. 

(2) The adequacy of the water supply shall be documented to 
theAHJ. [707:32.2.3.5.3] 

13.3.2.19.2.3.1 An automatic sprinkler system in accordance 
with NFPA 1 3R shall be permitted in facilities up to and includ- 
ing four stories in height. All habitable areas and closets shall 
be sprinklered. [707:32.2.3.5.3.1] 

13.3.2.19.2.3.2* An automatic sprinkler system with a 30- 
minute water supply, and complying with the following re- 
quirements and with NFPA 13D shall be permitted: 

(1) All habitable areas and closets shall be sprinklered. 

(2) Facilities with more than eight residents shall be 
treated as two-family dwellings with regard to water sup- 
ply. [707:32.2.3.5.3.2] 



13.3.2.19.2.4 Automatic sprinkler systems installed in accor- 
dance witii NFPA 13 and NFPA 13R shall be provided widi electri- 
cal supervision in accordance with 13.3.1.7. [707:32.2.3.5.4] 

13.3.2.19.2.5 Automatic sprinkler systems installed in accor- 
dance with NFPA 13D shall be provided with valve supervision 
by one of the following methods: 

(1) A single listed control valve that shuts oif both domestic 
and sprinkler systems and separate shutoff for the domes- 
tic system only 

(2) Electrical supervision in accordance with 13.3.1.7 

(3) Valve closure that causes the sounding of an audible sig- 
nal in the facility [707:32.2.3.5.5] 

13.3.2.19.2.6 Sprinkler piping serving not more than six 
sprinklers for any isolated hazardous area shall be permitted 
to be installed in accordance with 13.3.1.4 and shall meet the 
following requirements: 

(1) In new installations, where more than two sprinklers are in- 
stalled in a single area, waterflow detection shall be provided 
to initiate the fire alarm system required by 13.7.2.15.1.1. 

(2) The duration of water supplies shall be as required by 
13.3.2.19.2.3.2. [707:32.2.3.5.6] 

13.3.2.20 Existing Residential Board and Care Facilities. 

13.3.2.20.1 Large Facilities. 

13.3.2.20.1.1* General. Where an automatic sprinkler system is 
installed, for either total or partial building coverage, the system 
shall be installed in accordance with Section 13.3, as modified by 
13.3.2.20.1.1.1 tiirough 13.3.2.20.1.1.3. [707:33.3.3.5.1] 

13.3.2.20.1.1.1 In buildings not more than four stories in 
height, a sprinkler system complying with NFPA 13R shall be 
permitted. [707:33.3.3.5.1.1] 

13.3.2.20.1.1.2 Automatic sprinklers shall not be required in 
closets not exceeding 24 ft^ (2.2 m^) and in bathrooms not 
exceeding 55 ft^ (5.1 m^), provided that such spaces are fin- 
ished with lath and plaster or materials with a 15-minute ther- 
mal barrier. [707:33.3.3.5.1.2] 

13.3.2.20.1.1.3 Initiation of the fire alarm system shall not 
be required for existing installations in accordance with 
13.3.2.20.1.5. [707:33.3.3.5.1.3] 

13.3.2.20.1.2 High-Rise Buildings. All high-rise buildings 
shall be protected throughout by an approved, supervised au- 
tomatic sprinkler system in accordance with 13.3.2.20.1, as 
modified by 13.3.2.20.1.3. Such systems shall initiate the fire 
alarm system in accordance with 13.7.1.4. [707:33.3.3.5.2] 

13.3.2.20.1.3 Closets and Bathrooms. Automatic sprinklers 
shall not be required in small clothes closets where the small- 
est dimension does not exceed 36 in. (915 mm) , the area does 
not exceed 24 ft^ (2.2 m^), and the walls and ceiling are fin- 
ished with noncombustible or limited-combustible materials. 
[707:33.3.3.5.3] 

13.3.2.20.1.4 Supervision. Automatic sprinkler systems shall be 
supervised in accordance with Section 13.3; waterflow alarms 
shall not be required to be transmitted off-site. [707:33.3.3.5.4] 

1 3.3.2.20. 1 .5 Domestic Water Supply Option. Sprinkler piping 
serving not more than six sprinklers for any isolated hazardous 
area in accordance with 13.3.1.4 shall be permitted; in new instJil- 
lations where more than two sprinklers are installed in a single 
area, waterflow detection shall be provided to initiate the fire 
alarm system required by 13.7.2.16.2.1. [707:33.3.3.5.5] 



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1-79 



13.3.2.20.2 SmaU FacUities. 

13.3.2.20.2.1 Where an automatic sprinkler system is in- 
stalled, for either total or partial building coverage, the follow- 
ing requirements shall be met: 

(1) The system shall be in accordance with Section 13.3 and 
shall initiate the fire alarm system in accordance with 
13.7.2.16.1.1, as modified by 13.3.2.20.2.1.1 through 
13.3.2.20.2.1.6. 

(2) The adequacy of the water supply shall be documented to 
theAHJ. [/Oi:33.2.3.5.2] 

13.3.2.20.2.1.1* In prompt evacuation capability facilities, the 
following requirements shall be met: 

(1) An automatic sprinkler system in accordance with 
NFPA 13D, shall be permitted. 

(2) Automatic sprinklers shall not be required in closets not 
exceeding 24 ft^ (2.2 m^) and in bathrooms not exceed- 
ing 55 ft^ (5.1 m^) , provided that such spaces are finished 
with lath and plaster or materials providing a 15-minute 
thermal barrier. [iOi:33.2. 3.5.2.1] 

13.3.2.20.2.1.2 In slow and impractical evacuation capability 
facilities, the following requirements shall be met: 

(1) An automatic sprinkler system in accordance with 
NFPA 1 3D, with a 30-minute water supply, shall be permit- 
ted. 

(2) All habitable areas and closets shall be sprinklered. 

(3) Automatic sprinklers shall not be required in bathrooms 
not exceeding 55 ft^ (5.1 m^), provided that such spaces 
are finished with lath and plaster or materials providing a 
15-minute thermal barrier. [iOi:33.2. 3.5.2.2] 

13.3.2.20.2.1.3 In prompt and slow evacuation facilities, 
where an automatic sprinkler system is in accordance with 
NFPA 13, sprinklers shall not be required in closets not ex- 
ceeding 24 ft^ (2.2 m^) and in bathrooms not exceeding 55 ft^ 
(5.1 m ), provided that such spaces are finished with lath and 
plaster or materials providing a 15-minute thermal barrier. 
[207:33.2.3.5.2.3] 

13.3.2.20.2.1.4 In prompt and slow evacuation capability fa- 
cilities up to and including four stories in height, systems in- 
stalled in accordance with NFPA 13R shall be permitted. 
[/0/:33.2.3.5.2.4] 

13.3.2.20.2.1.5 In impractical evacuation capability facilities 
up to and including four stories in height, the following re- 
quirements shall be met: 

(1) Systems installed in accordance with NFPA 13R, shall be 
permitted. 

(2) All habitable areas and closets shall be sprinklered. 

(3) Automatic sprinklers shall not be required in bathrooms 
not exceeding 55 ft^ (5.1 m^), provided that such spaces 
are finished with lath and plaster or materials providing a 
15-minute thermal barrier. [707:33.2.3.5.2.5] 

13.3.2.20.2.1.6 Initiation of the fire alarm system shall not 
be required for existing installations in accordance with 
13.3.2.20.2.2. [707:33.2.3.5.2.6] 

13.3.2.20.2.2 All impractical evacuation capability facilities 
shall be protected throughout by an approved, supervised au- 
tomatic sprinkler system in accordance with 13.3.2.20.2.1. 
[707:33.2.3.5.3] 



13.3.2.20.3 Sprinkler piping serving not more than six sprin- 
klers for any isolated hazardous area shall be permitted to be 
installed in accordance with 13.3.1.4 and shall meet the follow- 
ing requirements: 

(1) In new installations, where more than two sprinklers are in- 
stalled in a single area, waterflow detection shall be provided 
to initiate the fire alarm system required by 13.7.2.16.1.1. 

(2) The duration of water supplies shall be as required for the 
sprinkler systems addressed in 13.3.2.20.2. [707:33.2.3.5.6] 

13.3.2.21 New Mercantile Occupancies. 

13.3.2.21.1 Mercantile occupancies shall be protected by an 
approved automatic sprinkler system in accordance with Sec- 
tion 13.3 as follows: 

(1) Throughout all mercantile occupancies three or more 
stories in height 

(2) Throughout all mercantile occupancies exceeding 
12,000 ft^ (1115 m^) in gross area 

(3) Throughout stories below the level of exit discharge where 
such stories have an area exceeding 2500 ft^ (232 m^) and 
are used for the sale, storage, or handling of combustible 
goods and merchandise 

(4) Throughout multiple occupancies protected as mixed oc- 
cupancies in accordance with Chapter 6 of NFPA 1 UFC 
where the conditions of 13.3.2.21.1(1), (2), or (3) apply 
to the mercantile occupancy [707:36.3.5.1] 

13.3.2.21.2 Automatic sprinkler systems in Class A mercantile 
occupancies shall be supervised in accordance with 13.3.1.7. 
[707:36.3.5.2] 

13.3.2.21.3 Bulk merchandising retail buildings shall be pro- 
tected throughout by an approved, supervised automatic 
sprinkler system in accordance with Section 13.3 and the ap- 
plicable prowsions of the following: 

(1) NFPA 13, Standard for the Installation of Sprinkler Systems 

(2) NFPA 30, Flammable and Combustible Liquids Code 

(3) NFPA 30B, Code for the Manufacture and Storage of Aerosol 
Products 

(4) Chapter 34 [707:36.4.5.5] 

13.3.2.21.4 MaU Biuldings. 

13.3.2.21.4.1 Automatic Extinguishing Systems. 

13.3.2.21.4.1.1 The mall building and all anchor buildings 
shall be protected throughout by an approved, supervised au- 
tomatic sprinkler system in accordance with Section 13.3, 
13.3.1.7, and 13.3.2.21.4.1. 

13.3.2.21.4.1.2 The system shall be installed in such a man- 
ner that any portion of the system serving tenant spaces can be 
taken out of service without affecting the operating of the por- 
tion of the system serving the mall. [5000:27.4.4.7.1.2] 

13.3.2.21.4.2 Hose Connections. 

13.3.2.21.4.2.1 There shall be a hose outlet connected to a 
system sized to deliver 250 gal/min (946 L/min) at the most 
hydraulically remote outiet. [5000:27.4.4.7.2.1] 

13.3.2.21.4.2.2 The outiet shall be supphed from the mall 
zone sprinkler system and shall be hydraulically calculated. 
[5000:27.4.4.7.2.2] 



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13.3.2.21.4.2.3 Hose outlets shall be provided at each of the 
following locations: 

(1) Within the mall at the entrance to each exit passage or 
corridor 

(2) At each floor level landing within enclosed stairways 
opening directly onto the mall 

(3) At exterior public entrances to the mall [5000:27.4.4.7.2.3] 

13.3.2.22 Existing Mercantile Occupancies. 

13.3.2.22.1 Mercantile occupancies, other than single-story 
buildings that meet the requirements of a street floor, as defined 
in 3.3.239 of NFPA 101, shall be protected by an approved auto- 
matic sprinkler system in accordance with NFPA 13 as follows: 

(1) Throughout all mercantile occupancies with a story over 
15,000 ft^ (1400 m^) in area 

(2) Throughout all mercantile occupancies exceeding 
30,000 ft^ (2800 m^) in gross area 

(3) Throughout stories below the level of exit discharge 
where such stories have an area exceeding 2500 ft^ 
(232 m^) and used for the sale, storage, or handling of 
combustible goods and merchandise 

(4) Throughout multiple occupancies protected as mixed oc- 
cupancies in accordance with Chapter 6 of NFPA 1 UFC 
where die conditions of 13.3.2.22.1(1), (2), or (3) apply 
to the mercantile occupancy [/Oi:37. 3.5.1] 

13.3.2.22.2 Bulk merchandising retail buildings shall be pro- 
tected throughout by an approved, supervised automatic 
sprinkler system in accordance with Section 13.3 and the ap- 
plicable provisions of the foUovring: 

( 1 ) NFPA 1 3, Standard for the Installation of Sprinkler Systems 

(2) NFPA 30, Flammable and Combustible Liquids Code 

(3) NFPA SOB, Code for the Manufacture and Storage of Aerosol 
Products 

(4) Chapter 13 [/0/:37.4.5.5] 

13.3.2.23 Undei^round and \Wndowless Structures. Under- 
ground and limited access structures, and all areas and floor 
levels traversed in traveling to the exit discharge, shall be pro- 
tected by an approved, supervised automatic sprinkler system 
in accordance with Section 13.3, unless such structures meet 
one of the following criteria: 

( 1 ) They have an occupant load of 50 or fewer persons in new 
underground or limited access portions of the structure. 

(2) They have an occupant load of 100 or fewer persons in 
existing underground or limited access portions of the 
structure. 

(3) The structure is a single-story underground or limited ac- 
cess structure that is permitted to have a single exit per 
Chapter 12 through Chapter 42 of NFPA 101, with a com- 
mon path of travel not greater than 50 ft (15 m). 
[701:11.7.3.4] 

13.3.2.24 fflgh-Rise Buildings. 

13.3.2.24.1 New high-rise buildings shall be protected 
throughout by an approved automatic sprinkler system in ac- 
cordance with Section 13.3. 

13.3.2.24.2* Existing high-rise buildings shall be protected 
throughout by an approved automatic sprinkler system in ac- 
cordance with this chapter, 13.3.2.24.2.1, and 13.3.2.24.2.3. 



13.3.2.24.2.1 Each building owner shaU, within 180 days of 
receiving notice, file an intent to comply with this regulation 
with the AHJ for approval. 

13.3.2.24.2.2 The AHJ shall review and respond to the intent 
to comply submittal within 60 days of receipt. 

13.3.2.24.2.3* The entire building shall be required to be pro- 
tected by an approved automatic sprinkler system vnthin 
12 years of adoption of this Code. 

13.3.2.25* New Storage Occupancies. 

13.3.2.25.1 High-Piled Storage. An automatic sprinkler sys- 
tem shall be installed throughout all occupancies containing 
areas greater than 2500 ft^ (232 m^) for the high-piled storage 
of combustibles. 

13.3.2.25.2* General Storage. An automatic sprinkler system 
shall be installed throughout all occupancies containing areas 
greater than 12,000 ft'' (1115 m^) for the storage of combustibles. 

13.3.2.25.3 An automatic sprinkler system shall be installed 
throughout all occupancies containing storage commodities 
classified as Group Aplastics in excess of 5 ft (1.5 m) in height 
over an area exceeding 2500 ft^ (232 m^) in area. 

13.3.2.25.4 Mini-Storage Building. An automatic sprinkler sys- 
tem shall be installed throughout all mini-storage buildings 
greater than 2500 ft^ (232 m^). [5000:30.3.5.3] 

13.3.2.25.5 Bulk Storage of Tires. Buildings and structures 
where the volume for the storage of tires exceeds 20,000 ft^ 
(566 m^) shall be equipped throughout with an approved au- 
tomatic fire sprinkler system. [5000:30.3.5.2] 

13.3.2.26 Woodworking Operations. An approved automatic 
fire sprinkler system shall be installed in buildings containing 
woodworking operations exceeding 2500 ft^ (232 m^) that use 
equipment, machinery, or appliances, that generate finely di- 
vided combustible waste, or that use finely divided combus- 
tible materials. [5000:29.3.5.1.2] 

13.3.2.27 New and Existing Day Care. Buildings with unpro- 
tected openings in accordance with 8.6.6 of NFPA 101 shall be 
protected throughout by an approved, supervised automatic 
sprinkler system in accordance with Section 13.3. [iOi:16.3.5.3; 
iOi:17.3.5.3] 

13.3.3 Inspection, Testing, and Maintenance. 

13.3.3.1 A sprinkler system installed in accordance with this 
Code shall be properly maintained to provide at least the same 
level of performance and protection as designed. The owner 
shall be responsible for maintaining the system and keeping it 
in good working condition. 

13.3.3.2 A sprinkler system installed in accordance with this 
Code shall be inspected, tested, and maintained in accordance 
with NFPA 25. 

13.3.3.3 Ceiling Tiles and Ceiling Assemblies. Where auto- 
matic sprinklers are installed, ceilings necessary for the proper 
actuation of the fire protection device in accordance with 
NFPA 13 shall be maintained. 

13.3.3.4 Responsibility of the Owner or Occupant. 

13.3.3.4.1* The owner or occupant shall provide ready acces- 
sibility to components of water-based fire protection systems 
that require inspection, testing, or maintenance. [25:4.1.1] 



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FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEMS 



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13.3.3.4.2* The responsibility for properly maintaining a 
water-based fire protection system shall be that of the owner of 
the property. [25:4.1.2] 

13.3.3.4.2.1 By means of periodic inspections, tests, and 
maintenance, the equipment shall be shown to be in good 
operating condition, or any defects or impairments shall be 
revealed. [25:4.1.2.1] 

13.3.3.4.2.2 Inspection, testing, and maintenance shall be 
implemented in accordance with procedures meeting or ex- 
ceeding those established in this document and in accordance 
with the manufacturer's instructions. [25:4.1.2.2] 

13.3.3.4.2.3 These tasks shall be performed by personnel 
who have developed competence through training and expe- 
rience. [25:4.1.2.3] 

13.3.3.4.2.4 Where the owner is not the occupant, the owner 
shall be permitted to pass on the authority for inspecting, test- 
ing, and maintaining the fire protection systems to the occu- 
pant, management firm, or managing individual through spe- 
cific provisions in the lease, written use agreement, or 
management contract. [25:4.1.2.4] 

13.3.3.4.3 The owner or occupant shall notify the AHJ, the fire 
department, if required, and the alarm-receiving facility before 
testing or shutting down a system or its supply. [25:4.1.3] 

13.3.3.4.3.1 The notification shall include the purpose for 
the shutdown, the system or component involved, and the es- 
timated time of shutdown. [25:4.1.3.1] 

13.3.3.4.3.2 The AHJ, the fire department, and the alarm- 
receiving facility shall be notified when the system, supply, or 
component is returned to service. [25:4.1.3.2] 

13.3.3.4.3.3 Where an occupant, management firm, or man- 
aging individual has received the authority for inspection, test- 
ing, and maintenance in accordance with 13.3.3.4.2.4, the oc- 
cupant, management firm, or managing individual shall 
comply with 13.3.3.4.3. [25:4.1.3.3] 

13.3.3.4.4* The owner or occupant shall promptiy correct or 
repair deficiencies, damaged parts, or impairments found 
while performing the inspection, test, and maintenance re- 
quirements of this Code. [25:4.1.4] 

13.3.3.4.4.1 Corrections and repairs shall be performed by 
qualified maintenance personnel or a qualified contractor. 
[25:4.1.4.1] 

13.3.3.4.4.2 Where an occupant, management firm, or man- 
aging individual has received the authority for inspection, test- 
ing, and maintenance in accordsmce with 13.3.3.4.2.4, the oc- 
cupant, management firm, or managing individual shall 
comply with 13.3.3.4.4. [25:4.1.4.2] 

13.3.3.4.5* The building owner or occupant shall not make 
changes in the occupancy, the use or process, or the materials 
used or stored in the building without evaluation of the fire 
protection systems for their capability to protect the new occu- 
pancy, use, or materials. [25:4.1.5] 

13.3.3.4.5.1 The evaluation shall consider factors that in- 
clude, but are not limited to, the following: 

(1) Occupancy changes such as converting office or produc- 
tion space into warehousing 

(2) Process or material changes such as metal stamping of 
molded plastics 



(3) Building revisions such as relocated walls, added mezza- 
nines, and ceilings added below sprinklers 

(4) Removal of heating systems in spaces with piping subject 
to freezing [25:4.1.5.1] 

13.3.3.4.5.2 Where an occupant, management firm, or man- 
aging individual has received the authority for inspection, test- 
ing, and maintenance in accordance with 13.3.3.4.2.4, the oc- 
cupant, management firm, or managing individual shall 
compfywith 13.3.3.4.5. [25:4.1.5.2] 

13.3.3.4.6 Where changes in the occupancy, hazard, water 
supply, storage commodity, storage arrangement, building 
modification, or other condition that affects the installation 
criteria of the system are identified, the owner or occupant 
shall promptly take steps, such as contacting a qualified con- 
tractor, consultant, or engineer, to evaluate the adequacy of 
the installed system in order to protect the building or hazard 
in question. [25:4.1.6] 

13.3.3.4.6.1 Where the evaluation reveals a deficiency caus- 
ing a threat to life or property, the owner shall make appropri- 
ate corrections. All requirements of the AHJ shall be followed. 
[25:4.1.6.1] 

13.3.3.4.6.2 Where an occupant, management firm, or man- 
aging individual has received the authority for inspection, test- 
ing, and maintenance in accordance with 13.3.3.4.2.4, the oc- 
cupant, management firm, or managing individual shall 
comply witii 13.3.3.4.6. [25:4.1.6.2] 

13.3.3.4.7 Where a water-based fire protection system is re- 
turned to service following an impairment, the system shall be 
verified to be working properly. [25:4.1.7] 

13.3.3.5 Reconls. 

13.3.3.5.1* Records of inspections, tests, and maintenance of 
the system and its components shall be made available to the 
AHJ upon request. [25:4.3.1] 

13.3.3.5.2 Records shall indicate the procedure performed 
(e.g., inspection, test, or maintenance), the organization that 
performed the work, the results, and the date. [25:4.3.2] 

13.3.3.5.3 Records shall be maintained by the owner. [25:4.3.3] 

13.3.3.5.4 Original records shall be retained for the life of 
the system. [25:4.3.4] 

13.3.3.5.5 Subsequent records shall be retained for a period 
of 1 year after the next inspection, test, or maintenance re- 
quired by the standard. [25:4.3.5] 

13.3.3.6 Buildings. Annually, prior to the onset of freezing 
weather, buildings with wet pipe systems shall be inspected to 
verify that windows, skylights, doors, ventilators, other open- 
ings and closures, blind spaces, unused attics, stair towers, roof 
houses, and low spaces under buildings do not expose water- 
fiUed sprinkler piping to freezing and to verify that adequate 
heat [minimum 40°F (4.4°C)] is available. [25:5.2.5] 

13.3.3.7 Spare Sprinklers. 

13.3.3.7.1* Asupply of spare sprinklers (never fewer than six) 
shall be maintained on the premises so that any sprinklers that 
have operated or been damaged in any way can be promptly 
replaced. [25:5.4.1.4] 

13.3.3.7.1.1 The sprinklers shall correspond to the types 
and temperature ratings of the sprinklers in the property. 
[25:5.4.1.4.1] 



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UNIFORM FIRE CODE 



13.3.3.7.1.2 The sprinklers shall be kept in a cabinet located 
where the temperature in which they are subjected will at no 
time exceed 100°F (38°C). [25:5.4.1.4.2] 

13.3.3.7.1.3 Where dry sprinklers of different lengths are in- 
stalled, spare dry sprinklers shall not be required, provided 
that a means of returning the system to service is furnished. 
[25:5.4.1.4.2.1] 

13.3.3.7.2 The stock of spare sprinklers shall include all types 
and ratings installed and shall be as follows: 

(1) For protected facilities having under 300 sprinklers — no 
fewer than 6 sprinklers 

(2) For protected facilities having 300 to 1000 sprinklers — 
no fewer than 12 sprinklers 

(3) For protected faciUties having over 1000 sprinklers — no 
fewer than 24 sprinklers [25:5.4.1.5] 

13.3.3.7.3* A special sprinkler wrench shall be provided and 
kept in the cabinet to be used in the removal and installation 
of sprinklers. One sprinkler wrench shall be provided for each 
type of sprinkler installed. [25:5.4.1.6] 

13.3.3.8 Sprinklers protecting spray coating areas shall be 
protected against overspray residue. [25:5.4.1.7] 

13.3.3.8.1 Sprinklers subject to overspray accumulations 
shall be protected using plastic bags having a maximum thick- 
ness of 0.003 in. (0.076 mm) or shall be protected with small 
paper bags. [25:5.4.1.7.1] 

13.3.3.8.2 Coverings shall be replaced when deposits or resi- 
due accumulate. [25:5.4.1.7.2] 

13.3.3.9* Sprinklers shall not be altered in any respect or have 
any type of ornamentation, paint, or coatings applied after 
shipment from the place of manufacture. [25:5.4.1.8] 

13.3.3.10 Sprinklers and automatic spray nozzles used for 
protecting commercial-type cooking equipment and ventilat- 
ing systems shall be replaced annually. [25:5.4.1.9] 

13.3.3.10.1 Where automadc bulb-type sprinklers or spray 
nozzles are used and annual examination shows no buildup of 
grease or other material on the sprinklers or spray nozzles, 
such sprinklers and spray nozzles shall not be required to be 
replaced. [25:5.4.1.9.1] 

13.3.3.11* Dry Pipe Systems. Dry pipe systems shall be kept 
dry at all times. [25:5.4.2] 

13.3.3.11.1 During nonfreezing weather, a dry pipe system 
shall be permitted to be left wet if the only other option is to 
remove the system from service while waiting for parts or dur- 
ing repair activities. [25:5.4.2.1] 

13.3.3.11.2 Air driers shall be maintained in accordance with 
the manufacturer's instructions. [25:5.4.2.2] 

13.3.3.11.3 Compressors used in conjunction with dry pipe 
sprinkler systems shall be maintained in accordance with the 
manufacturer's instructions. [25:5.4.2.3] 

13.3.3.12* Installation and Acceptance Testing. Where main- 
tenance or repair requires the replacement of sprinkler sys- 
tem components affecting more than 20 sprinklers, those 
components shall be installed and tested in accordance with 
NFPA13. [25:5.4.3] 

13.3.4 Impairments. 

13.3.4.1 General. This subsection and Chapter 14 of NFPA25 
shall provide the minimum requirements for a water-based 



fire protection system impairment program. Measures shall be 
taken during the impairment to ensure that increased risks 
are minimized and the duration of the impairment is limited. 
[25:14.1] 

13.3.4.2 Impairment Coordinator. 

13.3.4.2.1 The building owner shall assign an impairment 
coordinator to comply with the requirements of Chapter 14 of 
NFPA25. [25:14.2.1] 

13.3.4.2.2 In the absence of a specific designee, the owner 
shall be considered the impairment coordinator. [25:14.2.2] 

13.3.4.2.3 Where the lease, written use agreement, or man- 
agement contract specifically grants the authority for inspec- 
tion, testing, and maintenance of the fire protection system (s) 
to the tenant, management firm, or managing individual, the 
tenant, management firm, or managing individual shall assign 
a person as impairment coordinator. [25:14.2.3] 

13.3.4.3 Tag Impairment System. 

13.3.4.3.1* A tag shall be used to indicate that a system, or part 
thereof, has been removed from service. [25:14.3.1] 

13.3.4.3.2* The tag shall be posted at each fire department 
connection and system control valve indicating which system, 
or part thereof, has been removed from service. [25:14.3.2] 

13.3.4.3.3 The AHJ shall specify where the tag is to be placed. 
[25:14.3.3] 

13.3.4.3.4 Impaired Equipment. 

13.3.4.3.4.1 The impaired equipment shall be considered to 
be the water-based fire protection system, or part thereof, that 
is removed from service. [25:14.4.1] 

13.3.4.3.4.2 The impaired equipment shall include, but shall 
not be limited to, the following: 

(1) Sprinkler systems 

(2) Standpipe systems 

(3) Fire hose systems 

(4) Underground fire service mains 

(5) Fire pumps 

(6) Water storage tanks 

(7) Water spray fixed systems 

(8) Foam-water systems 

(9) Fire service control valves [25:14.4.2] 

13.3.4.3.5* Preplanned Impairment Programs. 

13.3.4.3.5.1 All preplanned impairments shall be authorized 
by the impairment coordinator. [25:14.5.1] 

13.3.4.3.5.2 Before authorization is given, the impairment 
coordinator shall be responsible for verifying that the follow- 
ing procedures have been implemented: 

(1) The extent and expected duration of the impairment 
have been determined. 

(2) The areas or buildings involved have been inspected and 
the increased risks determined. 

(3) Recommendations have been submitted to management 
or building owner/manager. Where a required fire pro- 
tection system is out of service for more than 4 hours in a 
24-hour period, the impairment coordinator shall ar- 
range for one of the following: 

(a) Evacuation of the building or portion of the building 
affected by the system out of service 



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FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEMS 



1-83 



(b) *An approved fire watch 
(c)*Establishment of a temporary water supply 
(d)*Establishment and implementation of an approved 
program to eliminate potential ignition sources and 
limit the amount of fuel available to the fire 

(4) The fire department has been notified. 

(5) The insurance carrier, the alarm company, building 
owner/manager, and other AHJs have been notified. 

(6) The supervisors in the areas to be affected have been 
notified. 

(7) A tag impairment system has been implemented. (See 
13.3.4.3.) 

(8) All necessary tools and materials have been assembled on 
the impairment site. [25:14.5.2] 

13.3.4.3.6 Emeigency Impairments. 

13.3.4.3.6.1 Emergency impairments include but are not lim- 
ited to system leakage, interruption of water supply, frozen or 
ruptured piping, and equipment failure. [25:14.6.1] 

13.3.4.3.6.2 When emergency impairments occur, emer- 
gency action shall be taken to minimize potential injury and 
damage. [25:14.6.2] 

13.3.4.3.6.3 The coordinator shall implement the steps out- 
lined in 13.3.4.3.5. [25:14.6.3] 

13.3.4.3.7 Restoring Systems to Service. When all impaired 
equipment is restored to normal working order, the impair- 
ment coordinator shall verify that the following procedures 
have been implemented: 

(1) Any necessary inspections and tests have been conducted 
to verify that affected systems are operational. Subsection 
13.3.4 shall be consulted for guidance on the type of in- 
spection and test required. 

(2) Supervisors have been advised that protection is restored. 

(3) The fire department has been advised that protection is 
restored. 

(4) The building owner/manager, insurance carrier, alarm 
company, and other AHJs have been advised that protec- 
tion is restored. 

(5) The impairment tag has been removed. [25:14.7] 

13.4 Fire Pumps. 
13.4.1 General. 

13.4.1.1 Where provided, fire pumps shall be installed in ac- 
cordance with NFPA 20, Standard for the Installation of Stationary 
Pumps for Fire Protection, and Section 13.4. 

13.4.1.2 Permits. Permits, where required, shall comply with 
Section 1.12. 

13.4.1.3 Retroactivity. The provisions of this section reflect a 
consensus of what is necessary to provide an acceptable de- 
gree of protection from the hazards addressed in this standard 
at the time the section was issued. [20:1.4] 

13.4.1.3.1 Unless otherwise specified, the provisions of this 
section shall not apply to facilities, equipment, structures, or 
installations that existed or were approved for construction or 
installation prior to the effective date of the section. Where 
specified, the provisions of this section shall be retroactive. 
[20:1.4.1] 

13.4.1.3.2 In those cases where the AHJ determines that the 
existing situation presents an unacceptable degree of risk, the 



AHJ shall be permitted to apply retroactively any portion of 
this section deemed appropriate. [20:1.4.2] 

13.4.1.3.3 The retroactive requirements of this section shall 
be permitted to be modified if their application clearly would 
be impractical in the judgment of the AHJ, and only where it is 
clearly evident that a reasonable degree of safety is provided. 
[20:1.4.3] 

13.4.1.4 Other Pumps. 

13.4.1.4.1 Pumps other than those specified in this section 
and having different design features shall be permitted to be 
installed where such pumps are listed by a testing laboratory. 
[20:5.1.2.1] 

13.4.1.4.2 These pumps shall be limited to capacities of less 
tiian 500 gpm (1892 L/min ). [20:5.1.2.2] 

13.4.1.5* Approval Required. 

13.4.1.5.1 Stationary pumps shall be selected based on the 
conditions under which they are to be installed and used. 
[20:5.2.1] 

13.4.1.5.2 The pump manufacturer or its authorized repre- 
sentative shall be given complete information concerning the 
liquid and power supply characteristics. [20:5.2.2] 

13.4.1.5.3 A complete plan and detailed data describing 
pump, driver, controller, power supply, fittings, suction and 
discharge connections, and liquid supply conditions shall be 
prepared for approval. [20:5.2.3] 

13.4.1.5.4 Each pump, driver, controlling equipment, power 
supply and arrangement, and liquid supply shall be approved 
by the authority having jurisdiction for the specific field con- 
ditions encountered. [20:5.2.4] 

13.4.1.6 Pump Operation. In the event of fire pump opera- 
tion, qualified personnel shall respond to the fire pump loca- 
tion to determine that the fire pump is operating in a satisfac- 
tory manner. [20:5.3] 

13.4.2* Equipment Protection. 

13.4.2.1* General Requirements. The fire pump, driver, and 
controller shall be protected against possible interruption of 
service through damage caused by explosion, fire, flood, 
earthquake, rodents, insects, windstorm, freezing, vandalism, 
and other adverse conditions. [20:5.12.1] 

13.4.2.1.1 Indoor Fire Pump Units. Indoor fire pump units 
shall be physically separated or protected by fire-rated con- 
struction in accordance widi Table 13.4.2.1.1. [20:5.12.1.1] 



Table 13.4.2.1.1 Equipment Protection 



Pump 
Room/House 



Building(s) 

Exposing Pump 

Room/House 



Required 
Separation 



Not sprinklered 
Not sprinklered 
Fully sprinklered 



Not sprinklered 
Fully sprinklered 
Not sprinklered 



2 hour fire-rated 

or 

50 ft (15.3 m) 



Fully sprinklered 



1 hour fire-rated 
Fully sprinklered or 

50 ft (15.3 m) 



[20:Table5.12.1.il 



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UNIFORM FIRE CODE 



13.4.2.1.2 Outdoor Fire Pump Units. 

13.4.2.1.2.1 Fire pump units located outdoors shall be lo- 
cated at least 50 ft (15.3 m) away from any exposing building. 
[20:5.12.1.2.1] 

13.4.2.1.2.2 Outdoor installations also shall be required to be 
provided with protection against possible interruption in ac- 
cordance with 13.4.2.1. [20:5.12.1.2.2] 

13.4.2.2 Heat. 

13.4.2.2.1 An approved or listed source of heat shall be pro- 
vided for maintaining the temperature of a pump room or 
pump house, where required, above 40°F {5°C). [20:5.12.2.1] 

13.4.2.2.2 The requirements of 13.4.4.5 shall be followed for 
higher temperature requirements for internal combustion en- 
gines. [20:5.12.2.2] 

13.4.2.3 Normal Lighting. Artificial light shall be provided in 
a pump room or pump house. [20:5.12.3] 

13.4.2.4 Emergency Lighting. 

13.4.2.4.1 Emergency lighting shall be provided by fixed or 
portable battery-operated lights, including flashlights. 
[20:5.12.4.1] 

13.4.2.4.2 Emergency lights shall not be connected to an 
engine-starting battery. [20:5.12.4.2] 

13.4.2.5 Ventilation. Provision shall be made for ventilation of 
a pump room or pump house. [20:5.12.5] 

13.4.2.6* Drain^e. 

13.4.2.6.1 Floors shall be pitched for adequate drainage of 
escaping water away from critical equipment such as the 
pump, driver, controller, and so forth. [20:5.12.6.1] 

13.4.2.6.2 The pump room or pump house shall be prowded 
with a floor drain that will discharge to a frost-free location. 
[20:5.12.6.2] 

13.4.2.7 Guards. Guards shall be provided for flexible cou- 
plings and flexible connecting shafts to prevent rotating ele- 
ments from causing injury to personnel. [20:5.12.7] 

13.4.3* Valve Supervision. 

13.4.3.1 Supervised Open. Where provided, the suction valve, 
discharge valve, bypass valves, and isolation valves on the back- 
flow prevention device or assembly shall be supervised open 
by one of the following methods: 

(1) Central station, proprietary, or remote station signaling 
service 

(2) Local signaling service that will cause the sounding of an 
audible signal at a constantiy attended point 

(3) Locking valves open 

(4) Sealing of valves and approved weekly recorded inspec- 
tion where valves are located within fenced enclosures un- 
der the control of the owner [20:5.16.1] 

13.4.3.2 Supervised Closed. The test outlet control valves 
shall be supervised closed. [20:5.16.2] 

13.4.4* Driver System Operation. 

13.4.4.1 Weekly Run. 

13.4.4.1.1 Engines shall be started no less than once a week 
and run for no less than 30 minutes to attain normal running 
temperature. [20:11.6.1.1] 



13.4.4.1.2 Engines shall run smoothly at rated speed, except 
for engines addressed in 13.4.4.1.3. [20:11.6.1.2] 

13.4.4.1.3 Engines equipped with variable speed pressure 
limiting control shall be permitted to run at reduced speeds 
provided factory-set pressure is maintained and they run 
smootiily. [20:11.6.1.3] 

13.4.4.2* System Performance. Engines shall be kept clean, 
dry, and well lubricated to ensure adequate performance. 
[20:11.6.2] 

13.4.4.3 Battery Maintenance. 

13.4.4.3.1 Storage batteries shall be kept charged at all times. 
[20:11.6.3.1] 

13.4.4.3.2 Storage batteries shall be tested frequently to de- 
termine the condition of the battery cells and the amount of 
charge in the battery. [20:11.6.3.2] 

13.4.4.3.3 Only distilled water shall be used in battery cells. 
[20:11.6.3.3] 

13.4.4.3.4 Battery plates shall be kept submerged at all times. 
[20:11.6.3.4] 

13.4.4.3.5 The automatic feature of a battery charger shall 
not be a substitute for proper maintenance of battery and 
charger. [20:11.6.3.5] 

13.4.4.3.6 Periodic inspection of both battery and charger 
shall be made. [20:11.6.3.6] 

13.4.4.3.7 This inspection shall determine that the charger is 
operating correctly, the water level in the battery is correct, 
and the battery is holding its proper charge. [20:11.6.3.7] 

13.4.4.4* Fuel Supply Maintenance. 

13.4.4.4.1 The fuel storage tanks shall be kept as full as pos- 
sible at all times, but never less than 50 percent of tank capac- 
ity. [20:11.6.4.1] 

13.4.4.4.2 The tanks shall always be filled by means that will 
ensure removal of all water and foreign material. [20:11.6.4.2] 

13.4.4.5* Temperature Maintenance. 

13.4.4.5.1 The temperature of the pump room, pump 
house, or area where engines are installed shall never be 
less than the minimum recommended by the engine manu- 
facturer. [20:11.6.5.1] 

13.4.4.5.2 An engine jacket water heater shall be provided to 
maintain 120^ (49°C). [20:11.6.5.2] 

13.4.4.5.3 The engine manufacturer's recommendations for 
oil heaters shall be followed. [20:11.6.5.3] 

13.4.4.6 Emei^ency Starting and Stopping. 

13.4.4.6.1 The sequence for emergency manual operation, 
arranged in a step-by-step manner, shall be posted on the fire 
pump engine. [20:11.6.6.1] 

13.4.4.6.2 It shall be the engine manufacturer's responsibihty 
to list any specific instructions pertaining to the operation of this 
equipment during the emergency operation. [20:11.6.6.2] 

13.4.5 Components. 

13.4.5.1 Alarm and Signal Devices on Controller. 

13.4.5.1.1 All visible indicator alarms shall be plainly visible. 
[20:12.4.1.1] 



2006 Edition 



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13.4.5.1.2* Visible indication shall be provided to indicate that 
the controller is in the automatic position. If the visible indi- 
cator is a pilot lamp, it shall be accessible for replacement. 
[20:12.4.1.2] 

13.4.5.1.3 Separate visible indicators and a common audible 
alarm capable of being heard while the engine is running and 
operable in all positions of the main switch except the off 
position shall be provided to immediately indicate trouble 
caused by the following conditions: 

(1) Critically low oil pressure in the lubrication system. The 
controller shall provide means for testing the position of 
the pressure sv^dtch contacts vnthout causing trouble 
alarms. 

(2) High engine jacket coolant temperature. 

(3) Failure of engine to start automatically. 

(4) Shutdown from overspeed. 

(.5) Battery failure or missing battery. Each controller shall 
be provided with a separate visible indicator for each 
battery. 

(6) Battery charger failure. Each controller shall be pro- 
vided with a separate visible indicator for battery charger 
failure and shall not require the audible alarm for bat- 
tery charger failure. 

(7) Low air or hydraulic pressure. Where air or hydraulic 
starting is provided {see 11.2.5 and 11.2.5.4 ofNFPA 20), 
each pressure tank shall provide to the controller sepa- 
rate visible indicators to indicate low pressure. 

(8) System overpressure, for engines equipped with pressure 
limiting controls, to actuate at 115 percent of total rated 
head (pressure). 

(9) ECM selector switch in alternate ECM position (for en- 
gines with ECM controls only) . 

(10) Fuel injection malfunction (for engines with ECM only) . 

(11) Low fuel level. Alarm at two-thirds tank capacity. 
[20:12.4.1.3] 

13.4.5.1.4 No audible alarm silencing switch, other than the 
controller main switch, shall be permitted for the alarms re- 
quired in 13.4.5.1.3. [20:12.4.1.4] 

13.4.5.2 Alarm and Signal Devices Remote from Controller. 

13.4.5.2.1 Where the pump room is not constantly attended, 
audible or visible alarms powered by a source other than the 
engine starting batteries and not exceeding 125 V shall be 
provided at a point of constant attendance. [20:12.4.2.1] 

13.4.5.2.2 These alarms shall indicate the following: 

(1) The engine is running (separate signal). 

(2) The controller main svidtch has been turned to the off or 
manual position (separate signal). 

(3)*Trouble on the controller or engine (separate or com- 
mon signals). (See 13.4.5.1.3.) [20:12.4.2.2] 

13.4.6 Field Acceptance Tests. 

13.4.6.1 The pump manufacturer, the engine manufacturer 
(when supplied) , the controller manufacturer, and the trans- 
fer sv^ritch manufacturer (when supplied) or their factory- 
authorized representatives shall be present for the field accep- 
tance test. (See Section 5.4 ofNFPA 20.) [20:14.2.1] 

13.4.6.2* All the AHJs shall be notified as to the time and place 
of the field acceptance test. [20:14.2.2] 

13.4.6.3 All electric wiring to the fire pump motor(s) , includ- 
ing control (multiple pumps) interwiring, normal power sup- 



ply, alternate power supply where provided, and jockey pump, 
shall be completed and checked by the electrical contractor 
prior to the initial startup and acceptance test. [20:14.2.3] 

13.4.6.4* Certified Pump Curve. 

13.4.6.4.1 A copy of the manufacturer's certified pump test 
characteristic curve shall be available for comparison of the 
results of the field acceptance test. [20:14.2.4.1] 

13.4.6.4.2 The fire pump as installed shall equal the perfor- 
mance as indicated on the manufacturer's certified shop test 
characteristic curve within the accuracy limits of the test 
equipment. [20:14.2.4.2] 

13.4.6.5 The fire pump shall perform at minimum, rated, 
and peak loads without objectionable overheating of any com- 
ponent. [20:14.2.5] 

13.4.6.6 Vibrations of the fire pump assembly shall not be of a 
magnitude to warrant potential damage to any fire pump com- 
ponent. [20:14.2.6] 

13.4.7 Manuals, Special Tools, and Spare Parts. 

13.4.7.1 A minimum of one set of instruction manuals for all 
msyor components of the fire pump system shall be supplied 
by the manufacturer of each major component. [20:14.3.1] 

13.4.7.2 The manual shall contain the following: 

(1) A detailed explanation of the operation of the compo- 
nent 

(2) Instructions for routine maintenance 

(3) Detailed instructions concerning repairs 

(4) Parts list and parts identification 

(5) Schematic electrical drawings of controller, transfer 
switch, and alarm panels [20:14.3.2] 

13.4.7.3 Any special tools and testing devices required for 
routine maintenance shall be available for inspection by the 
AHJ at the time of the field acceptance test. [20:14.3.3] 

13.4.7.4 Consideration shall be given to stocking spare parts 
for critical items not readily available. [20:14.3.4] 

13.4.8 Periodic Inspection, Testing, and Maintenance. Fire 
pumps shall be inspected, tested, and maintained in accor- 
dance with NFPA 25, Standard firr the Inspection, Testing, and 
Maintenance of Water-Based Fire Protection Systems. [20:14.4] 

13.4.9 Component Replacement. 
13.4.9.1 Positive Displacement Pumps. 

13.4.9.1.1 Whenever a critical path component in a posi- 
tive displacement fire pump is replaced, as defined in 
14.5.2.4 of NFPA 20, a field test of the pump shall be per- 
formed. [20:14.5.1.1] ] 

13.4.9.1.2 If components that do not affect performance 
are replaced, such as shafts, then only a functional test shall 
be required to ensure proper installation and reassembly. 
[20:14.5.1.2] 

13.4.9.1.3 If components that affect performance are re- 
placed, such as rotors, plungers, and so forth, then a retest 
shall be conducted by the pump manufacturer or designated 
representative, or qualified persons acceptable to the AHJ. 
[20:14.5.1.3] 

13.4.9.1.4 Field Retest Results. 

13.4.9.1.4.1 The field retest results shall be compared to the 
original pump performance as indicated by the original factory- 
certified test curve, whenever it, is available. [20:14.5.1.4.1] 



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13.4.9.1.4.2 The field retest results shall meet or exceed the 
performance characteristics as indicated on the pump name- 
plate, and the results shall be within the accuracy limits of field 
testing as stated elsewhere in NFPA20. [20:14.5.1.4.2] 

13.5 Water Supply. 

13.5.1 Private fire service mains shall be installed in accor- 
dance with NFPA 13, Standard for the Installation of Sprinkler Sys- 
tems, and NFPA 24, Standard for the Installation of Private Fire 
Service Mains and Their Appurtenances. 

13.5.2 Where no adequate and reliable water supply exists for 
fire-fighting purposes, the requirements of NFPA 1142, Stan- 
dard on Water Supplies for Suburban and Rural Fire Fighting, shall 
apply 

13.5.3* The installation of devices to protect the public water 
supply from contamination shall comply with the provisions of 
NFPA 13, NFPA 24, and die plumbing code. 

13.5.3.1 Backflow prevention devices shall be inspected, 
tested, and maintained in accordance with the requirements 
of NFPA 25. 

13.5.4 Inspection, Testing, and Maintenance. 

13.5.4.1 A private fire service main installed in accordance 
with this Code shall be properly maintained to provide at least 
the same level of performance and protection as designed. 
The owner shall be responsible for maintaining the system 
and keeping it in good working condition. 

13.5.4.2 A private fire service main installed in accordance 
with this Code shall be inspected, tested, and maintained in 
accordance with NFPA 25. 

13.6 Portable Extinguishers. 

13.6.1 General Requirements. 

13.6.1.1 The installation, maintenance, selection, and distri- 
bution of portable fire extinguishers shall be in accordance 
with NFPA 10, Standard fofr Portable Fire Extinguishers, and Sec- 
tion 13.6. 

13.6.1.2* Where Required. Fire extinguishers shall be pro- 
vided where required by this Codeas specified in Table 13.6.1.2 
and the referenced codes and standards listed in Chapter 2. 

13.6.2 Classification, Ratings, and Performance of Fire Extin- 
guishers. 

13.6.2.1 Portable fire extinguishers used to comply with 13.6.2 
shall be listed and labeled and shall meet or exceed all the re- 
quirements of one of the fire test standards and one of the appro- 
priate performance standards shown below: 

(1) Fire Test Standards: 

(a) ANSI/UL 711, Standard for Rating and Testing of Fire 
Extinguishers 

(b) CAN/ULC-S508, Standard for Rating and Fire Testing of 
Fire Extinguishers and Class D Extinguishing Media 

(2) Performance Standards: 

(a) Carbon Dioxide Types. ANSI/UL 154, Standard for 
Carbon Dioxide Fire Extinguishers; CAN/ULC-S503, 
Standard for Carbon Dioxide Hand and Wheeled Fire 
Extinguishers 



Table 13.6.1.2 Portable Fire Extinguishers Required 



Occupancy Use 


Where Required 


Ambulatory health care occupancies 


Yes 


Apartment occupancies'' 


Yes 


Assembly occupancies'' 


Yes 


Business occupancies 


Yes 


Day-care occupancies 


Yes 


Detention and correctional 


Yes 


occupancies'^'' 




Educational occupancies 


Yes 


Health care occupancies 


Yes 


Hotel and dormitory occupancies 


Yes 


Industrial occupancies 


Yes 


Lodging and rooming house 


Yes 


occupancies 




Mercantile occupancies 


Yes 


Occupancies in special structures 


Yes 


One- and two-family dwelling 


No 


occupancies 




Residential board and care 


Yes 


occupancies 




Storage occupancies" 


Yes 



"Portable fire extinguishers shall be permitted to be located at exte- 
rior locations or interior locations so that all portions of the buildings 
are within 75 ft (22.8 m) of travel distance to an extinguishing unit. 
''Portable fire extinguishers are not required in seating or outdoor 
performance areas. 

■^Access to portable fire extinguishers shall be permitted to be locked. 
''Portable fire extinguishers shall be permitted to be located at staff 
locations only. 

°In storage areas where forklift, powered industrial truck, or cart op- 
erators are the primary occupants, fixed extinguishers, as specified in 
NFPA 10, need not be provided when: 

(1) Use of vehicle mounted extinguishers is approved by the AHJ. 

(2) Each vehicle is equipped with a 10-lb, 40A:80B:C exunguisher 
affixed to the vehicle using a mounting bracket approved by the extin- 
guisher manufacturer or the AHJ for vehicular use. 

(3) Not less than two spare extinguishers of equal or greater rating 
are available onsite to replace a discharged extinguisher. 

(4) Vehicle operators are trained in the proper operation and use of 
the extinguisher. 

(5) Inspections of vehicle-mounted extinguishers are performed 
daily. 



(b) Dry Chemical Types. ANSI/UL 299, Standard for Dry 
Chemical Fire Extinguishers; CAN/ULC-S504, Standard 

for Dry Chemical and Dry Powder Hand and Wheeled Fire 
Extinguishers 

(c) Water Types. ANSI/UL 626, Standard for 2'/2-Gallon 
Stored-Pressure, Water-Type Fire Extinguishers; CAN/ 
ULC-S507, Standard for 9 Litre Stored Pressure Water Type 
Fire Extinguishers 

(d) Halon Types. ANSI/UL 1093, Standard for Haloge- 
nated Agent Fire Extinguishers; CAN/ULC-S512, Stan- 
dard for Halogenated Agent Hand and Wheeled Fire 
Extinguishers 

(e) Film-Forming Foam Types. ANSI/UL 8, Standard for 
Foam Fire Extinguishers 

(f) Halocarbon Type. ANSI/UL 2129, Standard for Halo- 
carbon Agent Fire Extinguishers [10:1.3.1] 



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13.6.2.2* The identification of the listing and labeling organi- 
zation, the fire test, and the performance standard that the 
fire extinguisher meets or exceeds shall be clearly marked on 
each fire extinguisher. [10:1.3.2] 

13.6.2.2.1 Fire extinguishers manufactured prior to January 1, 
1986, shall not be required to comply with 13.6.2.2. [10:1.3.2.1] 

13.6.2.3* An organization listing fire extinguishers used to 
comply with the requirements of subsection 13.6.2 shall utilize 
a third-party certification program for portable fire extin- 
guishers that meets or exceeds ANSI/UL 1803, Standard for 
Factory Follow-up on Third Party Certified Portable Fire Extinguish- 
es. [10:1.3.3] 

13.6.2.3.1 Fire extinguishers manufactured prior to January 1, 
1989, shall not be required to comply with 13.6.2.3. [10:1.3.3.1] 

13.6.2.3.2 Certification organizations accredited by the Stan- 
dards Council of Canada shall not be required to comply with 
13.6.2.3. [10:1.3.3.2] 

13.6.2.4 Extinguishers listed for the Class C rating shall not 
contain an agent that is a conductor of electricity. In addition 
to successfully meeting the requirements of ANSI/UL 711, 
Standard for Rating and Fire Testing of Fire Extinguishers, water- 
based agents shall be tested in accordance with ASTM D 5391, 
Standard Test for Electrical Conductivity and Resistivity of a Flow- 
ing High Purity Water Sample. Fire extinguishers containing 
water-based agents that have a conductivity higher than 
1.00 microsiemens/cm at 77°F (25°C) shall be considered a 
conductor of electricity and therefore shall not be rated Class 
C. This requirement shall apply only to water-based extin- 
guishers manufactured after August 15, 2002. [10:1.3.4] 

13.6.3 General Requirements. 

13.6.3.1 The classification of fire extinguishers shall consist 
of a letter that indicates the class of fire on which a fire extin- 
guisher has been found to be effective, preceded by a rating 
number (Class A and Class B only) that indicates the relative 
extinguishing effectiveness. [10:1.5.1] 

13.6.3.1.1 Fire extinguishers classified for use on Class C, 
Class D, or Class K hazards shall not be required to have a 
number preceding the classification letter. [10:1.5.1.1] 

13.6.3.2 Portable fire extinguishers shall be maintained in a 
fully charged and operable condition and shall be kept in 
their designated places at all times when they are not being 
used. [10:1.5.2] 

13.6.3.3 Fire extinguishers shall be conspicuously located 
where they will be readily accessible and immediately available 
in the event of fire. Preferably, they shall be located along 
normal paths of travel, including exits from areas. [10:1.5.3] 

13.6.3.4 The following types of fire extinguishers are consid- 
ered obsolete and shall be removed from service: 

(1) Soda acid 

(2) Chemical foam (excluding film-forming agents) 

(3) Vaporizing liquid (e.g., carbon tetrachloride) 

(4) Cartridge-operated water 

(5) Cartridge-operated loaded stream 

(6) Copper or brass shell (excluding pump tanks) joined by 
soft solder or rivets 

(7) Carbon dioxide extinguishers with metal horns 

(8) Solid charge-type AFFF extinguishers (paper cartridge) 
[10:1.5.4] 



13.6.3.5 Cabinets housing fire extinguishers shall not be 
locked, except where fire extinguishers are subject to mali- 
cious use and cabinets include a means of emergency access. 
[10:1.5.5] 

13.6.3.6* Fire extinguishers shall not be obstructed or ob- 
scured from view. In large rooms, and in certain locations 
where visual obstructions cannot be completely avoided, 
means shall be provided to indicate the extinguisher location. 
[10:1.5.6] 

13.6.3.7* Portable fire extinguishers other than wheeled ex- 
tinguishers shall be installed securely on the hanger, or in the 
bracket supplied by the extinguisher manufacturer, or in a 
listed bracket approved for such purpose, or placed in cabi- 
nets or wall recesses. Wheeled fire extinguishers shall be lo- 
cated in a designated location. [10:1.5.7] 

13.6.3.8 Fire extinguishers installed under conditions where 
they are subject to dislodgement shall be installed in manufac- 
turer's strap-type brackets specifically designed to cope with 
this problem. [10:1.5.8] 

13.6.3.9 Fire extinguishers installed under conditions where 
they are subject to physical damage (e.g., from impact, vibration, 
the environment) shall be adequately protected. [10:1.5.9] 

13.6.3.10 Fire extinguishers having a gross weight not ex- 
ceeding 40 lb (18.14 kg) shall be installed so that the top of 
the fire extinguisher is not more than 5 ft (1.53 m) above 
the floor. Fire extinguishers having a gross weight greater 
than 40 lb (18.14 kg) (except wheeled types) shall be so 
installed that the top of the fire extinguisher is not more 
than 3V4 ft (1.07 m) above the floor. In no case shall the 
clearance between the bottom of the fire extinguisher and 
the floor be less than 4 in. (10.2 cm). [10:1.5.10] 

13.6.3.11 Extinguishers' operating instructions shall be lo- 
cated on the front of the extinguisher and shall be clearly 
visible. Hazardous materials identification systems (HMIS) la- 
bels, six-year maintenance labels, hydrostatic test labels, or 
other labels shall not be located or placed on the front of the 
extinguisher. These restrictions shall not apply to original 
manufacturer's labels, labels that specifically relate to the ex- 
tinguisher's operation or fire classification, or inventory con- 
trol labels specific to that extinguisher. [10:1.5.11] 

13.6.3.12 Fire extinguishers mounted in cabinets or wall re- 
cesses shall be placed so that the fire extinguisher operating in- 
structions face outward. The location of such fire extinguishers 
shall be marked conspicuously. (See 13.6.3.6.) [10:1.5.12] 

13.6.3.13* Where fire extinguishers are installed in closed 
cabinets that are exposed to elevated temperatures, the cabi- 
nets shall be provided with screened openings and drains. 
[10:1.5.13] 

13.6.3.14* Fire extinguishers shall not be exposed to tempera- 
tures outside of the listed temperature range shown on the 
fire extinguisher label. [10:1.5.14] 

13.6.3.15 Fire extinguishers containing plain water only can 
be protected to temperatures as low as -40°F (-40°C) by the 
addition of an antifreeze that is stipulated on the fire extin- 
guisher nameplate. Calcium chloride solutions shall not be 
used in stainless steel fire extinguishers. [10:1.5.15] 



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UNIFORM FIRE CODE 



13.6.3.16* The owner or the owner's agent shall be provided 
with a fire extinguisher instruction manual that details con- 
densed instructions and cautions necessary to the installation, 
operation, inspection, and maintenance of the fire extinguish- 
er(s). The manual shall refer to NFPA 10 as a source of de- 
tailed instruction. [10:1.5.16] 

13.6.4* Identification of Contents. A fire extinguisher shall 
have a label, tag, stencil, or similar indicator attached to it 
providing the following information: 

(1) The contents' product name as it appears on the manu- 
facturer's Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS) 

(2) Listing of the hazardous material identification in accor- 
dance with hazardous materials identification systems 
(HMIS) [in Canada, workplace hazardous materials iden- 
tification systems (WHMIS)] developed by the National 
Paint & Coatings Association 

(3) List of any hazardous materials that are in excess of 
1.0 percent of the contents 

(4) List of each chemical in excess of 5.0 percent of the con- 
tents 

(5) Information as to what is hazardous about the agent in 
accordance with the Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS) 

(6) Manufacturer's or service agency's name, mailing ad- 
dress, and phone number [10:1.6] 

13.6.5 Selection of Fire Extinguishers. 

13.6.5.1* General Requirements. The selection of fire extin- 
guishers for a given situation shall be determined by the char- 
acter of the fires anticipated, the construction and occupancy 
of the individual property, the vehicle or hazard to be pro- 
tected, ambient-temperature conditions, and other factors (see 
Table H.2 of NFPA 10). The number, size, placement, and Umi- 
tations of use of fire extinguishers required shall meet the 
requirements of 13.6.6. [10:4.1] 

13.6.5.1.1* Use of halogenated agent fire extinguishers shall 
be limited to applications where a clean agent is necessary to 
extinguish fire efficiently without damaging the equipment or 
area being protected, or where the use of alternate agents can 
cause a hazard to personnel in the area. [10:4.1.1] 

13.6.5.1.1.1 Placement of portable fire extinguishers con- 
taining halogenated agents shall conform to minimum vol- 
ume requirement warnings contained on the fire extinguisher 
nameplates. [10:4.1.1.1] 

13.6.5.2 Selection by Hazard. 

13.6.5.2.1 Fire extinguishers shall be selected for the class(es) 
of hazards to be protected in accordance with the subdivisions in 
13.6.5.2.1.1 through 13.6.5.2.1.5. (For specific hazards, see Section 4.3 
ofNFPA10.)[W-A.2.l] 

13.6.5.2.1.1* Fire extinguishers for protecting Class A hazards 
shall be selected from types that are specifically listed and la- 
beled for use on Class A fires. (Forhalon agent-type extinguishers, 
see 13.6.5.1.1.) [10:4.2.1.1] 

13.6.5.2.1.2* Fire extinguishers for the protection of Class B 
hazards shall be selected from types that are specifically listed 
and labeled for use on Class B fires. (For halon agent-type extin- 
guishers, see 13.6.5.1.1.) [10:4.2.1.2] 

13.6.5.2.1.3* Fire extinguishers for protection of Class C haz- 
ards shall be selected from types that are specifically listed and 
labeled for use on Class C hazards. (For halon agent-type fire 
extinguishers, see 13.6.5.1.1.) [10:4.2.1.3] 



13,6,5.2.1.4* Fire extinguishers and extinguishing agents for 
the protection of Class D hazards shall be of the types specifi- 
cally listed and labeled for use on the specific combustible 
metal hazard. [10:4.2.1.4] 

13.6.5.2.1.5 Fire extinguishers for the protection of Class K 
hazards shall be selected from types that are specifically listed 
and labeled for use on Class Kfires. [10:4.2.1.5] 

13.6.5.3* Class K Fire Extinguishers for Cooking Oil Fires. 

Fire extinguishers provided for the protection of cooking ap- 
pliances that use combustible cooking media (vegetable or 
animal oils and fats) shall be listed and labeled for Class K 
fires. Class Kfire extinguishers manufactured after January 1, 
2002, shall not be equipped with "extended wand-type" dis- 
charge devices. [10:4.3.2] 

13.6.5.3.1 Fire extinguishers installed specifically for the pro- 
tection of cooking appliances that use combustible cooking 
media (animal, vegetalale oils and fats) prior to June 30, 1998, 
shall not be required to comply with 13.6.5.3. (Also see 
13.6.5.3.3.) [10:4.3.2.1] 

13.6.5.3.2* A placard shall be conspicuously placed near the 
extinguisher that states that the fire protection system shall be 
activated prior to using the fire extinguisher. [10:4.3.2.2] 

13.6.5.3.3 Existing dry chemical extinguishers without a 
Class K listing that were installed for the protection of Class K 
hazards shall be replaced with an extinguisher having Class K 
listing when the dry chemical extinguishers become due for 
either a 6-year maintenance or hydrostatic test. [10:4.3.2.3] 

13.6.6 Distribution of Fire Extinguishers. 

13.6.6.1 General Requirements. 

13.6.6.1.1* The minimum number of fire extinguishers 
needed to protect a property shall be determined as outlined 
in this chapter and Chapter 5 of NFPA 10. [10:5.1.1] 

13.6.6.1.2* Fire extinguishers shall be provided for the protec- 
tion of both the building structure and the occupancy hazards 
contained therein. [10:5.1.2] 

13.6.6.1.2.1 Required building protection shall be provided 
by fire extinguishers suitable for Class Afires. [10:5.1.2.1] 

13.6.6.1.2.2* Occupancy hazard protection shall be provided 
by fire extinguishers suitable for such Class A, B, C, D, or Kfire 
potentials as might be present. [10:5.1.2.2] 

13.6.6.1.2.3 Fire extinguishers provided for building protec- 
tion can be considered also for the protection of occupancies 
having a Class Afire potential. [10:5.1.2.3] 

13.6.6.1.2.4 Buildings having an occupancy hazard subject to 
Class B or Class C fires, or both, shall have a standard comple- 
ment of Class A fire extinguishers for building protection, plus 
additional Class B or Class C fire extinguishers, or both. 
Where fire extinguishers have more than one letter classifica- 
tion (such as 2-A:20-B:C), they can be considered to satisfy the 
requirements of each letter class. [10:5.1.2.4] 

13.6.6.1.3 Rooms or areas shall be classified generally as light 
(low) hazard, ordinary (moderate) hazard, or extra (high) 
hazard. Limited areas of greater or lesser hazard shall be pro- 
tected as required. [10:5.1.3] 

13.6.6. 1 .4 On each floor level, the area protected and the travel 
distances shall be based on fire extinguishers installed in accor- 
dance with the tables in 13.6.6.2.1 and 13.6.6.3.1. [10:5.1.4] 



2006 Edition 



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1-89 



Table 13.6.6.2.1 Fire Extinguisher Size and Placement for Class A Hazards 





Light 


Ordinary 


Extra 




(Low) 


(Moderate) 


(High) 




Hazard 


Hazard 


Hazard 


Criteria 


Occupancy 


Occupancy 


Occupancy 


Minimum rated single extinguisher 


2-A* 


2-A* 


4-A+ 


Maximum floor area per unit of A 


3000 ft^ 


1500 ft^ 


1000 ft^ 


Maximum floor area for 


11,250 ftt 


11,250 ftj 


11,250 ftt 


extinguisher 








Maximum travel distance to 


75 ft 


75 ft 


75 ft 


extinguisher 









Note: For SI units: I ft = 0.305 m; 1 ft^ = 0.0929 ml 

*Up to two water-type extinguishers, each with 1-A rating, can be used to fulfill the requirements of one 2-A 

rated extinguisher. 

tTwo 2'/4 gal (9.46 L) water-type extinguishers can be used to fulfill the requirements of one 4-A rated 

extinguisher. 

itSeeE.S.SofNFPAlO. 

[lO.Table 5.2.1] 



13.6.6.2 Fire Extinguisher Size and Placement for Class A 
Hazards. 

13.6.6.2.1 Minimal sizes of fire extinguishers for the listed 
grades of hazards shall be provided on the basis of Table 
13.6.6.2.1, except as modified by 13.6.6.2.2. Fire extinguishers 
shall be located so that the maximum travel distances shall not 
exceed those specified in Table 13.6.6.2.1, except as modified 
by 13.6.6.2.2. (See Annex E of NFPA 10.) [10:5.2.1] 

13.6.6.2.1.1 Certain smaller fire extinguishers that are 
charged with a multipurpose dry chemical or a halogenated 
agent are rated on Class B and Class C fires, but have insuffi- 
cient effectiveness to earn the minimum 1-A rating even 
though they have value in extinguishing smaller Class A fires. 
They shall not be used to meet the requirements of 13.6.6.2.1. 
[10:5.2.1.1] 

13.6.6.2.2 Up to one-half of the complement of fire extin- 
guishers as specified in Table 13.6.6.2.1 shall be permitted to 
be replaced by uniformly spaced IV2 in. (3.81 cm) hose sta- 
tions for use by the occupants of the building. Where hose 
stations are so provided, they shall conform to NFPA 14. The 
location of hose stations and the placement of fire extinguish- 
ers shall be such that the hose stations do not replace more 
than every other fire extinguisher. [10:5.2.2] 

13.6.6.2.3 Where the area of the floor of a building is less 
than that specified in Table 13.6.6.2.1, at least one fire extin- 
guisher of the minimum size recommended shall be provided. 
[10:5.2.3] 

13.6.6.2.4 The protection requirements shall be permitted to 
be fulfilled with fire extinguishers of higher rating, provided 
the travel distance to such larger fire extinguishers does not 
exceed 75 ft (22.7 m). [10:5.2.4] 

13.6.6.3* Fire Extinguisher Size and Placement for Class B 
Fires Other Than for Fires in Flammable Liquids of Appre- 
ciable Depth. 

13.6.6.3.1 Minimal sizes of fire extinguishers for the listed 
grades of hazard shall be provided on the basis of Table 
13.6.6.3.1. Fire extinguishers shall be located so that the maxi- 
mum travel distances do not exceed those specified in the 
table used. (See Annex E of NFPA 10.) [10:5.3.1] 



Table 13.6.6.3.1 Fire Extinguisher Size and Placement for 
Class B Hazards 







Maximum Travel 


Type 
of Hazard 


Basic Minimum 

Extinguisher 

Rating 


Distance to 
Extinguishers 


ft 


m 


Light (low) 


5-B 
10-B 


30 
50 


9.15 
15.25 


Ordinary 
(moderate) 


10-B 
20-B 


30 
50 


9.15 
19.25 


Extra (high) 


40-B 
80-B 


30 
50 


9.15 
15.25 



Notes: 

(1) The specified ratings do not imply that fires of the magnitudes 
indicated by these ratings will occur, but rather they are provided to 
give the operators more time and agent to handle difficult spill fires 
that could occur. 

(2) For fires involving water-soluble flammable liquids, see 4.3.4 of 
NFPA 10. 

(3) For specific hazard applications, see Section 4.3 of NFPA 10. 
[10:Table 5.3.1] 



13.6.6.3.1.1 Fire extinguishers of lesser rating, desired for small 
specific hazards within the general hazard area, shall be permit- 
ted to be installed but shall not be considered as ftilfilling any 
partofdie requirements of Table 13.6.6.3.1. [10:5.3.1.1] 

13.6.6.3.2 Up to three AFFF or FFFP fire extinguishers of at 
least 2V2 gal (9.46 L) capacity shall be permitted to be used to 
fulfill extra (high) hazard requirements. [10:5.3.2] 

13.6.6.3.3 Two AFFF or FFFP fire extinguishers of at least 
P/2 gal (6 L) capacity shall be permitted to be used to fulfill 
ordinary (moderate) hazard requirements. [10:5.3.3] 



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13.6.6.3.4 Two or more fire extinguishers of lower rating 
shall not be used to fulfill the protection requirements of 
Table 13.6.6.3T except as permitted by 13.6.6.3.2 and 
13.6.6.3.3. [10:5.3.4] 

13.6.6.3.5 The protection requirements shall be permitted to 
be fulfilled with fire extinguishers of higher ratings, provided 
the travel distance to such larger fire extinguishers does not 
exceed 50 ft (15.25 m). [10:5.3.5] 

13.6.6.4* Fire Extinguisher Size and Placement for Class B 
Fires in Flammable Liquids of Appreciable Depth. 

13.6.6.4.1* Portable fire extinguishers shall not be installed as 
the sole protection for flammable liquid hazards of appre- 
ciable depth where the surface area exceeds 10 ft^ (0.93 m^). 
Where personnel who are trained in extinguishing fires in the 
protected hazards are available on the premises, the maxi- 
mum surface area shall not exceed 20 ft^ (1.86 m^). [10:5.4.1] 

13.6.6.4.2 For flammable liquid hazards of appreciable 
depth, a Class B fire extinguisher shall be provided on the 
basis of at least two numerical units of Class B extinguishing 
potential per ft^ (0.0929 m^) of flammable liquid surface of 
the largest hazard area. AFFF- or FFFP-type fire extinguishers 
shall be permitted to be provided on the basis of 1-B of protec- 
tion per ft^ (0.09 m^) of hazard. (For fires involving cooking grease 
or water-soluble flammable liquids, see 13. 6.5.3 of this Code and 4.3.4 
ofNFPA 10.) [10:5.4.2] 

13.6.6.4.3 Two or more fire extinguishers of lower ratings, 
other than AFFF- or FFFP-type fire extinguishers, shall not be 
used in lieu of the fire extinguisher required for the largest 
hazard area. Up to three AFFF- or FFFP-type fire extinguishers 
shall be permitted to fulfill the requirements, provided the 
sum of the Class B ratings meets or exceeds the value required 
for the largest hazard area. [10:5.4.3] 

13.6.6.4.4 Travel distances for portable fire extinguishers 
shall not exceed 50 ft (15.25 m). (See Annex E ofNFPA 10.) 
[10:5.4.4] 

13.6.6.4.4.1 Scattered or widely separated hazards shall be indi- 
vidually protected. Afire extinguisher in the proximity of a haz- 
ard shall be carefully located to be accessible in die presence of a 
fire without undue danger to the operator. [10:5.4.4.1] 

13.6.6.5* Fire Extinguisher Size and Placement for Class C 
Hazards. Fire extinguishers with Class C ratings shall be re- 
quired where energized electrical equipment can be encoun- 
tered. This requirement includes situations where fire either 
directly involves or surrounds electrical equipment. Since the 
fire itself is a Class A or Class B hazard, the fire extinguishers 
shall be sized and located on the basis of the anticipated Class 
A or Class B hazard. [10:5.5] 

13.6.6.6 Fire Extinguisher Size and Placement for Class D 
Hazards. 

13.6.6.6.1 Fire extinguishers or extinguishing agents with 
Class D ratings shall be provided for fires involving combus- 
tible metals. [10:5.6.1] 

13.6.6.6.2 Fire extinguishers or extinguishing agents (me- 
dia) shall be located not more than 75 ft (23 m) of travel 
distance from the Class D hazard. (See Section E.6ofNFPA 10.) 
[10:5.6.2] 

13.6.6.6.3 Portable fire extinguishers or extinguishing agents 
(media) for Class D hazards shall be provided in those work 



areas where combustible metal powders, flakes, shavings, 
chips, or similarly sized products are generated. [10:5.6.3] 

13.6.6.6.4 Size determination shall be on the basis of the spe- 
cific combustible metal, its physical particle size, area to be cov- 
ered, and recommendations by the fire extinguisher manufac- 
turer on data from control tests conducted. [10:5.6.4] 

13.6.6.7 Fire Extinguisher Size and Placement for Class K 
Fires. 

13.6.6.7.1 Class Kfire extinguishers shall be provided for haz- 
ards where there is a potential for fires involving combustible 
cooking media (vegetable or animal oils and fats). [10:5.7.1] 

13.6.6.7.2 Maximum travel distance shall not exceed 30 ft 
(9.15 m) from the hazard to the extinguishers. [10:5.7.2] 

13.6.6.8 Inspection, Maintenance, and Rechaipng. 

13.6.6.8.1 General. 

13.6.6.8.1.1 The owner or designated agent or occupant of a 
property in which fire extinguishers are located shall be re- 
sponsible for such inspection, maintenance, and recharging. 
(See 6.1.2 ofNFPA 10 and 13.6.6.8.1.2.) [10:6.1.3] 

13.6.6.8.1.2* Maintenance, servicing, and recharging shall be 
performed by trained persons having available the appropri- 
ate servicing manual (s), the proper types of tools, recharge 
materials, lubricants, and manufacturer's recommended re- 
placement parts or parts specifically listed for use in the fire 
extinguisher. [10:6.1.4] 

13.6.6.8.1.3 Tags or labels shall not be placed on the front of 
the fire extinguisher. [10:6.1.5] 

13.6.6.8.1.4 Labels indicating fire extinguisher use or classi- 
fication or both shall be permitted to be placed on the front of 
the fire extinguisher. [10:6.1.6] 

13.6.6.8.2 Inspection. 

13.6.6.8.2.1* Frequency. Fire extinguishers shall be inspected 
when initially placed in service and thereafter at approxi- 
mately 30-day intervals. Fire extinguishers shall be inspected, 
manually or by electronic monitoring, at more frequent inter- 
vals when circumstances require. [10:6.2.1] 

13.6.6.8.2.2 Inspection Recordkeeping. 

13.6.6.8.2.2.1 Personnel making inspections shall keep 
records of all fire extinguishers inspected, including those 
found to require corrective action. [10:6.2.4.1] 

13.6.6.8.2.2.2 At least monthly, the date the inspection was 
performed and the initials of the person performing the in- 
spection shall be recorded. [10:6.2.4.2] 

13.6.6.8.2.2.3 Records shall be kept on a tag or label attached 
to the fire extinguisher, on an inspection checklist maintained 
on file or by an electronic method that provides a permanent 
record. [10:6.2.4.3] 

13.6.6.8.3* Maintenance. 

13.6.6.8.3.1 Frequency. Fire extinguishers shall be subjected 
to maintenance at intervals of not more than 1 year, at the 
time of hydrostatic test, or when specifically indicated by an 
inspection or electronic notification. [10:6.3.1] 

13.6.6.8.3.2 Fire extinguishers removed from service for 
maintenance or recharge shall be replaced by a fire extin- 



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guisher suitable for the type of hazard being protected and 
shall be of at least equal rating. [10:6.3.1.4] 

13.6.6.8.3.3* Maintenance Recordkeeping. Each fire extin- 
guisher shall have a tag or label securely attached that indi- 
cates the month and year the maintenance was performed and 
that identifies the person performing the service. [10:6.3.4] 

13.6.6.8.4* Rechaiging. All rechargeable-type fire extinguish- 
ers shall be recharged after any use or as indicated by an in- 
spection or vifhen performing maintenance. [10:6.4.1.1] 

13.6.6.8.5 Hydrostatic Testing. 

13.6.6.8.5.1 Subparagraph 13.6.6.8.5 of this Codeznd Chapter 7 
of NFPA 10 require hydrostatic testing of pressure vessels used as 
fire extinguishers and specified components of fire extinguish- 
ers. [10:7.1.1] 

13.6.6.8.5.2 Hydrostatic testing shall be performed by per- 
sons trained in pressure testing procedures and safeguards 
who have suitable testing equipment, facilities, and appropri- 
ate servicing manual (s) available. [10:7.1.2] 

13.6.6.8.5.2.1 A hydrostatic test shall always include both an 
internal and external visual examination of the cylinder. 
[10:7.1.2.1] 

13.6.6.8.5.2.2 Hydrostatic testing shall be conducted using 
water or some other noncompressible fluid as the test me- 
dium. Air or other gases shall not be used as the sole medium 
for pressure testing. All air shall be vented prior to hydrostatic 
testing to prevent violent and dangerous failure of the cylin- 
der. [10:7.1.2.2] 

13.6.6.8.5.3 If, at any time, a fire extinguisher shows evidence 
of dents, mechanical injury, or corrosion to the extent as to 
indicate weakness, it shall be condemned or hydrostatically 
retested subject to the provisions of 13.6.6.8.5.2 and 
13.6.6.8.5.3. [10:7.1.3] 

13.6.6.8.5.3.1 Pump tanks shall not be required to comply 
witii 13.6.6.8.5.3. [10:7.1.3.1] 

13.6.6.8.5.3.2 Nonrechargeable fire extinguishers other than 
halogenated agent types shall not be required to comply with 
13.6.6.8.5.3 but shall be discharged and discarded where the 
fire extinguisher shows evidence of dents, mechanical injury, 
or corrosion to the extent of indicating weakness. [10:7.1.3.2] 

13.6.6.8.5.3.3 Nonrechargeable halon agent-type fire extin- 
guishers shall not be required to comply with 13.6.6.8.5.3. (See 
6.2.3.3 of NFPA 10.) [10:7.1.3.3] 

13.6.6.8.5.4* Examination of Cylinder Condition. Where a 
fire extinguisher cylinder or shell has one or more of the fol- 
lowing conditions, it shall not be hydrostatically tested, but 
shall be condemned or destroyed by the owner or at the own- 
er's direction: 

(l)*Where repairs by soldering, welding, brazing, or use of 
patching compounds exist 

(2) Where the cylinder threads are worn, corroded, broken, 
cracked, or nicked 

(3) Where there is corrosion that has caused pitting, includ- 
ing pitting under a removable nameplate or nameband 
assembly 

(4) Where the fire extinguisher has been burned in a fire 

(5) Where a calcium chloride-type of extinguishing agent 
was used in a stainless steel fire extinguisher 



(6) Where the shell is of copper or brass construction joined 
by soft solder or rivets 

(7) Where the depth of a dent exceeds Mo of the greatest 
dimension of the dent if not in a weld, or exceeds V4 in. 
(0.6 cm) if the dent includes a weld 

(8) Where any local or general corrosion, cuts, gouges, or 
dings have removed more than 10 percent of the mini- 
mum cylinder wall thickness 

(9) Where a fire extinguisher has been used for any purpose 
other than that of a fire extinguisher [10:7.1.4] 

13.6.6.8.5.5 When a fire extinguisher cylinder, shell, or car- 
tridge fails a hydrostatic pressure test, or fails to pass a visual 
examination as specified in 13.6.6.8.5.2, it shall be con- 
demned or destroyed by the owner or the owner's agent. 
When a cylinder is required to be condemned, the retester 
shall notify the owner in writing that the cylinder is con- 
demned and that it cannot be re-used. Condemned cylin- 
ders shall be stamped "CONDEMNED" on the top, head, 
shoulder, or neck with a steel stamp. Minimum letter height 
shall be Vs in. (0.3 cm). [10:7.1.5] 

13.6.6.8.5.5.1 A condemned cylinder shall not be repaired. 
No person shall remove or obliterate the "CONDEMNED" 
marking. [10:7.1.5.1] 

13.6.6.8.5.6* Aluminum Shell Cylinder. Fire extinguishers hav- 
ing aluminum cylinders or shells suspected of being exposed 
to temperatures in excess of 350°F (177°C) shall be removed 
from service and subjected to a hydrostatic test. [10:7.1.6] 

13.6.6.8.5.7 Frequency. At intervals not exceeding those 
specified in Table 13.6.6.8.5.7, fire extinguishers shall be hy- 
drostatically retested. The hydrostatic retest shall be con- 
ducted within the calendar year of the specified test interval. 
In no case shall an extinguisher be recharged if it is beyond its 
specified retest date. (For nonrechargeable fire extinguishers, see 
6.4.3.1 of NFPA 10.) [10:7.2] 



Table 13.6.6.8.5.7 Hydrostatic Test Interval for 
Extinguishers 



Extinguisher Type 



Test Interval 

(Years) 



Stored-pressure water, loaded stream, 5 

and/or antifreeze 

Wetting agent 5 

AFFF (aqueous film-forming foam) 5 

FTFP (film-forming fluoroprotein foam) 5 

Dry chemical with stainless steel shells 5 

Carbon dioxide 5 

Wet chemical 5 

Dry chemical, stored-pressure, with mild 12 

steel shells, brazed brass shells, or 

aluminum shells 

Dry chemical, cartridge- or 12 

cylinder-operated, with mild steel shells 

Halogenated agents 1 2 

Dry powder, stored-pressure, cartridge- or 12 

cylinder-operated, with mild steel shells 

Note: Stored-pressure water extinguishers with fiberglass shells (pre- 
1976) are prohibited from hydrostatic testing due to manufacturer's 
recall. 
[10:Table 7.2] 



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UNIFORM FIRE CODE 



13.6.6.8.5.7.1 Nitrogen cylinders, argon cylinders, carbon di- 
oxide cylinders, or cartridges used for inert gas storage that 
are used as an expellant for wheeled fire extinguishers and 
carbon dioxide extinguishers shall be hydrostatically tested ev- 
ery 5 years. [10:7.2.1] 

(A) Cylinders (except those charged with carbon dioxide) 
complying with 49 CFR 173.34(e) 16 shall be permitted to be 
hydrostatically tested every 10 years in lieu of the requirement 
in 13.6.6.8.5.7.1. [10:7.2.1.1] 

13.6.6.8.5.7.2 Nitrogen cartridges, argon cartridges, and car- 
bon dioxide cartridges used as an expellant for hand portable 
fire extinguishers that have DOT or TC markings shall be hy- 
drostatically tested or replaced according to the requirements 
of DOT or TC. [10:7.2.2] 

(A) Cartridges not exceeding 2 in. (5.1 cm) outside diameter 
and having a length less than 2 ft (0.61 m) shall be exempt 
from periodic hydrostatic retest. [10:7.2.2.1] 

(B) Cartridges with DOT stamp 3E shall be exempt from pe- 
riodic hydrostatic retest. [10:7.2.2.2] 

13.6.6.8.5.7.3 A hydrostatic test shall be performed on fire 
extinguisher hose assemblies equipped with a shutoff nozzle 
at the end of the hose. The test interval shall be the same as 
specified for the fire extinguisher on which the hose is in- 
stalled. [10:7.2.3] 

13.6.6.8.5.7.4 High-pressure and low-pressure accessory hose 
(other than agent discharge hose) used on wheeled extin- 
guishers shall be hydrostatically tested. The test interval shall 
be the same as that specified for the fire extinguisher agent 
cylinder on which the hose is installed. [10:7.2.3.1] 

13.7 Detection, Alarm, and Conununications Systems. 

13.7.1 General. 

13.7.1.1 Where building fire alarm systems or automatic fire 
detectors are required by other sections of this Code, they shall 
be provided and installed in accordance with NFPA 70, 
NFPA 72, National Fire Alarm Code, and Section 13.7. 

13.7.1.2 Applications. Protected premises fire alarm systems 
shall include one or more of the following features: 

(1) Manual alarm signal initiation 

(2) Automatic alarm signal initiation 

(3) Monitoring of abnormal conditions in fire suppression 
systems 

(4) Activation of fire suppression systems 

(5) Activation of fire safety functions 

(6) Activation of alarm notification appliances 

(7) Emergency voice/alarm communications 

(8) Guard's tour supervisory service 

(9) Process monitoring supervisory systems 

(10) Activation of off-premises signals 

(11) Combination systems 

(12) Integrated systems [ 72:6.3] 

13.7. 1 .3 All apparatus requiring rewinding or resetting to main- 
tain normal operation shall be rewound or reset as prompdy as 
possible after each test and alarm. All test signals received shall be 
recorded to indicate date, time, and type. [72:10.5.4] 

13.7.1.4 The provisions of Section 13.7 shall apply only where 
specificallyrequiredby another section of this Code. [101:9.6.1.1] 

13.7.1.4.1 Fire detection, alarm, and communications sys- 
tems installed to make use of an alternative permitted by 



this Code shall be considered required systems and shall 
meet the provisions of this Code applicable to required sys- 
tems. [lOh 9.6.1.2] 

13.7.1.4.2 All systems and components shall be approved for 
the purpose for which they are installed. [101:9.6.1.4] 

13.7.1.4.3* To ensure operational integrity, the fire alarm sys- 
tem shall have an approved maintenance and testing program 
complying with the applicable requirements of Sections 13.4 
and 13.7. [101:9.6.1.5] 

13.7.1.4.4* Where a required fire alarm system is out of service 
for more than 4 hours in a 24-hour period, the AHJ shall be 
notified, and the building shall be evacuated or an approved 
fire watch shall be provided for all parties left unprotected by 
the shutdown until the fire alarm system has been returned to 
service. [101:9.6.1.6] 

13.7.1.4.5 For the purposes of this Code, a complete fire alarm 
system shall provide functions for initiation, notification, and 
control, which shall perform as follows: 

(1) The initiation function provides the input signal to the 
system. 

(2) The notification function is the means by which the sys- 
tem advises that human action is required in response to a 
particular condition. 

(3) The control function provides outputs to control building 
equipment to enhance protection of life. [101:9.6.1.7] 

13.7.1.4.6 Nonrequired Coverage. Where installed, detection 
that is not required by an applicable law, code, or standard, 
whether total (complete), partial, or selective coverage, shall 
conform to the requirements of this Code. 

Exception: Spacing requirements of Chapter 5 of NFPA 72. 
[72:3.5.2.4.1] 

13.7,1.4.6.1 Where nonrequired detection devices are in- 
stalled for a specific hazard, additional nonrequired detection 
devices shall not be required to be installed throughout an 
entire room or building. [72:5.5.2.4.2] 

13.7.1.4.7 Signal Initiation. 

13.7.1.4.7.1 Where required by other sections of this Code, ac- 
tuation of the complete fire alarm system shall be initiated by, but 
shall not be limited to, any or all of the following means: 

(1) Manual fire alarm initiation 

(2) Automatic detection 

(3) Extinguishing system operation [101:9.6.2.1] 

13.7.1.4.7.2 Manual fire alarm boxes shall be used only for 
fire-protective signaling purposes. Combination fire alarm 
and guard's tour stations shall be acceptable. [101:9.6.2.2] 

13.7.1.4.7.3 Amanual fire alarm box shall be provided in the 
natural exit access path near each required exit from an area, 
unless modified by another section of this Code. [101:9.6.2.3] 

13.7.1.4.7.4* Additional manual fire alarm boxes shall be lo- 
cated so that, on any given floor in any part of the building, no 
horizontal distance on that floor exceeding 200 ft (60 m) shall 
need to be traversed to reach a manual fire alarm box. 
[101:9.6.2,4] 

13.7.1.4.7.5* For fire alarm systems using automatic fire detec- 
tion or waterflow detection devices, not less than one manual 
fire alarm box shall be provided to initiate a fire alarm signal. 
This manual fire alarm box shall be located where required by 
the AHJ. [101:9.6.2.5] 



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13.7.1.4.7.6* Each manual fire alarm box on a system shall be 
accessible, unobstructed, and visible. [/0/:9.6.2.6] 

13.7.1.4.7.7 Where a sprinkler system provides automatic de- 
tection and alarm system initiation, it shall be provided with 
an approved alarm initiation device that operates when the 
flow of water is equal to or greater than that from a single 
automatic sprinkler. [iW:9.6.2.7] 

13.7.1.4.7.8 Where a total (complete) coverage smoke detec- 
tion system is required by another section of this Code, auto- 
matic detection of smoke in accordance with NFPA 72 shall be 
provided in all occupiable areas, common areas, and work 
spaces in environments that are suitable for proper smoke de- 
tector operation. [i07:9.6.2.8] 

13.7.1.4.8 Smoke Alarms. 

13.7.1.4.8.1 Where required by another section of this Code, 
single-station and multiple-station smoke alarms shall be in 
accordance with NFPA 72. System smoke detectors in accor- 
dance with NFPA 72 and arranged to function in the same 
manner as single-station or multiple-station smoke alarms 
shall be permitted in lieu of smoke alarms. [i02:9.6.2.9.1] 

13.7.1.4.8.2 Smoke alarms, other than battery-operated devices 
as permitted by other sections of this Code, or battery-operated 
devices complying with 13.7.1.1 and the low-power wireless sys- 
tem requirements oiNFPA 72 shall receive their operating power 
from the building electrical system. [707:9.6.2.9.2] 

13.7.1.4.8.3* In new construction, where two or more smoke 
alarms are required witiiin a dwelling unit, suite of rooms, or 
similar area, they shall be arranged so that operation of any 
smoke alarm shall cause the alarm in all smoke alarms within 
the dwelling unit, suite of rooms, or similar area to sound, 
unless otherwise permitted by the following: 

(1) The requirement of 13.7.1.4.8.3 shall not apply where 
permitted by another section of this Code. 

(2) The requirement of 13.7.1.4.8.3 shall not apply to con- 
figurations that provide equivalent distribution of the 
alarm signal. [i0i:9.6.2.9.3] 

13.7.1.4.8.4 The alarms shall sound only within an individual 
dwelling unit, suite of rooms, or similar area and shall not 
actuate the building fire alarm system, unless otherwise per- 
mitted by the AHJ. Remote annunciation shall be permitted. 
[iW:9.6.2.9.4] 

1 3.7. 1 .4.8.5 Where required by Chapter 1 1 through Chapter 42 
of NFPA 101 and this Code, an automatic fire detection system 
shall be provided in hazardous areas for initiation of the signal- 
ing system. [/0i:9.6.2.10] 

13.7.1.4.9 Occupant Notification. 

13.7.1.4.9.1 Occupant notification shall be provided to alert 
occupants of fire or other emergency where required by other 
sections of this Code. [207:9.6.3.1] 

13.7.1.4.9.2 Occupant notification shall be in accordance 
with 13.7.1.4.9.3 through 13.7.1.4.9.11, unless otherwise pro- 
vided in 13.7.1.4.9.2.1 through 13.7.1.4.9.2.4. 

13.7.1.4.9.2.1* Elevator lobby, hoistway, and associated ma- 
chine room smoke detectors used solely for elevator recall, 
and heat detectors used solely for elevator power shutdown, 
shall not be required to activate the building evacuation alarm 
if the power supply and installation wiring to such detectors 



are monitored by the building fire alarm system, and if the 
activation of such detectors initiates a supervisory signal at a 
constantiy attended location. [/0/:9.6.3.2.1] 

13.7.1.4.9.2.2* Smoke detectors used solely for closing damp- 
ers or heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning system shut- 
down shall not be required to activate the building evacuation 
alarm, provided that the power supply and installation wiring 
to the detectors are monitored by the building fire alarm sys- 
tem, and the activation of the detectors initiates a supervisory 
signal at a constantly attended location. [707:9.6.3.2.2] 

13.7.1.4.9.2.3* Smoke detectors located at doors for the exclu- 
sive operation of automatic door release shall not be required 
to activate the building evacuation alarm, provided that the 
power supply and installation wiring to the detectors are 
monitored by the building fire alarm system, and the activa- 
tion of the detectors initiates a supervisory signal at a con- 
stantly attended location. [707:9.6.3.2.3] 

13.7.1.4.9.2.4 Detectors in accordance with 22.3.4.3.1 (2) and 
23.3.4.3.1 (2) of NFPA 101 shall not be required to activate the 
building evacuation alarm. [707:9.6.3.2.4] 

13.7.1.4.9.3 Where permitted by Chapter 11 through Chap- 
ter 42 of NFPA 101, a presignal system shall be permitted 
where the initial fire alarm signal is automatically transmitted 
without delay to a municipal fire department, to a fire brigade 
(if provided), and an on-site stafiFperson trained to respond to 
a fire emergency. [707:9.6.3.3] 

13.7.1.4.9.4 Where permitted by Chapter 11 through Chap- 
ter 42 of NFPA 101, a positive alarm sequence shall be permit- 
ted, provided that it is in accordance with NFPA 72. [707:9.6.3.4] 

13.7.1.4.9.5 Unless otherwise provided in 13.7.1.4.9.5.1 
through 13.7.1.4.9.5.6, notification signals for occupants to 
evacuate shall be audible and visible signals in accordance 
with NFPA 72 and ICC/ANSI A117.1, American National Stan- 
dard for Accessible and Usable Buildings and Facilities, or other 
means of notification acceptable to the AHJ shall be provided. 
[707:9.6.3.5] 

13.7.1.4.9.5.1 Areas not subject to occupancy by persons who 
are hearing impaired shall not be required to comply with the 
provisions for visible signals. [707:9.6.3.5.1] 

13.7.1.4.9.5.2 Visible-only signals shall be provided where 
specifically permitted in health care occupancies in accor- 
dance with the provisions of Chapter 18 and Chapter 19 of 
NFPA 101. [707:9.6.3.5.2] 

13.7.1.4.9.5.3 Existing alarm systems shall not be required to 
comply with the provision for visible signals. [707:9.6.3.5.3] 

13.7.1.4.9.5.4 Visible signals shall not be required in lodging 
or rooming houses in accordance with the provisions of Chap- 
ter 26 of NFPA 707. [707:9.6.3.5.4] 

13.7.1.4.9.5.5 Visible signals shall not be required in exit stair 
enclosures. [707:9.6.3.5.5] 

13.7.1.4.9.5.6 Visible signals shall not be required in elevator 
cars. [707:9.6.3.5.6] 

13.7.1.4.9.6 The general evacuation alarm signal shall oper- 
ate in accordance with one of the methods prescribed by 
13.7.1.4.9.6.1 through 13.7.1.4.9.6.4. [707:9.6.3.6] 

13.7.1.4.9.6.1 The general evacuation alarm signal shall op- 
erate throughout the entire building. [707:9.6.3.6.1] 



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13.7.1.4.9.6.2* Where total evacuation of occupants is imprac- 
tical due to building configuration, only the occupants in the 
affected zones shall be notified initially. Provisions shall be 
made to selectively notify occupants in other zones to afford 
orderly evacuation of the entire building. [i0/:9. 6.3.6.2] 

13.7.1.4.9.6.3 Where occupants are incapable of evacuating 
themselves because of age, physical or mental disabilities, or 
physical restraint, the private operating mode as described in 
NFPA 72 shall be permitted to be used. Only the attendants and 
other personnel required to evacuate occupants fi-om a zone, 
area, floor, or building shall be required to be notified. The noti- 
fication shall include means to readily identify the zone, area, 
floor, or building in need of evacuation. [/W:9.6.3.6.3] 

13.7.1.4.9.6.4 In mall buildings in accordance with Chapter 36 
and Chapter 37 of NFPA 101, notification within the mall shall be 
permitted in accordance with 36.4.4.4.3.1 (3) and 37.4.4.4.3.1 (3) 
of NFPA 101. [i07:9.6.3.6.4] 

13.7.1.4.9.6.5 The general evacuation signal shall not be re- 
quired to operate in exit stair enclosures. [701:9.6.3.6.5] 

13.7.1.4.9.6.6 The general evacuation signal shall not be re- 
quired to operate in elevator cars. [7W:9.6.3.6.6] 

13.7. 1 .4.9.7 Audible alarm notification appliances shall be of 
such character and so distributed as to be effectively heard 
above the average ambient sound level that exists under nor- 
mal conditions of occupancy. [JW:9. 6.3.7] 

13.7.1.4.9.8 Audible alarm notification appliances shall pro- 
duce signals that are distinctive from audible signals used for 
other purposes in a given building. [702:9.6.3.8] 

13.7.1.4.9.9 Automatically transmitted or live voice evacua- 
tion or relocation instructions shall be permitted to be used to 
notify occupants and shall be in accordance v«th NFPA 72, 
National Fire Alarm Code. [i0i:9.6.3.9] 

13.7.1.4.9.10 Unless otherwise permitted by another section of 
this Code, audible and visible fire alarm notification appliances 
shall comply witii eitiier 13.7.1.4.9.10.1 or 13.7.1.4.9.10.2. 
[/0/:9.6.3.10] ] 

13.7.1.4.9.10.1 Audible and visible fire alarm notification ap- 
pliances shall be used only for fire alarm system or other emer- 
gency purposes. [iOi:9.6.3.10.1] 

13.7.1.4.9.10.2 Voice communication systems shall be permit- 
ted to be used for other purposes, subject to the approval of 
the AHJ, if the fire alarm system takes precedence over all 
other signals. [/W:9.6.3.10.2] 

13.7.1.4.9.11 Alarm notification signals shall take prece- 
dence over all other signals. [/0i:9.6.3.11] 

13.7.1.4.10 Emergency Forces Notification. 

13.7.1.4.10.1 Where required by another section of this Code, 
emergency forces notification shall be provided to alert the 
municipal fire department and fire brigade (if provided) of 
fire or other emergency. [/0/:9. 6.4.1] 

13.7.1.4.10.2 Where fire department notification is required 
by another section of this Code, the fire alarm system shall be 
arranged to transmit the alarm automatically via any of the 
following means acceptable to the AHJ and shall be in accor- 
dance with NFPA 72: 

(1) Auxiliary fire alarm system 

(2) Central station fire alarm system 



(3) Proprietary supervising station fire alarm system 

(4) Remote supervising station fire alarm system [/0/:9.6.4.2] 

13.7.1.4.10.3 For existing installations where none of the 
means of notification specified in 13.7.1.4.10.2(1) through 
13.7.1.4.10.2(4) are available, an approved plan for notifica- 
tion of the municipal fire department shall be permitted. 
[101:9.6.4.3] 

13.7.1.4.11 Fire Safety Functions. 

13.7.1.4.11.1 Fire safety functions shall be installed in accor- 
dance with the requirements oi NFPA 72. [i0/:9. 6.5.1] 

13.7.1.4.11.2 Where required by another section of this Code, 
the following functions shall be actuated: 

(1) Release of hold-open devices for doors or other opening 
protectives 

(2) Stairwell or elevator shaft pressurization 

(3) Smoke management or smoke control systems 

(4) Unlocking of doors 

(5) Elevator recall and shutdown [/0/:9.6.5.2] 

13.7.1.4.12 Location of Controls. Operator controls, alarm 
indicators, and manual communications capability shall be in- 
stalled at a convenient location acceptable to the AHJ. 
[/W:9.6.6] 

13.7.1.4.13 Zoning and Annunciation. 

13.7.1.4.13.1 Where alarm annunciation is required by an- 
other section of this Code, it shall comply with 13.7.1.4.13.2 
through 13.7.1.4.13.7. [iW:9.6.7.1] 

13.7.1.4.13.2 'Wsible Zone Alarm Indication. If required, the 
location of an operated initiating device shall be visibly indi- 
cated by building, floor, fire zone, or other approved subdivi- 
sion by annunciation, printout, or other approved means. The 
visible indication shall not be canceled by the operation of an 
audible alarm silencing means. [72:4.4.6.1] 

13.7.1.4.13.2.1* All required annunciation means shall be 
readily accessible to responding personnel and shall be lo- 
cated as required by the AHJ to facilitate an efficient response 
to the fire situation. [72:4.4.6.1.1] 

13.7.1.4.13.2.2* Zone of Origin. Fire alarm systems serving two 
or more zones shall identify the zone of origin of the alarm initia- 
tion by annunciation or coded signal. [72:4.4.6.1.2] 

13.7.1.4.13.2.3 Display. Visual annunciators shall be capable 
of displaying all zones in alarm. If all zones in alarm are not 
displayed simultaneously, there shall be visual indication that 
other zones are in alarm. [72:4.4.6.1.3] 

13.7.1.4.13.3 Fire Command Center. Alarm annunciation at 
the fire command center shall be by means of audible and 
visible indicators. [ 72:4.4.6.2] 

13.7.1.4.13.4 Zone. For the purpose of alarm annunciation, 
each floor of the building shall be considered as a separate 
zone. If a floor is subdivided by fire or smoke barriers and the 
fire plan for the protected premises allows relocation of occu- 
pants from the zone of origin to another zone on the same 
floor, each zone on the floor shall be annunciated separately 
for purposes of alarm location. [72:4.4.6.3] 

13.7.1.4.13.5 Multiple Buildings. If the system serves more 
than one building, each building shall be indicated separately. 
[72:4.4.6.4] 



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13.7.1.4.13.6 Alarm annunciation at the control center shall 
be by means of audible and visible indicators. [101:9.&.7.2] 

13.7.1.4.13.7 For the purposes of alarm annunciation, each 
floor of the building, other than floors of existing buildings, 
shall be considered as not less than one zone, unless otherwise 
permitted by 13.7.1.4.13.8.3, 13.7.1.4.13.8.4, or another sec- 
tion of this Code. [101:9.6.7.3] 

13.7.1.4.13.8 If a floor area exceeds 22,500 ft^ (2090 m^), 
additional fire alarm zoning shall be provided, and the length 
of any single fire alarm zone shall not exceed 300 ft (91 m) in 
any direction, except as provided in 13.7.1.4.13.8.1 through 
13.7.1.4.13.8.4 or otherwise modified by another section of 
this Code. [iW:9.6.7.4] 

13.7.1.4.13.8.1 Where permitted by another section of this 
Code, fire alarm zones shall be permitted to exceed 22,500 ft^ 
(2090 m^), and the length of a zone shall be permitted to 
exceed 300 ft (91 m) in any direction. [707:9.6.7.4.1] 

13.7.1.4.13.8.2 Where the building is protected by an auto- 
matic sprinkler system in accordance with NFPA 13, the area of 
the fire alarm zone shall be permitted to coincide with the 
allowable area of the sprinkler system. [707:9.6.7.4.2] 

13.7.1.4.13.8.3 Where the building is protected by an auto- 
matic sprinkler system in accordance with NFPA 13D, the 
sprinkler system shall be permitted to be annunciated on the 
fire alarm system as a single zone. [707:9.6.7.4.3] 

13.7.1.4.13.8.4 Where the building is protected by an auto- 
matic sprinkler system in accordance with NFPA 13R, the 
sprinkler system shall be permitted to be annunciated on the 
fire alarm system as a single zone. [707:9.6.7.4.4] 

13.7.1.4.13.9 A system trouble signal shall be annunciated at 
the control center by means of audible and visible indicators. 
[707:9.6.7.5] 

13.7.1.4.13.10 A system supervisory signal shall be annunci- 
ated at the control center by means of audible and visible in- 
dicators. [707:9.6.7.6] 

13.7.2 Where Required. 

13.7.2.1 New Assembly Occupancies. Assembly occupancies 
with occupant loads of more than 300 and all theaters with 
more than one audience-viewing room shall be provided with 
an approved fire alarm system in accordance with Section 13.7 
of this Code and NFPA 101, unless otherwise permitted by the 
following: 

(1) Assembly occupancies that are a part of a multiple occu- 
pancy protected by a mixed occupancy {see 6.1.14) shall 
be permitted to be served by a common fire alarm system, 
provided that the individual requirements of each occu- 
pancy are met. 

(2) Voice communication or public address systems comply- 
ing with 12.3.4.3.4 of NFPA 101 shall not be required to 
comply with 13.7.1.4. [707:12.3.4.1] 

13.7.2.2 Existing Assembly Occupancies. Assembly occupan- 
cies with occupant loads of more than 300 and all theaters with 
more than one audience-viewing room shall be provided with 
an approved fire alarm system in accordance with Section 13.7 
of this Code and NFPA 101, unless otherwise permitted by the 
following: 



(1) Assembly occupancies that are a part of a multiple occu- 
pancy protected as a mixed occupancy {see 6.1.14) shall 
be permitted to be served by a common fire alarm system, 
provided that the individual requirements of each occu- 
pancy are met. 

(2) Voice communication or public address systems comply- 
ing with 13.3.4.3.4 of NFPA 101 shall not be required to 
comply with Section 13.7 of this Code. 

(3) This requirement shall not apply to assembly occupancies 
where, in the judgment of the AHJ, adequate alternative 
provisions exist or are provided for the discovery of a fire 
and for alerting the occupants promptly. [707:13.3.4.1] 

13.7.2.3 New Educational Occupancies. 

13.7.2.3. 1 Educational occupancies shall be provided with a fire 
alarm system in accordance with Section 13.7 and NFPA 101. 
[707:14.3.4.1.1] 

13.7.2.3.2 The requirement of 13.7.2.3.1 shall not apply to 
buildings meeting all of the following criteria: 

(1) Buildings having an area not exceeding 1000 ft^ (93 m^) 

(2) Buildings containing a single classroom 

(3) Buildings located not less than 30 ft (9.2 m) from another 
building [707:14.3.4.1.2] 

13.7.2.4 Existing Educational Occupancies. 

13.7.2.4.1 Educational occupancies shall be provided with afire 
alarm system in accordance with Section 13.7 and NFPA 101. 
[707:15.3.4.1.1] 

13.7.2.4.2 The requirement of 13.7.2.4.1 shall not apply to 
buildings meeting all of the following criteria: 

(1) Buildings having an area not exceeding 1000 ft^ (93 m^) 

(2) Buildings containing a single classroom 

(3) Buildings located not less than 30 ft (9.2 m) from another 
building [707:15.3.4.1.2] 

13.7.2.5 New Health Care Occupancies. 

13.7.2.5.1 General. Health care occupancies shall be pro- 
vided with a fire alarm system in accordance with Section 13.7 
and NFPA 707. [707:18.3.4.1] 

13.7.2.5.2 Detection in Spaces Open to Corridors. Detectors 
shall be installed in spaces open to the corridor in accordance 
with 18.3.6.1 of NFPA 707. 

13.7.2.5.3* Nursing Homes. An approved automatic smoke de- 
tection system shall be installed in corridors throughout smoke 
compartments containing patient sleeping rooms and in spaces 
open to corridors as permitted in nursing homes by 18.3.6.1 of 
NFPA 707, unless otherwise permitted by the following: 

( 1 ) Corridor systems shall not be required where each patient 
sleeping room is protected by an approved smoke detec- 
tion system. 

(2) Corridor systems shall not be required where patient 
room doors are equipped with automatic door-closing de- 
vices with integral smoke detectors on the room side in- 
stalled in accordance with their listing, provided that the 
integral detectors provide occupant notification. 
[707:18.3.4.5.3] 

13.7.2.6 Existing Health Care Occupancies. 

13.7.2.6.1 General. Health care occupancies shall be pro- 
vided with a fire alarm system in accordance with Section 13.7 
and NFPA 101. [707:19.3.4.1] 



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13.7.2.6.2 Corridors. An approved automatic smoke detec- 
tion system in accordance with 13.7.1 shall be installed in all 
corridors of limited care facilities, unless otherwise permitted 
by the following: 

(1) Where each patient sleeping room is protected by an ap- 
proved smolce detection system, and a smoke detector is 
provided at smoke barriers and horizontal exits in accor- 
dance with 13.7.1 of this Code, the corridor smoke detec- 
tion system shall not be required on the patient sleeping 
room floors. 

(2) Smoke compartments protected throughout by an ap- 
proved, supervised automatic sprinkler system in accor- 
dance with 19.3.5.6 of NFPA 101 shall be permitted. 
[;W:19.3.4.5.1] 

13.7.2.6.3 Detection in Spaces Open to Corridors. Detectors 
shall be installed in spaces open to the corridor in accordance 
with 19.3.6.1 of NFPA 101. 

13.7.2.7 New Detention and Correctional Occupancies. 

13.7.2.7.1 Detention and correctional occupancies shall be 
provided with a fire alarm system in accordance with 13.7.1 
and NFPA 101, except as modified by 22.3.4.2 through 
22.3.4.4.3 of NFPA 707. [707:22.3.4.1.1] 

13.7.2.7.2* Detection. An approved automatic smoke detec- 
tion system shall be in accordance with 13.7.1.4, as modified 
by 13.7.2.7.2.1 through 13.7.2.7.2.3, throughout all resident 
sleeping areas and adjacent day rooms, activity rooms, or con- 
tiguous common spaces. [707:22.3.4.4] 

13.7.2.7.2.1 Smoke detectors shall not be required in sleep- 
ing rooms with four or fewer occupants. [707:22.3.4.4.1] 

13.7.2.7.2.2 Other arrangements and positioning of smoke 
detectors shall be permitted to prevent damage or tampering, 
or for other purposes. [707:22.3.4.4.2] 

13.7.2.7.2.2.1 Other arrangements, as specified in 13.7.2.7.2.2, 
shall be capable of detecting any fire, and the placement of de- 
tectors shall be such that the speed of detection is equivalent to 
that provided by the spacing and arrangements required by the 
installation standards referenced in 13.7.1.4. [707:22.3.4.4.2.1] 

13.7.2.7.2.2.2 Detectors shall be permitted to be located in 
exhaust ducts from cells, behind grilles, or in other locadons. 
[707:22.3.4.4.2.2] 

13.7-2.7.2.2.3 The equivalent performance of the design per- 
mitted by 13.7.2.7.2.2.2 shall be acceptable to the AHJ in accor- 
dance with the equivalency concepts specified in Section 1.4 of 
NFPA 707. [707:22.3.4.4.2.3] 

13.7.2.7.2.3* Smoke detectors shall not be required in Use Con- 
dition 11 open dormitories where staff is present within the dor- 
mitory whenever the dormitory is occupied. [707:22.3.4.4.3] 

13.7.2.8 Existing Detention and Correctional Occupancies. 

13.7.2.8.1 Detention and correctional occupancies shall be 
provided with a fire alarm system in accordance with 13.7.1.4 
and NFPA 707, except as modified by 23.3.4.1.2 through 
23.3.4.4.4. [707:23.3.4.1.1] 

13.7.2.8.1.1 Existing systems lacking the monitoring of wir- 
ing required by 13.7.1.4.3 shall be permitted to be continued 
in use in buildings protected by a complete automatic extin- 
guishing system. [707:23.3.4.1.2] 



13.7.2.8.2 Detection. An approved automatic smoke detection 
system shall be in accordance with Section 13.7, as modified by 
13.7.2.8.2.1 through 13.7.2.8.2.4, throughout all resident hous- 
ing areas. [707:23.3.4.4] 

13.7.2.8.2.1 Smoke detectors shall not be required in sleep- 
ing rooms with four or fewer occupants in Use Condition 11 or 
Use Condition III. [707:23.3.4.4.1] 

13.7.2.8.2.2 Other arrangements and positioning of smoke 
detectors shall be permitted to prevent damage or tampering, 
or for other purposes. [707:23.3.4.4.2] 

13.7.2.8.2.2.1 Odier arrangements, as specified in 13.7.2.8.2.2, 
shall be capable of detecting any fire, and the placement of de- 
tectors shall be such that the speed of detection is equivalent to 
that provided by the spacing and arrangements required by the 
installation standards referenced in 13.7. [707:23.3.4.4.2.1] 

13.7.2.8.2.2.2 Detectors shall be permitted to be located in 
exhaust ducts from cells, behind grilles, or in other locations. 
[707:23.3.4.4.2.2] 

13.7.2.8.2.2.3 The equivalent performance of the design per- 
mitted by 13.7.2.8.2.2.2 shall be acceptable to the AHJ in accor- 
dance with the equivalency concepts specified in Section 1.4. 
[707;23.3.4.4.2.3] 

13.7.2.8.2.3* Smoke detectors shall not be required in Use 
Condition II open dormitories where staff is present within 
the dormitory whenever the dormitory is occupied, and the 
building is protected throughout by an approved, supervised 
automatic sprinkler system in accordance with Section 13.3. 
[707:23.3.4.4.3] 

13.7.2.8.2.4 In smoke compartments protected throughout 
by an approved automatic sprinkler system in accordance with 
13.3.2.12, smoke detectors shall not be required, except in 
corridors, common spaces, and sleeping rooms with more 
than four occupants. [707:23.3.4.4.4] 

13.7.2.9 New Hotels and Dormitories. 

13.7.2.9.1 General. A fire alarm system in accordance with 
13.7.1 and NFPA 101, except as modified by 28.3.4.2 through 
28.3.4.5 of NFPA 707, shall be provided. [707:28.3.4.1] 

13.7.2.9.2 Detection. A corridor smoke detection system in 
accordance with Section 13.7 shall be provided in buildings 
other than those protected throughout by an approved, super- 
vised automatic sprinkler system in accordance with 13.3.2.13. 
[707:28.3.4.4] 

13.7.2.9.3* Smoke Alarms. An approved single-station smoke 
alarm shall be installed in accordance with 13.7.1.4.8 in every 
guest room and every living area and sleeping room within a 
guest suite. [707:28.3.4.5] 

13.7.2.10 Existing Hotels and Dormitories. 

13.7.2.10.1 General. A fire alarm system in accordance with 
13.7.1 and NFPA 707, except as modified by 29.3.4.2 through 
29.3.4.5.2 of NFPA 707, shall be provided in buildings other 
than those where each guest room has exterior exit access in 
accordance with 14.10.3 and the building does not exceed 
three stories in height. [707:29.3.4.1] 

13.7.2.10.2* Smoke Alarms. An approved single-station smoke 
alarm shall be installed in accordance with 13.7.1.4.8 in every 
guest room and every living area and sleeping room within a 
guest suite. [707:29.3.4.5] 



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13.7.2.10.2.1 The smoke alarms shall not be required to be 
interconnected. [i02:29.3.4.5.1] 

13.7.2.10.2.2 Single-station smoke alarms without a secondary 
(standby) power source shall be permitted. [/W:29. 3.4.5.2] 

13.7.2.11 New Apartment Buildings. 

13.7.2.11.1 Apartment buildings with more than 3 stories or 
with more than 11 dwelling units, other than those meeting 
the requirements of 13.7.2.11.2 or 13.7.2.11.3, shall be pro- 
vided with a fire alarm system in accordance with Section 13.7 
and NFPA 101, except as modified by 30.3.4.2 through 
30.3.4.5.2 of NFPA 101. [/W:30.3.4.1.1] 

13.7.2.11.2 A fire alarm system shall not be required in build- 
ings where each dwelling unit is separated from other contigu- 
ous dwelling units by fire barriers (see Section 8.3 of NFPA 101) 
having a fire resistance rating of not less than 1 hour, and 
where each dwelling unit has either its own independent exit 
or its own independent stairway or ramp discharging at grade. 
[/<?i:30.3.4.1.2] 

13.7.2.11.3 Afire alarm system shall not be required in build- 
ings that are protected throughout by an approved automatic 
sprinkler system in accordance with 13.3.2.15, that do not exceed 
4 stories in height, and that contain not more than 16 dwelling 
units. [702:30.3.4.1.3] 

13.7.2.11.4* Approved single-station smoke alarms shall be in- 
stalled in accordance with 13.7.1.4.8 outside every sleeping area 
in the immediate vicinity of the bedrooms and on all levels of the 
dwelling unit, including basements. [iOi:30.3.4.5.1] 

13.7.2.11.5 In buildings other than those protected through- 
out by an approved, supervised automatic sprinkler system in- 
stalled in accordance with 13.3.2.15, approved single-station 
smoke alarms shall be installed in every sleeping room in ac- 
cordance widi 13.7.1.4.8. [707:30.3.4.5.2] 

13.7.2.12 Existing Apartment Buildings. 

13.7.2.12.1 Apartment buildings with more than 3 stories or 
with more than 11 dwelling units, other than those meeting 
the requirements of 13.7.2.12.2, shall be provided with a fire 
alarm system in accordance with Section 13.7 and NFPA 101, 
exceptas modified by 31.3.4.2 through 31.3.4.5.2 of NFPAiOi. 
[707:31.3.4.1.1] 

13.7.2.12.2 A fire alarm system shall not be required where 
each dwelling unit is separated from other contiguous dwelling 
units by fire barriers (see Section 8.3 of NFPA 101) having a fire 
resistance rating of not less than Vi hour, and where each dwell- 
ing unit has either its own independent exit or its own indepen- 
dent stairway or ramp discharging at grade. [707:31.3.4.1.2] 

13.7.2.12.3 In buildings other than those equipped 
throughout with an existing, complete automatic smoke de- 
tection system, approved single-station smoke alarms shall 
be installed in accordance with 13.7.1.4.8, as modified by 
13.7.2.12.4, outside every sleeping area in the immediate 
vicinity of the bedrooms and on all levels of the dwelling 
unit, including basements. [707:31.3.4.5.1] 

13.7.2.12.4 Single-station smoke alarms without a secondary 
(standby) power source shall be permitted. [707:31.3.4.5.2] 

13.7.2.13 Lo<%ing and Rooming Houses. Lodging and room- 
ing houses, other than those meeting 13.7.2.13.1, shall be pro- 
vided with a fire alarm system in accordance with Section 13.7 
and NFPA iCi. [707:26.3.4.1.1] 



13.7.2.13.1 Afire alarm system in accordance with Section 
13.7 shall not be required in existing lodging and rooming 
houses that have an existing smoke detection system meeting 
or exceeding the requirements of 26.3.4.5.1 of NFPA 101 
where that detection system includes not less than one manual 
fire alarm box per floor arranged to initiate the smoke detec- 
tion alarm. [707:26.3.4.1.2] 

13.7.2.13.2 Smoke Alarms. 

13.7.2.13.2.1 Approved single-station smoke alarnis, other 
than existing smoke alarms meeting 13.7.2.13.2.3, shall be in- 
stalled in accordance with 13.7.1.4.4 in every sleeping room. 
[707:26.3.4.5.1] 

13.7.2.13.2.2 The smoke alarms required by 13.7.2.13.2.1 
shall not be required to be interconnected. [707:26.3.4.5.2] 

13.7.2.13.2.3 Existing battery-powered smoke alarms, rather 
than house electric-powered smoke alarms, shall be permitted 
where the facility has demonstrated to the AHJ that the test- 
ing, maintenance, and battery replacement programs will en- 
sure reliability of power to the smoke alarms. [707:26.3.4.5.3] 

13.7.2.14 One- and Two-Family Dwellings. 

13.7.2.14.1 Detection, Alarm, and Communications Systems. 

Smoke alarms or a smoke detection system shall be provided in 
accordance with either 13.7.2.14.2 or 13.7.2.14.3, and NFPA 101, 
as modified by 13.7.2.14.4. [707:24.3.4] 

13.7.2.14.2 Smoke alarms shall be installed in accordance 
with 13.7.1.4.8 in the following locations: 

(1) All sleeping rooms in other than existing one- and two- 
family dwellings 

(2) Outside of each separate sleeping area, in the immediate 
vicinity of the sleeping rooms 

(3) On each level of the dwelling unit, including basements 
[707:24.3.4.1] 

13.7.2.14.3 Dwelling units shall be protected by an approved 
smoke detection system in accordance with Section 13.7 and 
equipped with an approved means of occupant notification. 
[707:24.3.4.2] 

13.7.2.14.4 In existing one- and two-family dwellings, ap- 
proved smoke alarms powered by batteries shall be permitted. 
[707:24.3.4.3] 

13.7.2.15 New Residential Board and Care Occupancies. 

13.7.2.15.1 Small Facilities with Sleeping Acconunodations 
for Not More Than 16 Residents. 

13.7.2.15.1.1 Fire Alarm Systems. A manual fire alarm system 
shall be provided in accordance with Section 13.7 and NFPA 
101. [707:32.2.3.4.1] 

13.7.2.15.1.2 Smoke Alarms. 

13.7.2.15.1.2.1 Approved smoke alarms shall be provided in 
accordance with 13.7.1.4.8. [707:32.2.3.4.3.1] 

13.7.2.15.1.2.2 Smoke alarms shall be installed on all levels, 
including basements but excluding crawl spaces and unfin- 
ished attics. [707:32.2.3.4.3.2] 

13.7.2.15.1.2.3 Additional smoke alarms shall be installed in all 
living areas, as defined in 3.3.17.5 in NFPA 101. [707:32.2.3.4.3.3] 



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13.7.2.15.1.2.4 Each sleeping room shall be provided with 
an approved smoke alarm in accordance with 13.7.1.4.8. 
[iOi:32.2.3.4.3.4] 

13.7.2.15.2 Laige Facilities. 

13.7.2.15.2.1 General. Afire alarm system shall be provided in 
accordance with Section 13.7 and NFPA 101. [207:32.3.3.4.1] 

13.7.2.15.2.2 Smoke Alarms. Approved smoke alarms shall be 
installed in accordance with 13.7.1.4.8 inside every sleeping 
room, outside every sleeping area in the immediate vicinity of 
the bedrooms, and on all levels within a resident unit. 
[207:32.3.3.4.7] 

13.7.2.15.2.3 Smoke Detection Systems. 

13.7.2.15.2.3.1 Corridors and spaces open to the corridors, 
other than those meeting 13.7.2.15.2.3.2, shall be provided 
with smoke detectors that comply with NFPA 72 and are ar- 
ranged to initiate an alarm that is audible in all sleeping areas. 
[707:32.3.3.4.8.1] 

13.7.2.15.2.3.2 Smoke detection systems shall not be re- 
quired in unenclosed corridors, passageways, balconies, col- 
onnades, or other arrangements with one or more sides along 
the long dimension fully or extensively open to the exterior at 
all times. [707:32.3.3.4.8.3] 

13.7.2.16 Existing Residential Board and Care Occupancies. 

13.7.2.16.1 Small Facilities with Sleeping Accommodations 
for Not More Than 16 Residents. 

13.7.2.16.1.1 Fire Alarm Systems. A manual fire alarm system 
shall be provided in accordance with Section 13.7 and NFPA 101, 
unless the provisions of 13.7.2.16.1.2 or 13.7.2.16.1.3 are met. 
[707:33.2.3.4.1] 

13.7.2.16.1.2 Afire alarm system shall not be required where 
interconnected smoke alarms complying with 13.7.2.16.1.4 
and not less than one manual fire alarm box per floor ar- 
ranged to continuously sound the smoke detector alarms are 
provided. [707:33.2.3.4.1.1] 

13.7.2.16.1.3 Other manually activated continuously sound- 
ing alarms acceptable to the AHJ shall be permitted in lieu of a 
fire alarm system. [707:33.2.3.4.1.2] 

13.7.2.16.1.4* Smoke Alarms. 

13.7.2.16.1.4.1 Approved smoke alarms shall be provided in 
accordance with 13.7.1.4.8, unless otherwise indicated in 

13.7.2.16.1.4.5 and 13.7.2.16.1.4.6. [707:33.2.3.4.3.1] 

13.7.2.16.1.4.2 Smoke alarms shall be installed on all levels, 
including basements but excluding crawl spaces and unfin- 
ished attics. [707:33.2.3.4.3.2] 

13.7.2.16.1.4.3 Additional smoke alarms shall be installed 
for living rooms, dens, day rooms, and similar spaces. 
[707:33.2.3.4.3.3] 

13.7.2.16.1.4.4 Smoke alarms shall be powered from the 
building electrical system and, when activated, shall initiate an 
alarm that is audible in all sleeping areas. [707:33.2.3.4.3.5] 

13.7.2.16.1.4.5 Smoke alarms in accordance with 
13.7.2.16.1.4.1 shall not be required where buildings are 
protected throughout by an approved automatic sprinkler 
system, in accordance with 13.3.2.20.2.1, that uses quick- 
response or residential sprinklers, and are protected with 



approved smoke alarms installed in each sleeping room, in 
accordance with 13.7.1.4.8, that are powered by the build- 
ing electrical system. [707:33.2.3.4.3.6] 

13.7.2.16.1.4.6 Smoke alarms in accordance with 
13.7.2.16.1.4.1 shall not be required where buildings are pro- 
tected throughout by an approved automatic sprinkler system, 
in accordance with 13.3.2.20.2, that uses quick-response or 
residential sprinklers, with existing battery-powered smoke 
alarms in each sleeping room, and where, in the opinion of 
the AHJ, the facility has demonstrated that testing, mainte- 
nance, and a battery replacement program ensure the reliabil- 
ity of power to the smoke alarms. [707:33.2.3.4.3.7] 

13.7.2.16.2 Large Facilities. 

13.7.2.16.2.1 General. Afire alarm system in accordance with 
13.7.1 and NFPA 101 shall be provided, unless each sleeping 
room has exterior exit access in accordance with 14.10.3 and 
the building is not more than three stories in height. 
[707:33.3.3.4.1] 

13.7.2.16.2.2 Smoke Alarms. Smoke alarms shall be pro- 
vided in accordance with 13.7.2.16.2.2.1, 13.7.2.16.2.2.2, or 
13.7.2.16.2.2.3. [707:33.3.3.4.7] 

13.7.2.16.2.2.1 Each sleeping room shall be provided with an 
approved smoke alarm in accordance with 13.7.1.4.8 that is pow- 
ered from the building electrical system. [707:33.3.3.4.7.1] 

13.7.2.16.2.2.2 Existing battery-powered smoke alarms, 
rather than building electrical service-powered smoke alarms, 
shall be accepted where, in the opinion of the AHJ, the facility 
has demonstrated that testing, maintenance, and battery re- 
placement programs ensure the reliability of power to the 
smoke alarms. [707:33.3.3.4.7.2] 

13.7.2.16.2.2.3 Sleeping room smoke alarms shall not be re- 
quired in facilities having an existing corridor smoke detec- 
tion system that complies with Section 13.7 and is connected 
to the building fire alarm system. [707:33.3.3.4.7.3] 

13.7.2.16.2.3 Smoke Detection Systems. 

13.7.2.16.2.3.1 All living areas, as defined in 3.3.17.5 of 
NFPA 101, and all corridors shall be provided with smoke de- 
tectors that comply with NFPA 72 and are arranged to initiate 
an alarm that is audible in all sleeping areas, as modified by 

13.7.2.16.2.3.2 and 13.7.2.16.2.3.3. [707:33.3.3.4.8.1] 

13.7.2.16.2.3.2 Smoke detection systems shall not be re- 
quired in living areas in facilities protected throughout by an 
approved automatic sprinkler system installed in accordance 
with 13.3.2.20.1. [707:33.3.3.4.8.2] 

13.7.2.16.2.3.3 Smoke detection systems shall not be re- 
quired in unenclosed corridors, passageways, balconies, col- 
onnades, or other arrangements with one or more sides along 
the long dimension fully or extensively open to the exterior at 
all times. [707:33.3.3.4.8.3] 

13.7.2.17 New Mercantile Occupancies. 

13.7.2.17.1 Class A mercantile occupancies shall be provided 
with a fire alarm system in accordance with 13.7.1 andNFPAiOi. 
[707:36.3.4.1] 

13.7.2.17.2 Malls shall be provided with a fire alarm system in 
accordance with Section 13.7. [707:36.4.4.4.1] 

13.7.2.17.3 Bulk merchandising retail buildings shall be pro- 
vided with a fire alarm system in accordance with Section 13.7. 
[707:36.4.5.4.1] 



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13.7.2.18 Existing Mercantile Occupancies. 

13.7.2.18.1 Class A mercantile occupancies shall be provided 
with a fire alarm system in accordance with Section 13.7 and 
NFPAiW. [iOi:37.3.4.1] 

13.7.2.18.2 Malls shall be provided with a fire alarm system in 
accordance with Section 13.7. [/W:37.4.4.4.1] 

13.7.2.18.3 Bulk merchandising retail buildings shall be pro- 
vided with a fire alarm system in accordance with Section 13.7. 
[/0/:37.4.5.4.1] 

13.7.2.19 New Business Occupancies. Afire alarm system in 
accordance with Section 13.7 and NFPA 101 shall be provided 
in all business occupancies where any one of the following 
conditions exists: 

(1) The building is two or more stories in height above the 
level of exit discharge. 

(2) The occupancy is subject to 50 or more occupants above 
or below the level of exit discharge. 

(3) The occupancy is subject to 300 or more total occupants. 
[/07:38.3.4.1] 

13.7.2.20 Existing Business Occupancies. A fire alarm system 
in accordance with Section 13.7 and NFPA 101 shall be pro- 
vided in all business occupancies where any one of the follow- 
ing conditions exists: 

(1) The building is two or more stories in height above the 
level of exit discharge. 

(2) The occupancy is subject to 100 or more occupants above 
or below the level of exit discharge. 

(3) The occupancy is subject to 1000 or more total occupants. 
[i0i:39.3.4.1] 

13.7.2.21 Industrial Occupancies. Afire alarm system shall be 
required in accordance with Section 13.7 and NFPA 101 for 
industrial occupancies, unless the total capacity of the build- 
ing is under 100 persons and, of these, fewer than 25 persons 
are above or below the level of exit discharge. [/0i:40. 3.4.1] 

13.7.2.22 Storage Occupancies. 

13.7.2.22.1 General. Afire alarm system shall be required in 
accordance with Section 13.7 and NFPA 101 for storage occu- 
pancies, except as modified by 13.7.2.22.1.1, 13.7.2.22.1.2, and 
13.7.2.22.1.3. [707:42.3.4.1] 

13.7.2.22.1.1 Storage occupancies limited to low hazard con- 
tents shall not be required to have a fire alarm system. 
[707:42.3.4.1.1] 

13.7.2.22.1.2 Storage occupancies with ordinary or high hazard 
contents not exceeding an aggregate floor area of 100,000 ft^ 
(9300 m^) shall not be required to have a fire alarm system. 
[707:42.3.4.1.2] 

13.7.2.22.1.3 Storage occupancies protected throughout by 
an approved automatic sprinkler system in accordance vnth 
Section 13.3 shall not be required to have a fire alarm system. 
[707:42.3.4.1.3] 

13.7.2.22.2 A fire alarm system shall be required in accor- 
dance with Section 13.7 for parking structures, except as 
modified by 13.7.2.22.1.1, 13.7.2.22.1.2, and 13.7.2.22.1.3. 
[707:42.8.3.4.1] 

13.7.2.22.2.1 Parking structures not exceeding an aggregate 
floor area of 100,000 ft^ (9300 m^) shall not be required to 
have a fire alarm system. [707:42.8.3.4.1.1] 



13.7.2.22.2.2 Open parking structures shall not be required 
to have a fire alarm system. [707:42.8.3.4.1.2] 

13.7.2.22.2.3 Parking structures protected throughout by 
an approved automatic sprinkler system in accordance with 
Section 13.3 shall not be required to have a fire alarm sys- 
tem. [707:42.8.3.4.1.3] 

13.7.2.23 New Day-Care Occupancies. 

13.7.2.23.1 Day-care occupancies, other than day-care occu- 
pancies housed in one room, shall be provided with a fire 
alarm system in accordance with Section 13.7 and NFPA 101. 
[707:16.3.4.1] 

13.7.2.23.2 Detection. A smoke detection system in accor- 
dance with Section 13.7 shall be installed in day-care occupan- 
cies, other than those housed in one room, and such system 
shall comply with both of the following: 

(1) Detectors shall be installed on each story in front of the 
doors to the stairways and in the corridors of all floors 
occupied by the day-care occupancy. 

(2) Detectors also shall be installed in lounges, recreation ar- 
eas, and sleeping rooms in the day-care occupancy. 
[707:16.3.4.5] 

13.7.2.23.3 Day-Care Homes. 

13.7.2.23.3.1 Smoke alarms shall be installed within day- 
care homes in accordance with 13.7.1.4.8 and NFPA 101. 
[707:16.6.3.4.1] 

13.7.2.23.3.2 Where a day-care home is located within a 
building of another occupancy, such as in an apartment build- 
ing or office building, any corridors serving the day-care home 
shall be provided with a smoke detection system in accordance 
with Section 13.7. [707:16.6.3.4.2] 

13.7.2.23.3.3 One of the following shall be provided in all 
rooms used for sleeping: 

(1) Single-station or multiple-station smoke alarms in accor- 
dance with 13.7.1.4.8 that are powered by the building 
electrical system 

(2) System detectors with integral sounding devices in accor- 
dance with 9.6.1.3 of NFPA 101 [707:16.6.3.4.3] 

13.7.2.24 Existing Day-Care Occupancies. 

13.7.2.24.1 Day-care occupancies, other than day-care occu- 
pancies housed in one room, shall be provided with a fire 
alarm system in accordance with 13.7.1 and NFPA 101. 
[707:17.3.4.1] 

13.7.2.24.2 Detection. Asmoke detection system in accordance 
with 13.7.1 shall be installed in day-care occupancies, other than 
those housed in one room or those housing clients capable of 
self-preservation where no sleeping facilities are provided, and 
such system shall comply with both of the follovnng: 

(1) Detectors shall be installed on each story in front of the 
doors to the stairways and in the corridors of all floors 
occupied by the day<are occupancy. 

(2) Detectors shall be installed in lounges, recreation areas, 
and sleeping rooms in the day-care occupancy. 
[707:17.3.4.5] 

13.7.2.24.3 Day-Care Homes. 

13.7.2.24.3.1 Smoke alarms shall be installed within day- 
care homes in accordance with 13.7.1.4.8 and NFPA 101. 
[707:17.6.3.4.1] 



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13.7.2.24.3.2 Where a day-care home is located within a 
building of another occupancy, such as in an apartment build- 
ing or office building, any corridors serving the day-care home 
shall be provided with a smoke detection system in accordance 
with 13.7.1. [i0i:17.6.3.4.2] 

13.7.2.24.3.3 One of the following shall be provided in all 
rooms used for sleeping: 

(1) Single-station or multiple-station smoke alarms in accor- 
dance with 13.7.1.4.8 that are powered by the building 
electrical system 

(2) System detectors with integral sounding devices in accor- 
dance with 13.7.1.4.9.1 [iW:17.6.3.4.3] 

13.7.2.24.3.4 Approved existing battery-powered smoke 
alarms, rather than house electrical service-powered smoke 
alarms required by 13.7.2.24.3.3, shall be permitted where the 
facility has testing, maintenance, and battery replacement pro- 
grams that ensure reliability of power to the smoke alarms. 
[i0i:17.6.3.4.4] 

13.7.2.25 New Ambulatory Health Care Occupancies. Ambu- 
latory health care facilities shall be provided with fire alarm 
systems in accordance with Section 13.7 and NFPA 101, except 
as modified by 20.3.4.2 through 20.3.4.4 of NFPA 101. 
[;W:20.3.4.1] 

13.7.2.26 Existing Ambulatory Health Care Occupancies. Am- 
bulatory health care facilities shall be provided with fire alarm 
systems in accordance with Section 13.7 and NFPA 101, except 
as modified by 21.3.4.2 through 21.3.4.4 of NFPA 101. 
[i0i:21.3.4.1] 

13.7.2.27 Special Structures and High-Rise Buildings. 

13.7.2.27.1 Detection, Alarm, and Commiuiications Systems. 

Towers designed for occupancy by not more than three per- 
sons shall be exempt from requirements for detection, alarm, 
and communications systems. [101:11.3.3,4] 

13.7.2.27.2 High-Rise Buildings. 

13.7.2.27.2.1* A fire alarm system using an approved, emer- 
gency voice/alarm communication system shall be installed in 
accordance with Section 13.7 and NFPA 101. [iO/:11.8.3.1] 

13.7.2.27.2.2 Two-way telephone service shall be in accor- 
dance with 13.7.2.27.2.2.1 and 13.7.2.27.2.2.2. [iW:11.8.3.2] 

13.7.2.27.2.2.1 Two-way telephone communication service 
shall be provided for fire department use. This system shall be 
in accordance with NFPA 72. The communications system shall 
operate between the emergency command center and every 
elevator car, every elevator lobby, and each floor level of exit 
stairs. [107:11.8.3.2.1] 

13.7.2.27.2.2.2 The requirement of 13.7.2.27.2.2.1 shall not 
apply where the fire department radio system is approved as 
an equivalent system. [101:11.8.3.2.2] 

13.7.3 Fire Alarm Systems. 

13.7.3.1 General. 

13.7.3.1.1 Equipment. Equipment constructed and installed 
in conformity with this Code shall be listed for the purpose for 
which it is used. Fire alarm system components shall be in- 
stalled in accordance with the manufacturers' installation in- 
structions. [72:4.3.1] 

13.7.3.1.2 Compatibility. All fire detection devices that re- 
ceive their power from the initiating device circuit or signaling 
line circuit of a fire alarm control unit shall be listed for use 
with the control unit. [ 72:4.4.2] 



13.7.3.2 Documentation. 

13.7.3.2.1 Approval and Acceptance. 

13.7.3.2.1.1 The AHJ shall be notified prior to installation or 
alteration of equipment or wiring. At the AHJ's request, com- 
plete information regarding the system or system alterations, 
including specifications, shop drawings, battery calculations, 
and notification appliance circuit voltage drop calculations 
shall be submitted for approval. [72:4.5.1.1] 

13.7.3.2.1.2 Before requesting final approval of the installa- 
tion, if required by the AHJ, the installing contractor shall 
furnish a written statement stating that the system has been 
installed in accordance with approved plans and tested in ac- 
cordance with the manufacturer's specifications and the ap- 
propriate NFPA requirements. [72:4.5.1.2] 

13.7.3.2.1.3* The record of completion form. Figure 4.5.2.1 of 
NFPA 72, shall be permitted to be a part of the written state- 
ment required in 13.7.3.2.1.2. When more than one contrac- 
tor has been responsible for the installation, each contractor 
shall complete the portions of the form for which that contrac- 
tor had responsibility. [72:4.5.1.3] 

13.7.3.2.1.4 The record of completion form. Figure 4.5.2.1 of 
NFPA 72, shall be permitted to be a part of the documents that 
support the requirements of 13.7.3.2.1.3. [72:4.5.1.4] 

13.7.3.2.2* Preparation. The preparation of a record of 
completion. Figure 4.5.2.1 oi NFPA 72, shall be the responsibil- 
ity of the qualified and experienced person described in 4.3.3 
of NFPA 72 and shall be in accordance with 13.7.3.2.2.1 and 
13.7.3.2.2.2. [72:4.5.2.1] 

13.7.3.2.2.1 Parts 1, 2, and 4 through 10 shall be completed 
after the system is installed and the installation wiring has 
been checked. Part 3 shall be completed after the operational 
acceptance tests have been completed. [72:4.5.2.1 (A)] 

13.7.3.2.2.2 A preliminary copy of the record of completion 
shall be given to the system owner and, if requested, to other 
AHJs after completion of the installation wiring tests. A final 
copy shall be provided after completion of the operational 
acceptance tests. [ 72:4.5.2.1 (B)] 

13.7.3.2.3 Revision. All fire alarm systems that are modified 
after the initial installation shall have the original record of 
completion revised to show all changes from the original in- 
formation and shall include a revision date. [72:4.5.2.2] 

13.7.3.2.4 Documentation Required. Every system shall in- 
clude the following documentation, which shall be delivered 
to the owner or the owner's representative upon final accep- 
tance of the system: 

(l)*An owner's manual and installation instructions covering 
all system equipment 

(2) Record drawings 

(3) For software-based systems, a record copy of the site- 
specific software [72:4.5.2.3] 

13.7.3.2.5* Verification of Compliant Installation. Where re- 
quired, compliance of the completed installation with the re- 
quirements of this Code and NFPA 72, as implemented via the 
referring code(s), specifications, and/or other criteria appli- 
cable to the specific installation, shall be certified by a quali- 
fied and impartial third-party organization acceptable to the 
AHJ. [72:4.5.2.4] 



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13.7.3.2.5.1 At a minimum, the verification shall ensure that 
the installed system includes all required components and 
functions, that those components and functions are installed 
and operate as required, that the system has been 100-percent 
acceptance tested in accordance with Chapter 10 oi NFPA 72, 
and that all required documentation has been provided to the 
system owner. For supervising station systems, the verification 
shall also ascertain proper arrangement, transmission, and re- 
ceipt of all signals required to be transmitted off-premises. 

Exception: Where the installation is an extension, modification, or 
reconfiguration of an existing system, the verification shall be required 
for the new work only and reacceptance testing in accordance with 
Chapter 10 of NFPA 72 shall be acceptable. [72:4.5.2.4.1] 

13.7.3.2.5.2 Verification shall include confirmation that any re- 
quired corrective actions have been completed. [72i4.5.2.4.2] 

13.7.3.2.6 Recoids. 

13.7.3.2.6.1 A complete, unalterable record of the tests and 
operations of each system shall be kept until the next test and 
for 1 year thereafter. [72:4.5.3.1] 

13.7.3.2.6.2 The record shall be available for examination 
and, if required, reported to the AHJ. Archiving of records by 
any means shall be permitted if hard copies of the records can 
be provided prompdy when requested. [ 72:4.5.3.2] 

13.7.3.2.6.3 ff off-premises monitoring is provided, records of 
all signals, tests, and operations recorded at the supervising sta- 
tion shall be maintained for not less than 1 year. [ 72:4.5.3.3] 

13.7.3.2.7* Testing Frequency. Testing shall be performed in 
accordance with the schedules in Table 13.7.3.2.7, except as 
modified in other paragraphs of 13.7.3.2, or more often if 
required by the AHJ. 

Exception: Devices or equipment that are inaccessible for safety con- 
siderations (e.g., continuous process operations, energized electrical 
equipment, radiation, and excessive height) shall be tested during 
scheduled shutdowns if approved by the AHJ but shall not be tested 
more than every 18 months. [72:10.4.3] 

13.7.3.2.7.1 If automatic testing is performed at least weekly 
by a remotely monitored fire alarm control unit specifically 
listed for the application, the manual testing frequency shall 
be permitted to be extended to annually. Table 13.7.3.2.7 shall 
apply [72:10.4.3.1] 

13.7.3.3 Manually Actuated Alarm-Initiating Devices. 

13.7.3.3.1 Manual fire alarm boxes shall be used only for fire 
alarm-initiating purposes. [72:5.12.1] 

13.7.3.3.2 Combination manual fire alarm boxes and guard's 
signaling stations shall be permitted. [72:5.12.2] 

13.7.3.3.3 Each manual fire alarm box shall be securely 
mounted. [72:5.12.3] 

13.7.3.3.4 The operable part of each manual fire alarm box 
shall be not less than SVa ft (1.1 m) and not more than 41/2 ft 
(1.37 m) above floor level. [72:5.12.4] 

13.7.3.3.5* Manual fire alarm boxes shall be located through- 
out the protected area so that they are conspicuous, unob- 
structed, and accessible. [72:5.12.5] 

13.7.3.3.6 Manual fire alarm boxes shall be located within 5 ft 
(1 .5 m) of the exit doorway opening at each exit on each floor. 
[72:5.12.6] 



13.7.3.3.7 Manual fire alarm boxes shall be mounted on both 
sides of grouped openings over 40 ft (12.2 m) in width, and 
within 5 ft (1.5 m) of each side of the opening. [72:5.12.7] 

13.7.3.3.8* Additional manual fire alarm boxes shall be pro- 
vided so that the travel distance to the nearest fire alarm box 
will not be in excess of 200 ft (61 m) measured horizontally on 
the same floor. [72:5.12.8] 

13.7.3.4 Certificated or Placarded. The prime contractor 
shall conspicuously indicate that the fire alarm system proNid- 
ing service at a protected premises complies with all the re- 
quirements of this Code by providing a means of third-party 
verification, as specified in 13.7.3.4.1 or 13.7.3.4.2. [72:8.2.4] 

13.7.3.4.1 The installation shall be certificated. [72:8.2.4.1] 

13.7.3.4.1.1 Fire alarm systems providing service that complies 
with all the requirements of this Code shall be certificated by the 
oi^anization that has listed the central station. [72:8.2.4.1.1] 

13.7.3.4.1.2 A document attesting to certification shall be lo- 
cated on or within 36 in. (1 m) of the fire alarm system control 
unit or, if no control unit exists, on or within 36 in. (1 m) of a 
fire alarm system component. [72:8.2.4.1.2] 

13.7.3.4.1.3 A central repository of issued certification docu- 
ments, accessible to the AHJ, shall be maintained by the orga- 
nization that listed the central station. [72:8.2.4.1.3] 

13.7.3.4.2 The installation shall be placarded. [72:8.2.4.2] 

13.7.3.4.2.1 Fire alarm systems providing service that complies 
with all the requirements of this Code shall be conspicuously 
marked by the central station to indicate compliance. 
[72:8.2.4.2.1] 

13.7.3.4.2.2 The marking shall be by one or more placards 
that meet the requirements of the organization that listed the 
central station and requires the placard. [72:8.2.4.2.2] 

13.7.3.4.2.3 The placard (s) shall be 20 in.^ (130 cm^) or 
larger, shall be located on or within 36 in. (1 m) of the fire 
alarm system control unit or, if no control unit exists, on or 
within 36 in. (1 m) of a fire alarm system component, and shall 
identify the central station by name and telephone number. 
[72:8.2.4.2.3] 

13.7.3.4.2.4 Fire alarm system service that does not comply 
with all the requirements of Section 8.2 ofNFPA 72 shall not be 
designated as central station service. [72:8.2.4.3] 

13.7.3.4.2.5 For the purpose of Section 8.2 of NFPA 72, the 
subscriber shall notify the prime contractor, in writing, of the 
identity of the AHJs. [ 72:8.2.4.4] 

13.7.3.5 Automatic Fire Detection and Alarm Service. 

13.7.3.5.1 Automatic fire detectors shall be located, main- 
tained, and tested in accordance with NFPA 72. 

13.7.3.5.2 Automatic Fire Alarm Signal Initiation — Initiating 
Devices with Integral Trouble Contacts. Automatic fire alarm 
signal initiation devices that have integral trouble signal con- 
tacts shall be connected to the initiating device circuit so that a 
trouble condition within a device does not impair alarm trans- 
mission from any other initiating device. 

Exception: Where the trouble condition is caused by electrical discon- 
nection of the device err by removing the initiating device from its 
plug-in base. [72:6.8.5.3] 



2006 Edition 



1-102 



UNIFORM FIRE CODE 



Table 13.7.3.2.7 Testing Frequencies 



Component 



Initial/ 
Reacceptance 



Monthly 



Quarterly Semiannually Annually 



JVFiM 72 Table 

10.4.2.2 

Reference 



Control Equipment — Building Systems Connected to 
Supervising Station 

(a) Functions 

(b) Fuses 

(c) Interfaced equipment 

(d) Lamps and LEDs 

(e) Primary (main) power supply 

(f) Transponders 



1,7,16,17 



X 
X 
X 
X 
X 
X 



X 
X 
X 
X 
X 
X 



Control Equipment — Building Systems Not Connected to a — 
Supervising Station 

(a) Functions X 

(b) Fuses X 

(c) Interfaced equipment X 

(d) Lamps and LEDs X 

(e) Primary (main) power supply X 

(f) Transponders X 



X 
X 
X 
X 
X 
X 



3. Engine-Driven Generator — Central Station Facilities and 
Fire Alarm Systems 



4. Engine-Driven Generator — Public Fire Alarm Reporting 
Systems 



X (weekly) 



5. Batteries — Central Station Facilities 

(a) Lead-acid type 

1. Charger test (replace battery as needed.) 

2. Discharge test (30 minutes) 

3. Load voltage test 

4. Specific gravity 

(b) Nickel-cadmium type 

1. Charger test (replace battery as needed.) 

2. Discharge test (30 minutes) 

3. Load voltage test 

(c) Sealed lead-acid type 

1. Charger test (replace battery within 5 years after 
manufacture or more frequendy as needed.) 

2. Discharge test (30 minutes) 

3. Load voltage test 



X 
X 
X 
X 

X 
X 
X 
X 



X 
X 



X 
X 



X 
X 



X 
X 



6b 



6c 



6d 



6. Batteries — Fire Alarm Systems 

(a) Lead-acid type 

1. Charger test (replace battery as needed.) 

2. Discharge test (30 minutes) 

3. Load voltage test 

4. Specific gravity 

(b) Nickel-cadmium type 

1. Charger test (replace battery as needed.) 

2. Discharge test (30 minutes) 

3. Load voltage test 

(c) Primary type (dry cell) 
1. Load voltage test 

(d) Sealed lead-acid type 

1. Charger test (replace battery within 5 years after 
manufacture or more frequently as needed.) 

2. Discharge test (30 minutes) 

3. Load voltage test 



X 
X 

X 
X 

X 
X 
X 

X 

X 

X 
X 



X 
X 

X 



X 
X 



X 
X 



6b 



6c 



6a 
6d 



7. Batteries — Public Fire Alarm Reporting Systems 

Voltage tests in accordance with Table 10.4.2.2 of NFPA 72, 
items 7(l)-(6) 

(a) Lead-acid type 

1. Charger test (replace battery as needed.) 

2. Discharge test (2 hours) 

3. Load voltage test 

4. Specific gravity 

(b) Nickel-cadmium type 

1. Charger test (replace battery as needed.) 

2. Discharge test (2 hours) 

3. Load voltage test 



X (daily) 



X 
X 
X 
X 

X 
X 

X 



X 
X 



6b 



6c 



X 
X 



2006 Edition 





FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEMS 






1-103 


Table 13.7.3.2.7 Continued 


Component 


Initial/ 
Reacceptance Monthly 


Quarterly Semiannually 


Annually 


NFPA 72 Table 

10.4.2.2 

Reference 



(c) Sealed lead-acid type 

1. Charger test (replace battery within 5 years after 
manufacture or more frequently as needed.) 

2. Discharge test (2 hours) 



15. Initiating Devices 

(a) Duct detectors 

(b) Electromechanical releasing device 

(c) Fire extinguishing system(s) or suppression system(s) 
switches 

(d) Fire-gas and other detectors 

(e) Heat detectors (The requirements of 10.4.3.4 of NFPA 72 
shall apply.) 

(f) Fire alarm boxes 

(g) Radiant energy fire detectors 

(h) System smoke detectors — functional 

(i) Smoke detectors — sensitivity (The requirements of 

10.4.3.2 of NFPA 72 shall apply) 

(j) Single- and multiple-station smoke alarms (The 

requirements for monthly testing in accordance with 10.4.4 of 

NFPA 72 shall also apply) 

(k) Single- and multiple-station heat alarms 

(I) Supervisory signal devices (except valve tamper switches) 



X 
X 
X 

X 
X 

X 
X 
X 



X 
X 



19. Alarm Notification Appliances 

(a) Audible devices 

(b) Audible textual notification appliances 

(c) Visible devices 



X 
X 
X 



X 
X 
X 

X 
X 

X 

X 



X 
X 
X 



6d 





3. Load voltage test 






X 


— 


X 


— 


— 


— 


8. 


Fiber-Optic Cable Power 






X 


— 


— 


— 


X 


12b 


9. 


Control Unit Trouble Signals 






X 


— 


— 


— 


X 


9 


10. 


Conductors — Metallic 






X 


— 


— 


— 


— 


11 


11. 


Conductors — Nonmetallic 






X 


— 


— 


— 


— 


12 


12. 


Emergency Voice/Alarm Communications 


Eq 


|uipment 


X 


— 


— 


— 


X 


18 


13. 


Retransmission Equipment 

(The requirements of 10.4.7 ol NFPA 72 shall 


apply.) 


X 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


14. 


Remote Annunciators 






X 


— 


— 


— 


X 


10 



13 





(m) Waterflow devices 
(n) Valve tamper switches 


X 
X 


— 


— 


X 
X 


— 


— 


16. 


Guard's Tour Equipment 


X 


— 


— 


— 


X 


— 


17. 


Interface Equipment 


X 


— 


— 


— 


X 


19 


18. 


Special Hazard Equipment 


X 


— 


— 


— 


X 


15 



14 



20. Off-Premises Transmission Equipment 



21. Supervising Station Fire Alarm Systems — Transmitters 

(a) DACT 

(b) DART 

(c) McCulloh 
(d)RAT 



X 
X 
X 
X 



X 
X 
X 
X 



16 



22. Special Procedures 



21 



23. Supervising Station Fire Alarm Systems — Receivers 
(a) DACR 
(b)DARR 

(c) McCulloh systems 

(d) Two-way RF multiplex 
(e)RASSR 
(f)RARSR 

(g) Private microwave 



X 


X 


X 


X 


X 


X 


X 


X 


X 


X 


X 


X 


X 


X 



17 



[72:Table 10.4.3] 



2006 Edition 



1-104 



UNIFORM FIRE CODE 



13.7.3.5.3* Systems equipped with alarm verification features 
shall be permitted, under the following conditions: 

(1) The alarm verification feature is not initially enabled un- 
less conditions or occupant activities that are expected to 
cause nuisance alarms are anticipated in the area that is 
protected by the smoke detectors. Enabling of the alarm 
verification feature shall be protected by password or lim- 
ited access. 

(2) A smoke detector that is continuously subjected to a 
smoke concentration above alarm threshold does not de- 
lay the system functions of 4.4.3, 6.8.1.1, or 6.15.2.1 of 
NFPA 72 hy more than 1 minute. 

(3) Actuation of an alarm-initiating device other than a 
smoke detector causes the system functions of 4.4.3, 
6.8.1.1, or 6.15.2.1 oi NFPA 72without additional delay 

(4) The current status of the alarm verification feature is 
shown on the record of completion. (See Figure 4.5.2.1, 
item 10 of NFPA 72.) [72:6.8.5.4.1] 

13.7.3.5.4 If automatic drift compensation of sensitivity for a 
fire detector is provided, the control unit shall identify the 
affected detector when the limit of compensation is reached. 
[72:6.8.5.4.2] 

13.7.3.5.5 Systems that require the operation of two auto- 
matic detectors to initiate the alarm response shall be permit- 
ted provided the following conditions are satisfied: 

(1) The systems are not prohibited by the AHJ. 

(2) At least two automatic detectors are in each protected 
space. 

(3) The alarm verification feature is not used. [72:6.8.5.4.3] 

13.7.3.5.6 For systems that require the operation of two auto- 
matic detectors to initiate fire safety functions or to actuate 
fire extinguishing or suppression systems, the detectors shall 
be installed at the spacing determined in accordance with 
Chapter 5 of M<PA 72. [72:6.8.5.4.4] 

13.7.3.5.7 For systems that require the operation of two auto- 
matic detectors to actuate public mode notification, the detec- 
tors shall be installed at a linear spacing not more than 0.7 times 
the linear spacing determined in accordance with Chapter 5 of 
NFPA 72. [72:6.8.5.4.5] 

13.7.3.6 Alarm Signal Initiation and Water Flow. 

13.7.3.6.1 A dry-pipe or preaction sprinkler system supplied 
with water by a connection beyond the alarm-initiating device 
of a wet-pipe system shall be equipped with a separate water- 
flow alarm-initiating pressure switch or other approved means 
to initiate a waterflow alarm. [72:6.8.5.5.1] 

13.7.3.6.2 The number of waterflow switches permitted to be 
connected to a single initiating device circuit shall not exceed 

five. [72:6.8.5.5.2] 

13.7.3.6.3 Automatic fire suppression system alarm-initiating 
devices and supervisory signal-initiating devices and their circuits 
shall be designed and installed so that they cannot be subject to 
tampering, opening, or removal without initiating a signal. This 
provision shall include junction boxes installed outside of build- 
ings to facilitate access to the initiating device circuit. 

Exception No. 1: Covers of junction boxes inside of buildings. 

Exception No. 2: Tamperproof screws or other approved mechanical 
means shall be permitted for preventing access to junction boxes in- 
stalled outside buildings. [72:6.8.5.10.1] 



13.7.3.6.4 The number of supervisory devices permitted to 
be connected to a single initiating device circuit shall not ex- 
ceed 20. [72:6.8.5.7.2] 

13.7.3.6.5* Initiation of the alarm signal shall occur vrithin 
90 seconds of waterflow at the alarm-initiating device when 
flow occurs that is equal to or greater than that from a single 
sprinkler of the smallest orifice size installed in the system. 
[72:5.10.2] 

13.7.3.7* Monitoring Integrity of Installation Conductors and 
Other Signaling Channels. Unless otherwise permitted or re- 
quired by 13.7.3.7.1.1 through 13.7.3.7.1.13, all means of in- 
terconnecting equipment, devices, and appliances and wiring 
connections shall be monitored for the integrity of the inter- 
connecting conductors or equivalent path so that the occur- 
rence of a single open or a single ground-fault condition in 
the installation conductors or other signaling channels and 
their restoration to normal shall be automatically indicated 
within 200 seconds. [72:4.4.7.1] 

13.7.3.7.1 Monitoring for integrity shall not be required for 
styles of initiating device circuits, signaling line circuits, and noti- 
fication appliance circuits tabulated in Table 6.5, Table 6.6.1, and 
Table 6.7 oiNFPA 72 that do not have an "X" under "Trouble" for 
the abnormal condition indicated. [72:4.4.7.1.1] 

13.7.3.7.2 Shorts between conductors, other than as required 
by 13.7.3.7.6, 13.7.3.7.15, and 4.4.7.2.2 and Table 6.5, Table 6.6.1, 
and Table 6.7 of NFPA 72, shall not be required to monitored. 

[72:4.4.7.1.2] 

13.7.3.7.3 Monitoring for integrity shall not be required for a 
noninterfering shunt circuit, provided that a fault circuit con- 
dition on the shunt circuit wiring results only in the loss of the 
noninterfering feature of operation. [72:4.4.7.1.3] 

13.7.3.7.3.1 Monitoring for integrity shall not be required for 
connections to and between supplementary system compo- 
nents, provided that single open, ground, or short-circuit con- 
ditions of the supplementary equipment or interconnecting 
means, or both, do not affect the required operation of the 
fire alarm system. [72:4.4.7.1.4] 

13.7.3.7.3.2 Monitoring for integrity shall not be required for 
the circuit of an alarm notification appliance installed in the 
same room with the central control equipment, provided that 
the notification appliance circuit conductors are installed in 
conduit or are equivalently protected against mechanical in- 
jury. [72:4.4.7.1.5] 

13.7.3.7.4 Monitoring for integrity shall not be required for a 
trouble signal circuit. [72:4.4.7.1.6] 

13.7.3.7.5* Monitoring for integrity shall not be required for 
the interconnection between listed equipment within a com- 
mon enclosure. [72:4.4.7.1.7] 

13.7.3.7.6 Monitoring for integrity shall not be required for 
the interconnection between enclosures containing control 
equipment located within 20 ft (6 m) of each other where the 
conductors are installed in conduit or equivalentiy protected 
against mechanical injury. [72:4.4.7.1.8] 

13.7.3.7.7 Monitoring for integrity shall not be required for 
the conductors for ground detection where a single ground 
does not prevent the required normal operation of the system. 
[72:4.4.7.1.9] 

13.7.3.7.8 Monitoring for integrity shall not be required for 
central station circuits serving notification appliances within a 
central station. [72:4.4.7.1.10] 



2006 Edition 



FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEMS 



1-105 



13.7.3.7.9 Monitoring for integrity shall not be required for 
pneumatic rate-of-rise systems of the continuous line type in 
which the wiring terminals of such devices are connected in 
multiple across electrically supervised circuits. [72:4.4.7.1.11] 

13.7.3.7.10 Monitoring for integrity shall not be required for 
the interconnecting wiring of a stationary computer and the 
computer's keyboard, video monitor, mouse-type device, or 
touch screen, so long as the interconnecting wiring does not ex- 
ceed 8 ft (2.4 m) in length; is a listed computer/ data processing 
cable as permitted by NFPA 70; and failure of cable does not 
cause the failure of the required system fiinctions not initiated 
from the keyboard, mouse, or touch screen. [72:4.4.7.1.12] 

13.7.3.7.11 Monitoring for integrity of the installation con- 
ductors for a ground-fault condition shall not be required for 
the communications and transmission channels extending 
from a supervising station to a subsidiary station (s) or pro- 
tected premises, or both, which comply with the requirements 
of Chapter 8 of NFPA 72 and are electrically isolated from the 
fire alarm system (or circuits) by a transmitter(s), provided 
that a single ground condition does not affect the required 
operation of the fire alarm system. [72:4.4.7.1.13] 

13.7.3.7.12 Interconnection means shall be arranged so that 
a single break or single ground fault does not cause an alarm 
signal. [72:4.4.7.1.14] 

13.7.3.7.13 Unacknowledged alarm signals shall not be inter- 
rupted if a fault on an initiating device circuit or a signaling 
line circuit occurs while there is an alarm condition on that 
circuit. [72:4.4.7.1.15] 

Exception: Circuits used to interconnect fire alarm control panels. 

13.7.3.7.14 An open, ground, or short-circuit fault on the 
installation conductors of one alarm notification appliance 
circuit shall not affect the operation of any other alarm notifi- 
cation circuit. [72:4.4.7.1.16] 

13.7.3.7.15 Unless otherwise permitted or required by 
13.7.3.7.15.1 dirough 13.7.3.7.15.3, die occurrence of a wire-to- 
wire short-circuit fault on any alarm notification appliance circuit 
shall result in a trouble signal at the protected premises. 
[72:4.4.7.1.17] 

13.7.3.7.15.1 A trouble signal shall not be required for a circuit 
employed to produce a supplementary local alarm signal, pro- 
vided that the occurrence of a short circuit on the circuit in no 
way aflfects the required operation of the fire alarm system. 
[724.4.7.1.17.1] 

13.7.3.7.15.2 A trouble signal shall not be required for the 
circuit of an alarm notification appliance installed in the same 
room with the central control equipment, provided that the 
notification appliance circuit conductors are installed in con- 
duit or are equivalently protected against mechanical injury. 
[72:4.4.7.1.17.2] 

13.7.3.7.15.3 A trouble signal shall not be required for cen- 
tral station circuits serving notification appliances within a 
central station. [72:4.4.7.1.17.3] 

13.7.3.8* At least two independent and reliable power sup- 
plies shall be provided, one primary and one secondary, each 
of which shall be of adequate capacity for the application. 
[72:4.4.1.3.1] 

13.7.4 Automatic Fire Detectors. 

13.7.4.1 Installation. 

13.7.4.1.1 Where subject to mechanical damage, an initiat- 
ing device shall be protected. A mechanical guard used to 



protect a smoke or heat detector shall be listed for use with 
the detector. [72:5.4.2] 

13.7.4.1.2 Initiating devices shall be supported indepen- 
dendy of their attachment to the circuit conductors. [ 72:5.4.3] 

13.7.4.1.2.1 Initiating devices shall be installed in a manner 
that provides accessibility for periodic maintenance. [72:5.4.4] 

13.7.4.1.2.2 Initiating devices shall be installed in all areas, 
compartments, or locations where required by other NFPA 
codes and standards or as required by the AHJ. [72:5.4.5] 

13.7.4.1.2.3* Duplicate terminals, leads, or connectors that 
provide for the connection of installation wiring shall be pro- 
vided on each initiating device for the express purpose of con- 
necting into the fire alarm system to monitor the integrity of 
the signaling and power wiring. 

Exception: Initiating devices connected to a system that provides the 
required monitoring. [72:5.4.6] 

13.7.4.1.3 Duct Detector Installation. 

13.7.4.1.3.1 Smoke detectors shall be installed, tested, and 
maintained in accordance with NFPA 72. [90A:6.4.4.1] 

13.7.4.1.3.2 In addition to the requirements of 6.4.3 of 
NFPA 90A, Standard for the Installation of Air-Conditioning and 
Ventilating Systems, where an approved fire alarm system is in- 
stalled in a building, the smoke detectors required by the pro- 
visions of Section 6.4 of NFPA 90A shall be connected to the 
fire alarm system in accordance with the requirements of 
NFPA 72. [90A:6.4.4.2] 

13.7.4.1.3.2.1 Smoke detectors used solely for closing damp- 
ers or for heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning system 
shutdown shall not be required to activate the building evacu- 
ation alarm. [90A:6.4.4.2.1] 

13.7.4.1.3.3 Where smoke detectors required by Section 6.4 
of NFPA 90A are installed in a building not equipped with an 
approved fire alarm system as specified by 13.7.4.1.3.2, the 
following shall occur: 

(1) Smoke detector activation required by Section 6.4 of 
NFPA 90A shall cause a visual and audible signal in a nor- 
mally occupied area. 

(2) Smoke detector trouble conditions shall be indicated vi- 
sually or audibly in a normally occupied area and shall be 
identified as air duct detector trouble. [90A:6.4.4.3] 

13.7.4.1.3.4 Smoke detectors powered separately from the 
fire alarm system for the sole function of stopping fans shall 
not require standby power. [90A:6.4.4.4] 

13.7.4.2 Requirements for Smoke and Heat Detectors. 

13.7.4.2.1 Recessed Mounting. Unless tested and listed for re- 
cessed mounting, detectors shall not be recessed into the 
mounting surface. [72:5.5.1] 

13.7.4.3 Location. 

13.7.4.3.1 Unless otherwise modified by 13.7.4.3.2 or 
13.7.4.3.3, spot-type heat-sensing fire detectors shall be lo- 
cated on the ceiling not less than 4 in. (100 mm) from the 
sidewall or on the sidewalls between 4 in. and 12 in. (100 mm 
and 300 mm) from the ceiling. [72:5.6.3.1] 

13.7.4.3.2* In the case of solid joist construction, detectors 
shall be mounted at the bottom of the joists. [72:5.6.3.1.1] 



2006 Edition 



1-106 



UNIFORM FIRE CODE 



13.7.4.3.3 In the case of beam construction where beams are 
less than 12 in. (300 mm) in depth and less than 8 ft (2.4 m) 
on center, detectors shall be permitted to be installed on the 
bottom of beams. [72:5.6.3.1.2] 

13.7.4.3.4 Unless otherwise modified by 13.7.4.3.4.1 through 
13.7.4.3.4.3, line-type heat detectors shall be located on the 
ceiling or on the sidewalls not more than 20 in. (500 mm) 
from the ceihng. [72:5.6.3.2] 

13.7.4.3.4.1 In the case of solid joist construction, detectors 
shall be mounted at the bottom of the joists. [72:5.6.3.2.1] 

13.7.4.3.4.2 In the case of beam construction where beams are 
less than 12 in. (300 mm) in depth and less than 8 ft (2.4 m) on 
center, detectors shall be permitted to be installed on the bottom 
of beams. [72:5.6.3.2.2] 

13.7.4.3.4.3 Where a line-type detector is used in an applica- 
tion other than open area protection, the manufacturer's in- 
stallation instructions shall be followed. [72:5.6.3.2.3] 

13.7.4.3.5* Spot-type smoke detectors shall be located on the 
ceiling not less than 4 in. (100 mm) from a sidewall to the near 
edge or, if on a sidewall, between 4 in. and 12 in. (100 mm and 
300 mm) down from the ceiling to the top of the detector. 
[72:5.7.3.2.1] 

13.7.4.3.6* To minimize dust contamination, smoke detec- 
tors, where installed under raised floors, shall be mounted 
only in an orientation for which they have been listed. 
[72:5.7.3.2.2] 

13.7.4.3.7 Projected beam-type smoke detectors shall be lo- 
cated in accordance with the manufacturer's documented in- 
structions. [72:5.7.3.4.1] 

13.7.4.3.8 The effects of stratification shall be evaluated 
when locating the detectors. [72:5.7.3.4.2] 

13.7.4.3.9 Detectors shall not be installed until after the con- 
struction cleanup of all trades is complete and final. 

Exception: Where required by the AHJ for protection during construc- 
tion. Detectors that have been installed during construction and found 
to have a sensitivity outside the listed and marked sensitivity range 
shall be cleaned or replaced in accordance with Chapter 10 ofNFPA 72 
at completion of construction. [72:5. 7.1.11] 

13.7.4.3.10 Ceiling Tiles and Ceiling Assemblies. Where auto- 
matic detectors are installed, ceilings necessary for the proper 
actuation of the fire protection device in accordance with 
NFPA 72 shall be maintained. 

13.7.4.3.11 High Air Movement Areas. 

13.7.4.3.11.1 Location. Smoke detectors shall not be located 
directiy in the airstream of supply registers. [72:5.7.5.3.2] 

13.7.4.3.11.2* Spacing. Smoke detector spacing shall be in ac- 
cordance with Table 5.7.5.3.3 and Figure 5.7.5.3.3 of AKR4 72. 

Exception: Air-sampling or projected beam smoke detectors installed 
in accordance with the manufacturer's documented instructions. 
[72:5. 7.5.3.3] 

13.7.4.4 Inspection, Maintenance and Testing. 

13.7.4.4.1 The inspection, maintenance, and testing for fire 
alarm and fire detection systems shall be in accordance with 
Chapter 7 of AKPA 72. 



13.7.4.5 Heat Detectors. 

13.7.4.5.1 Fixed-Temperature, Rate-of-Rise, Rate-of- 
Compensation, Restorable Line, Spot Type (Excluding 
Pneumatic Tube Type). Heat test shall be performed with a 
heat source per the manufacturer's recommendations for re- 
sponse within 1 minute. A test method shall be used that is 
recommended by the manufacturer or other method shall be 
used that will not damage the nonrestorable fixed- 
temperature element of a combination rate-of-rise/fixed- 
temperature element detector. [72:Table 10.4.2.2, 13, d, 1] 

13.7.4.5.2 Fixed-Temperature, Nonrestorable Line Type. Heat 
test shall not be performed. Functionality shall be tested me- 
chanically and electrically. Loop resistance shall be measured 
and recorded. Changes from acceptance test shall be investi- 
gated. [72:Table 10.4.2.2, 13, d, 2) 

13.7.4.5.3 Nonrestorable (General). Heat tests shall not be 
performed. Functionality shall be tested mechanically and 
electrically. [72:Table 10.4.2.2, 13, d, 4) 

13.7.4.5.4 Restorable Line Type, Pneumatic Tube Only. Heat 
tests shall be performed (where test chambers are in circuit) or a 
test with pressure pump shall be conducted. [72iTable 10.4.2.2, 
13, d, 5) 

13.7.4.6 Smoke Detectors. 

13.7.4.6.1 Systems Detectors and Sin^e-Station Smoke Alarms 
Used in Other than One- and Two-Family Dwellings. The detec- 
tors shall be tested in place to ensure smoke entry into the 
sensing chamber and an alarm response. Testing with smoke 
or listed aerosol approved by the manufacturer shall be per- 
mitted as acceptable test methods. Other methods approved 
by the manufacturer that ensure smoke entry into the sensing 
chamber shall be permitted. Any of the following tests shall be 
performed to ensure that each smoke detector is within its 
listed and marked sensitivity range: 

(1) Calibrated test method 

(2) Manufacturer's calibrated sensitivity test instrument 

(3) Listed control equipment arranged for the purpose 

(4) Smoke detector/ control unit arrangement whereby the 
detector causes a signal at the control unit when its sensi- 
tivity is outside its listed sensitivity range 

(5) Other calibrated sensitivity test method approved by the 
AHJ [72:Table 10.4.2.2, 13, g, 1] 

13.7.4.6.2 Projected Beam Type. The detector shall be tested 
by introducing smoke, other aerosol, or an optical filter into 
the beam path. [72:Table 10.4.2.2, 13, g, 5] 

13.7.4.6.3 A fiinctional test shall be performed on all smoke 
detectors upon initial installation, during reacceptance tests, and 
at least annually as required by Table 13.7.3.2.7. [72:Table 10.4.3, 
15, h] 

13.7.4.7* Sensitivity of smoke detectors and single- and 
multiple-station smoke alarms in other than one- and two- 
family dwellings shall be tested in accordance with 13.7.4.7.1 
through 13.7.4.7.6. [72:10.4.3.2] 

13.7.4.7.1 Sensitivity shall be checked within 1 year after in- 
stallation. [72:10.4.3.2.1] 

13.7.4.7.2 Sensitivity shall be checked every alternate year 
thereafter unless otherwise permitted by compliance with 
13.7.4.7.3. [72:10.4.3.2.2] 



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13.7.4.7.3 After the second required calibration test, if sensi- 
tivity tests indicate that the device has remained within its 
listed and marked sensitivity range (or 4 percent obscuration 
light gray smoke, if not marked) , the length of time between 
calibration tests shall be permitted to be extended to a maxi- 
mum of 5 years. [72:10.4.3.2.3] 

13.7.4.7.3.1 If the frequency is extended, records of nuisance 
alarms and subsequent trends of these alarms shall be main- 
tained. [72:10.4.3.2.3.1] 

13.7.4.7.3.2 In zones or in areas where nuisance alarms show 
any increase over the previous year, calibration tests shall be 
performed. [72:10.4.3.2.3.2] 

13.7.4.7.4 To ensure that each smoke detector or smoke 
alarm is within its listed and marked sensitivity range, it shall 
be tested using any of the following methods: 

(1) Calibrated test method 

(2) Manufacturer's calibrated sensitivity test instrument 

(3) Listed control equipment arranged for the purpose 

(4) Smoke detector/control unit arrangement whereby the 
detector causes a signal at the control unit where its sen- 
sitivity is outside its listed sensitivity range 

(5) Other calibrated sensitivity test methods approved by the 
AHJ [72:10.4.3.2.4] 

13.7.4.7.5 Detectors or smoke alarms found to have a sensi- 
tivity outside the listed and marked sensitivity range shall be 
cleaned and recalibrated or be replaced. 

Exception: Devices listed as field adjustable shall be permitted to be 
either adjusted within the listed and marked sensitivity range and 
cleaned and recalibrated, or they shall be replaced. [72:10.4.3.2.5] 

13.7.4.7.6 The detector or smoke alarm sensitivity shall not 
be tested or measured using any device that administers an 
unmeasured concentration of smoke or other aerosol into the 
detector or smoke alarm. [72:10.4.3.2.6] 

13.8 Other Fire Protection Systems. Where other fire protec- 
tion systems are required to be installed by the provisions of 
this Code, or are installed with the approval of the AHJ as an 
alternative or equivalency, the design and installation of the 
system shall comply with the appropriate standards listed in 
Table 13.8. The system shall be tested and maintained in ac- 
cordance with Section 10.4. 



Chapter 14 Means of Egress 

14.1 Application. Means of egress in new and existing build- 
ings shall comply with this Code and NFPA 101, Life Safety Code. 

14.2 Exit Access Corridors. Corridors used as exit access and 
serving an area having an occupant load exceeding 30 shall be 
separated from other parts of the building by walls having not 
less than a 1-hour fire resistance rating in accordance with 
Section 8.3 of NFPA 101, unless otherwise permitted by the 
following: 

(1) This requirement shall not apply to existing buildings, 
provided that the occupancy classification does not 
change. 

(2) This requirement shall not apply where otherwise pro- 
vided in Chapter 12 through Chapter 42 of NFPA 101. 
[101:7.1.3.1] 



Table 13.8 Other Required Fire Protection Systems 



Type of System 



NFPA Standard 



Low-, medium-, and high- 
expansion foam systems 

Carbon dioxide systems 

Halon 1301 systems 

Sprinklers in one- and 
two-family dwellings 
and manufactured homes 



Sprinklers in residential 
occupancies up to and 
including four stories 
in height 

Water spray systems 



Deluge foam-water sprinkler, 

foam-water spray 

systems, and closed-head 

foam-water sprinkler 

systems 
Dry chemical extinguishing 

systems 
Wet chemical extinguishing 

systems 
Water mist systems 

Clean agent 

fire-extinguishing 
systems 



NFPA 11, Standard for Low-, 

Medium-, and High-Expansion 

Foam 

NFPA 12, Standard on Carbon 

Dioxide Extinguishing Systems 

NFPA 12A, Standard on Halon 

1301 Fire Extinguishing Systems 

NFPA 13D, Standard for the 

Installation of Sprinkler Systems 

in One- and Two-Family 

Dwellings and Manufactured 

Homes 

NFPA 13R, Standard for the 

Installation of Sprinkler Systems 

in Residential Occupancies up to 

and Including Four Stories in 

Height 

NFPA 15, Standard for Water 

Spray Fixed Systems for Fire 

Protection 

NFPA 16, Standard for the 

Installation of Foam-Water 

Sprinkler and Foam-Water Spray 

Systems 

NFPA 17, Standard for Dry 
Chemical Extinguishing Systems 
NFPA 17A, Standard for Wet 
Chemical Extinguishing Systems 
NFPA 750, Standard on Water 
Mist Fire Protection Systems 
NFPA 2001, Standard on Clean 
Agent Fire Extinguishing Systems 



14.3 Exits. 

14.3.1 Where this Corfe requires an exit to be separated from 
other parts of the building, the separating construction shall 
meet the requirements of Section 8.2 of NFPA 101 and the 
following: 

(l)*The separation shall have not less than a 1-hour fire resis- 
tance rating where the exit connects three stories or less. 

(2) *The separation shall have not less than a 2-hour fire resis- 
tance rating where the exit connects four or more stories, 
unless one of the following conditions exists: 

(a) In existing non-high-rise buildings, existing exit stair 
enclosures shall have not less than a 1-hour fire resis- 
tance rating. 

(b) In existing buildings protected throughout by an ap- 
proved, supervised automatic sprinkler system in ac- 
cordance with Section 13.3, existing exit stair enclo- 
sures shall have not less than a 1-hour fire resistance 
rating. 

(c) One-hour enclosures in accordance with 28.2.2.1.2, 
29.2.2.1.2, 30.2.2.1.2, and 31.2.2.1.2 of NFPA 101 shall 
be permitted as an alternative to the requirement of 
14.3.1(2). 



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(3) The 2-hour fire resistance-rated separation required by 
14.3.1(2) shall be constructed of an assembly of noncom- 
bustible or limited-combustible materials and shall be 
supported by construction having not less than a 2-hour 
fire resistance rating. In Type III, Type FV, and Type V 
construction, fire-retardant-treated wood enclosed in 
noncombustible or limited-combustible materials shall be 
permitted. 

(4) Openings in the separation shall be protected by fire door 
assemblies equipped with door closers complying with 
14.5.4. 

(5) *Openings in exit enclosures shall be limited to doors from 

normally occupied spaces and corridors and doors for 
egress from the enclosure, unless one of the following 
conditions exists: 

(a) Openings in exit passageways in mall buildings as pro- 
vided in Chapter 36 and Chapter 37 of NFPA lOi shall 
be permitted. 

(b) In buildings of Type I or Type II construction, exist- 
ing fire protection-rated doors to interstitial spaces 
shall be permitted, provided that such spaces meet all 
of the following criteria: 

i. The space is used solely for distribution of pipes, 
ducts, and conduits. 

ii. The space contains no storage. 

iii. The space is separated from the exit enclosure in ac- 
cordance with Section 8.3 of NFPA 101. 

(c) Existing openings to mechanical equipment spaces 
protected by approved existing fire protection-rated 
doors shall be permitted, provided that the following 
criteria are met: 

i. The space is used solely for non-fuel-fired mechanical 
equipment. 

ii. The space contains no storage of combustible materials. 

iii. The building is protected throughout by an ap- 
proved, supervised automatic sprinkler system in ac- 
cordance with Section 13.3. 

(6) Penetrations into, and openings through, an exit enclo- 
sure assembly shall be limited to the following: 

(a) Doors permitted by 14.3.1(5) 

(b) *Electrical conduit serving the stairway 

(c) Required exit doors 

(d) Ductwork and equipment necessary for independent 
stair pressurization 

(e) Water or steam piping necessary for the heafing or 
cooling of the exit enclosure 

(f) Sprinkler piping 

(g) Standpipes 

(h) Existing penetrations protected in accordance with 
8.3.5 of NFPA iOi 

(i) Penetrations for fire alarm circuits, where the circuits 
are installed in metal conduit and the penetrations 
are protected in accordance with 8.3.5 of NFPA 101 

(7) Penetrations or communicating openings shall be prohib- 
ited between adjacent exit enclosures. [201:7.1.3.2.1] 

14.3.2 An exit enclosure shall provide a continuous pro- 
tected path of travel to an exit discharge. [707:7.1.3.2.2] 

14.3.3* An exit enclosure shall not be used for any purpose that 
has the potential to interfere with its use as an exit and, if so 
designated, as an area of refuge. (See also 14.6.3.) [707:7.1.3.2.3] 



14.4 Means of Egress Reliability. 

14.4.1* General. Means of egress shall be continuously main- 
tained free of all obstructions or impediments to full instant 
use in the case of fire or other emergency. [707:7.1.10.1] 

14.4.2 Furnishings and Decorations in Means of Egress. 

14.4.2.1 No furnishings, decorations, or other objects shall 
obstruct exits, access thereto, egress therefrom, or visibility 
thereof [707:7.1.10.2.1] 

14.4.2.2 No obstruction by railings, barriers, or gates shall 
divide the means of egress into sections appurtenant to indi- 
vidual rooms, apartments, or other occupied spaces. Where 
the AHJ finds the required path of travel to be obstructed by 
furniture or other movable objects, the authority shall be per- 
mitted to require that such objects be secured out of the way 
or shall be permitted to require that railings or other perma- 
nent barriers be installed to protect the path of travel against 
encroachment. [707:7.1.10.2.2] 

14.4.2.3 Mirrors shall not be placed on exit doors. Mirrors 
shall not be placed in or adjacent to any exit in such a manner 
as to confuse the direction of egress. [707:7.1.10.2.3] 

14.4.2.4 Every door and every principal entrance that is re- 
quired to serve as an exit shall be designed and constructed so 
that the path of egress travel is obvious and direct. Windows 
that, because of their physical configuration or design and the 
materials used in their construction, have the potential to be 
mistaken for doors shall be made inaccessible to the occu- 
pants by barriers or railings. [707:7.2.1.1.2] 

14.4.3 Impediments to Egress. Any device or alarm installed 
to restrict the improper use of a means of egress shall be de- 
signed and installed so that it cannot, even in case of failure, 
impede or prevent emergency use of such means of egress 
unless otherwise provided in 14.5.3 and Chapters 18, 19, 22, 
and 23 of NFPA 101. [707:7.1.9] 

14.5 Doors. 

14.5.1 Swing and Force to Open. 

14.5.1.1* Any door in a means of egress shall be of the side- 
hinged or pivoted-swinging type, and shall be installed to be 
capable of swinging from any position to the full required 
width of the opening in which it is installed, unless otherwise 
specified in 14.5.1.1.1 through 14.5.1.1.9. [707:7.2.1.4.1] 

14.5.1.1.1 Sliding doors in detention and correctional occu- 
pancies, as provided in Chapter 22 and Chapter 23 of NFPA 101, 
shall be permitted. [707:7.2.1.4.1.1] 

14.5.1.1.2 Doors in dwelling units, as provided in Chapter 24 
of NFPA 101, shall be permitted. [707:7.2.1.4.1.2] 

14.5.1.1.3 Doors in residential board and care occupancies, 
as provided in Chapter 32 and Chapter 33 of NFPA 101, shall 
be permitted. [707:7.2.1.4.1.3] 

14.5.1.1.4 Where permitted in Chapter 12 through Chapter 42 
of NFPA 101, horizontal-sliding or vertical-rolling security grilles 
or doors that are part of the required means of egress shall be 
permitted, provided that they meet the following criteria: 

(1) Such grilles or doors shall remain secured in the fully 
open position during the period of occupancy by the gen- 
eral public. 



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(2) On or adjacent to the grille or door, there shall be a readily 
visible, durable sign in letters not less than 1 in. (25 mm) 
high on a contrasting background that reads as follows: 

THIS DOOR TO REMAIN OPEN WHEN 
THE BUILDING IS OCCUPIED 

(3) Doors or grilles shall not be brought to the closed posi- 
tion when the space is occupied. 

(4) Doors or grilles shall be operable from within the space 
without the use of any special knowledge or effort. 

(5) Where two or more means of egress are required, not 
more than half of the means of egress shall be equipped 
with horizontal-sliding or vertical-rolling grilles or doors. 
[107:7.2.1.4.1.4] 

14.5.1.1.5 Horizontal-sliding doors complying with 7.2.1.14 
of NFFA 101 shall be permitted. [iW:7.2.1.4.1.5] 

14.5.1.1.6 Horizontal-sliding doors serving a room or area with 
an occupant load of fewer than 10 in health care occupancies 
shall be exempt from the requirements of 14.5.1.1 as provided in 
Chapter 18 or Chapter 19 of NFPA 101. [iW:7.2.1.4.1.6] 

14.5.1.1.7 Where private garages, business areas, industrial 
areas, and storage areas with an occupant load not exceeding 
10 contain only low or ordinary hazard contents, doors to such 
areas shall be exempt from the requirement of 14.5.1.1. 
[iW:7.2.1.4.1.7] 

14.5.1.1.8 Revolving doors complyingwith 7.2.1.10 of NFPA 101 
shall be permitted. [/W:7.2.1.4.1.8] 

14.5.1.1.9 Existing fusible link-operated horizontal-sliding 
or vertical-rolling fire doors shall be permitted to be used as 
provided in Chapter 12 through Chapter 42 of NFPA 101. 
[70/:7.2.1.4.1.9] 

14.5.1.2 Doors required to be of the side-hinged or pivoted- 
swinging type shall swing in the direction of egress travel 
where serving a room or area with an occupant load of 50 or 
more, except under the following conditions: 

(1) Doors in horizontal exits shall not be required to swing in 
the direction of egress travel where permitted by 7.2.4.3.7.1 
or 7.2.4.3.7.2 of NFPA 101. 

(2) Smoke barrier doors shall not be required to swing in the 
direction of egress travel in existing health care occupancies 
as provided in Chapter 19 of NFPA 101. [101:7.2.1.4.2] 

14.5.1.3 A door shall swing in the direction of egress travel 
under either of the following conditions: 

(1) Where the door is used in an exit enclosure, unless the 
door is the door of an individual living unit that opens 
directly into an exit enclosure 

(2) When the door serves a high hazard contents area 
[iO/:7.2.1.4.3] 

14.5.1.4* During its swing, any door in a means of egress shall 
leave not less than one-half of the required width of an aisle, a 
corridor, a passageway, or a landing unobstructed and shall 
project not more than 7 in. (180 mm) into the required width 
of an aisle, a corridor, a passageway, or a landing, when fully 
open, unless both of the following conditions are met: 

( 1 ) The door provides access to a stair in an existing building. 

(2) The door meets the requirement that limits projection 
to not more than 7 in. (180 mm) into the required 
width of the stair landing when the door is fully open. 
[101:7.2.1.4.4] 



14.5.1.5 The forces required to fully open any door manually 
in a means of egress shall not exceed 15 Ibf (67 N) to release 
the latch, 30 Ibf (133 N) to set the door in motion, and 15 Ibf 
(67 N) to open the door to the minimum required width, 
unless otherwise specified in 14.5.1.5.2 through 14.5.1.5.5. 
[iW:7.2.1.4.5] 

14.5.1.5.1 The forces specified in 14.5.1.5 shall be applied to 
the latch stile. [/W:7.2.1.4.5.1] 

14.5.1.5.2 Opening forces for interior side-hinged or 
pivoted-swinging doors without closers shall not exceed 5 Ibf 
(22 N). [iW:7.2.1.4.5.2] 

14.5.1.5.3 The opening force for existing doors in existing 
buildings shall not exceed 50 Ibf (222 N) applied to the latch 
stile. [/W:7.2.1.4.5.3] 

14.5.1.5.4 The opening forces for horizontal-sliding doors in 
detention and correctional occupancies shall be as provided 
in Chapter 22 and Chapter 23 of NFPA 101. [101:7.2.1.4.5.4] 

14.5.1.5.5 The opening forces for power-operated doors shall 
be as provided in 7.2.1.9 of NFPA 101. [i07:7.2.1.4.5.5] 

14.5.1.6 Screen doors and storm doors used in a means of 
egress shall be subject to the requirements for direction of swing 
that are applicable to other doors used in a means of egress. 
[i01:7.2.1.4.6] 

14.5.2 Locks, Latches, and Alarm Devices. 

14.5.2.1 Doors shall be arranged to be opened readily from the 
egress side whenever the building is occupied. [101:7.2.1.5.1] 

14.5.2.2 Locks, if provided, shall not require the use of a key, 
a tool, or special knowledge or effort for operation from the 
egress side. [102:7.2.1.5.2] 

14.5.2.3 The requirements of 14.5.2.1 and 14.5.2.2 shall 
not apply where otherwise provided in Chapter 18 through 
Chapter 23 of NFPA 101. [101:7.2.1.5.5] 

14.5.2.4 Exterior doors shall be permitted to have key- 
operated locks from the egress side, provided that the follow- 
ing criteria are met: 

(1) This alternative is permitted in Chapter 12 through 
Chapter 42 of NFPA 101 for the specific occupancy. 

(2) A readily visible, durable sign in letters not less than 1 in. 
(25 mm) high on a contrasting background that reads as 
follows is located on or adjacent to the door: 

THIS DOOR TO REMAIN UNLOCKED WHEN 
THE BUILDING IS OCCUPIED 

(3) The locking device is of a type that is readily distinguish- 
able as locked. 

(4) A key is immediately available to any occupant inside the 
building when it is locked. [101:7.2.1.5.4] 

14.5.2.5 The alternative provisions of 14.5.2.4 shall be per- 
mitted to be revoked by the AHJ for cause. [/01;7.2.1.5.5] 

14.5.2.6 Where permitted in Chapter 12 through Chapter 42 
of NFPA 101, key operation shall be permitted, provided that 
the key cannot be removed when the door is locked from the 
side from which egress is to be made. [101:7.2.1.5.6] 

14.5.2.7* Every door in a stair enclosure serving more than 
four stories, unless permitted by 14.5.2.7.2, shall meet one of 
the following: 

(1) Re-entry from the stair enclosure to the interior of the 
building shall be provided. 



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(2) An automatic release that is actuated with the initiation of 
the building fire alarm system shall be provided to unlock 
all stair enclosure doors to allow re-entry. 

(3) Selected re-entry shall be provided in accordance with 
14.5.2.7.1. [701:7.2.1.5.7] 

14.5.2.7.1 Doors on stair enclosures shall be permitted to be 
equipped with hardware that prevents re-entry into the inte- 
rior of the building, provided that the following criteria are 
met: 

(1) There shall be not less than two levels where it is possible 
to leave the stair enclosure to access another exit. 

(2) There shall be not more than four stories intervening be- 
tween stories where it is possible to leave the stair enclo- 
sure to access another exit. 

(3) Re-entry shall be possible on the top story or next-to-top 
story served by the stair enclosure, and such story shall 
allow access to another exit. 

(4) Doors allowing re-entry shall be identified as such on the 
stair side of the door. 

(5) Doors not allowing re-entry shall be provided vrith a sign 
on the stair side indicating the location of the nearest 
door, in each direction of travel, that allows re-entry or 
exit. [/W:7.2.1.5.7.1] 

14.5.2.7.2 The requirement of 14.5.2.7 shall not apply to the 
following; 

(1) Existing installations as permitted in Chapter 12 through 
Chapter 42 of NFPAiW 

( 2 ) Stair enclosures serving a building permitted to have a single 
exit in accordance with Chapter 11 through Chapter 42 of 
NFPA 101 

(3) Stair enclosures in health care occupancies where other- 
wise provided in Chapter 18 of NFPA 101 

(4) Stair enclosures in detention and correctional occupan- 
cies where otherwise provided in Chapter 22 of NFPA 101 
[101:7.2.1.5.7.2] 

14.5.2.8 If a stair enclosure allows access to the roof of the 
building, the door to the roof either shall be kept locked or 
shall allow re-entry from the roof. [/Oi:7.2. 1.5.8] 

14.5.2.9* A latch or other fastening device on a door shall be 
provided with a releasing device that has an obvious method 
of operation and that is readily operated under all lighting 
conditions. [7W:7.2.1.5.9] 

14.5.2.9.1 The releasing mechanism for any latch other than 
existing installations shall be located not less than 34 in. 
(865 mm), and not more than 48 in. (1220 mm), above the 
finished floor. [/0/:7.2.1.5.9.1] 

14.5.2.9.2 The releasing mechanism shall open the door with 
not more than one releasing operation, unless otherwise 
specified in 14.5.2.9.3 and 14.5.2.9.4. [iW:7.2.1.5.9.2] 

14.5.2.9.3* Egress doors from individual living units and 
guest rooms of residential occupancies shall be permitted 
to be provided with devices, including automatic latching 
devices, that require not more than one additional releas- 
ing operation, provided that such device is operable from 
the inside without the use of a key or tool and is mounted at 
a height not exceeding 48 in. (1220 mm) above the finished 
floor. [iO/:7.2.1.5.9.3] 



14.5.2.9.4 Existing security devices permitted by 14.5.2.9.3 
shall be permitted to have two additional releasing operations. 
[/Oi:7.2.1.5.9.4] 

14.5.2.9.5 Existing security devices permitted by 14.5.2.9.3, 
other than automatic latching devices, shall be located not 
more than 60 in. (1525 mm) above the finished floor. 
[i0i:7.2.1.5.9.5] 

14.5.2.10 Where pairs of doors are required in a means of 
egress, one of the following criteria shall be met: 

( 1 ) Each leaf of the pair shall be provided with a releasing 
device that does not depend on the release of one door 
before the other. 

(2) Approved automatic flush bolts shall be used and ar- 
ranged such that the following criteria are met: 

(a) The door leaf equipped with the automatic flush 
bolts shall have no doorknob or surface-mounted 
hardware. 

(b) Unlatching of any leaf shall not require more than 
one operation. [iOI:7.2. 1.5.10] 

14.5.2.11* Devices shall not be installed in connection with 
any door on which panic hardware or fire exit hardware is 
required where such devices prevent or are intended to pre- 
vent the free use of the door for purposes of egress, unless 
otherwise provided in 14.5.3. [707:7.2.1.5.11] 

14.5.3 Special Locking Arrangements. 

14.5.3.1 Delayed-Egress Locks. Approved, listed, delayed- 
egress locks shall be permitted to be installed on doors serving 
low and ordinary hazard contents in buildings protected 
throughout by an approved, supervised automatic fire detec- 
tion system in accordance with Section 13.7 or an approved, 
supervised automatic sprinkler system in accordance viitb Sec- 
tion 13.3, and where permitted in Chapter 12 through Chap- 
ter 42 of NFPA 101, provided that the following criteria are 
met: 

(1) The provisions of 14.5.3.2 for access-controlled egress 
doors shall not apply to doors with delayed-egress locks. 

(2) The doors shall unlock upon actuation of one of the 
following: 

(a) Approved, supervised automatic sprinkler system in 
accordance with Section 13.3 

(b) Not more than one heat detector of an approved, 
supervised automatic fire detection system in accor- 
dance with Section 13.7 

(c) Not more than two smoke detectors of an approved, 
supervised automatic fire detection system in accor- 
dance vnth Section 13.7 

(3) The doors shall unlock upon loss of power controlling the 
lock or locking mechanism. 

(4)*An irreversible process shall release the lock within 
15 seconds, or 30 seconds where approved by the AHJ, 
upon application of a force to the release device re- 
quired in 14.5.2.9 under the following conditions: 

(a) The force shall not be required to exceed 15 Ibf (67 N) . 

(b) The force shall not be required to be continuously 
applied for more than 3 seconds. 

(c) The initiation of the release process shall activate an 
audible signal in the vicinity of the door. 

(d) Once the door lock has been released by the applica- 
tion of force to the releasing device, relocking shall 
be by manual means only. 



2006 Edition 



MEANS OF EGRESS 



1-111 



(5) *A readily visible, durable sign in letters not less than I in. 
(25 mm) high and not less than Vs in. (3.2 mm) in stroke 
width on a contrasting background that reads as follows 
shall be located on the door adjacent to the release de- 
vice: [701:7.2.1.6.1] 

PUSH UNTIL ALARM SOUNDS 
DOOR CAN BE OPENED IN 15 SECONDS 

14.5.3.2* Access-Controlled Egress Doors. Where permitted 
in Chapter 11 through Chapter 42 of NFPA 101, doors in the 
means of egress shall be permitted to be equipped with an 
approved entrance and egress access control system, provided 
that the following criteria are met: 

(1) A sensor shall be provided on the egress side, arranged to 
detect an occupant approaching doors that are arranged 
to unlock in the direction of egress upon detection of an 
approaching occupant or loss of power to the sensor. 

(2) Loss of power to the part of the access control system that 
locks the doors shall automatically unlock the doors in 
the direction of egress. 

(3) The doors shall be arranged to unlock in the direction of 
egress from a manual release device located 40 in. to 
48 in. (1015 mm to 1220 mm) vertically above the floor 
and within 60 in. (1525 mm) of the secured doors. 

(4) The manual release device specified in 14.5.3.2(3) shall 
be readily accessible and clearly identified by a sign that 
reads as follows: 

PUSH TO EXIT 

(5) When operated, the manual release device shall result in 
direct interruption of power to the lock — independent 
of the access control system electronics — and the doors 
shall remain unlocked for not less than 30 seconds. 

(6) Activation of the building fire-protective signaling system, if 
provided, shall automatically unlock the doors in the direc- 
tion of egress, and the doors shall remain unlocked until the 
fire-protective signaling system has been manually reset. 

(7) The activation of manual fire alarm boxes that activate the 
building fire-protective signaling system specified in 
14.5.3.2(6) shall not be required to unlock the doors. 

(8) Activation of the building automatic sprinkler or fire de- 
tection system, if provided, shall automatically unlock the 
doors in the direction of egress, and the doors shall re- 
main unlocked until the fire-protective signaUng system 
has been manually reset. [iOi:7.2. 1.6.2] 

14.5.3.3 Panic Hardware and Fire Exit Hardware. 

14.5.3.3.1 Where a door is required to be equipped with 
panic or fire exit hardware, such hardware shall meet the fol- 
lowing criteria: 

(1) It shall consist of a cross bar or a push pad, the actuating 
portion of which extends across not less than one-half of 
the width of the door leaf. 

(2) It shall be mounted as follows: 

(a) New installations shall be not less than 34 in. 
(865 mm), nor more than 48 in. (1220 mm), above 
the floor. 

(b) Existing installations shall be not less than 30 in. 
(760 mm), nor more than 48 in. (1220 mm), above 
the floor. 

(3) It shall be constructed so that a horizontal force not to 
exceed 15 Ibf (66 N) actuates the cross bar or push pad 
and latches. [I0J:7.2.i.7A] 



14.5.3.3.2 Only approved panic hardware shall be used on 
doors that are not fire doors. Only approved fire exit hardware 
shall be used on fire doors. [/Oi:7.2. 1.7.2] 

14.5.3.3.3 Required panic hardware and fire exit hardware, 
in other than detention and correctional occupancies as oth- 
erwise provided in Chapter 22 and Chapter 23 of NFPA 101, 
shall not be equipped with any locking device, set screw, or 
other arrangement that prevents the release of the latch when 
pressure is applied to the releasing device. [10/:7.2.1.7.3] 

14.5.3.3.4 Devices that hold the latch in the retracted position 
shall be prohibited on fire exit hardware, unless such devices are 
listed and approved for such a purpose. [7W:7.2.1.7.4] 

14.5.4 Self-Closing Devices. 

14.5.4.1* A door normally required to be kept closed shall not 
be secured in the open position at any time and shall be self- 
closing or automatic-closing in accordance with 14.5.4.2, un- 
less otherwise permitted by 14.5.4.3. [/W:7.2. 1.8.1] 

14.5.4.2 In any building of low or ordinary hazard contents, 
as defined in 3.3.128.2 and 3.3.128.3, or where approved by 
the AHJ, doors shall be permitted to be automatic-closing, 
provided that the following criteria are met: 

(1) Upon release of the hold-open mechanism, the door be- 
comes self-closing. 

(2) The release device is designed so that the door instantiy 
releases manually and, upon release, becomes self- 
closing, or the door can be readily closed. 

(3) The automatic releasing mechanism or medium is acti- 
vated by the operation of approved smoke detectors in- 
stalled in accordance with the requirements for smoke 
detectors for door release service in NFPA 72. 

(4) Upon loss of power to the hold-open device, the hold-open 
mechanism is released and the door becomes selPclosing. 

(5) The release by means of smoke detection of one door in a 
stair enclosure results in closing all doors serving that 
stair. [/07:7.2.1.8.2] 

14.5.4.3 The elevator car doors and the associated hoistway 
enclosure doors at the floor level designated for recall in ac- 
cordance vidth the requirements of 11.3.1 shall be permitted to 
remain open during Phase I Emergency Recall Operation. 
[iO/:7.2.1.8.3] 

14.6 Enclosure and Protection of Stairs. 

14.6.1 Enclosures. 

14.6.1.1 All inside stairs serving as an exit or exit compo- 
nent shall be enclosed in accordance with Section 14.3. 
[7W:7.2.2.5.1.1] 

14.6.1.2 Inside stairs, other than those serving as an exit or exit 
component, shall be protected in accordance with Section 8.6 of 
NFPA 101. [207:7.2.2.5.1.2] 

14.6.1.3 In existing buildings, where a two-story exit enclo- 
sure connects the stor)' of exit discharge with an adjacent story, 
the exit shall be permitted to be enclosed only on the story of 
exit discharge, provided that not less than 50 percent of the 
number and capacity of exits on the story of exit discharge are 
independent of such enclosures. [707:7.2.2.5.1.3] 

14.6.2* Exposures. 

14.6.2.1 Where nonrated walls or unprotected openings en- 
close the exterior of a stairway, other than an existing stairway, 
and the walls or openings are exposed by other parts of the 



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UNIFORM FIRE CODE 



building at an angle of less than 180 degrees, the building 
enclosure walls within 10 ft (3050 mm) horizontally of the 
nonrated wall or unprotected opening shall be constructed as 
required for stairway enclosures, including opening protec- 
tives. [101:7.2.2.5.2.1] 

14.6.2.2 Construction shall extend vertically from the ground 
to a point 10 ft (3050 mm) above the topmost landing of the 
stairs or to the roofline, whichever is lower. [101:7.2.2.5.2.2] 

14.6.2.3 The fire resistance rating of the separation extend- 
ing 10 ft (3050 mm) from the stairs shall not be required to 
exceed 1 hour where openings have not less than a %-hour 
fire protection rating. [101:7.2.2.5.2.3] 

14.6.3* Usable Space. Enclosed, usable spaces, within exit en- 
closures shall be prohibited, including under stairs, unless 
otiierwise permitted by 14.6.3.2. [101:7.2.2.5.3] 

14.6.3.1 Open space within the exit enclosure shall not be 
used for any purpose that has the potential to interfere with 
egress. [702:7.2.2.5.3.1] 

14.6.3.2 Enclosed, usable space shall be permitted under 
stairs, provided that the following criteria are met: 

( 1 ) The space shall be separated from the stair enclosure by 
the same fire resistance as the exit enclosure. 

(2) Entiance to the enclosed, usable space shall not be from 
within die stair enclosure. (SeeaJso 14.3.3.) [/Oi;7 .2.2.5.3.2] 

14.6.4* Stairway Marking. 

14.6.4.1 Enclosed stairs meeting either of the following two 
conditions shall comply with 14.6.4.1.1 through 14.6.4.1.8. 

(1) The stair is a new enclosed stair serving three or more 
stories. 

(2) The stair is an existing enclosed stair serving five or more 
stories. [2W:7.2.2.5.4.1] 

14.6.4.1.1 The stairs shall be provided with special signage 
within the enclosure at each floor landing. [/02:7.2.2.5.4.1 (A) ] 

14.6.4.1.2 The signage shall indicate the floor level. 
[702:7.2.2.5.4.1 (B)] 

14.6.4.1.3 The signage shall indicate the terminus of the top 
and bottom of the stair enclosure. [707:7.2.2.5.4.1 (C)] 

14.6.4. 1 .4 The signage shall indicate the identification of the 
stair enclosure. [707:7.2.2.5.4.1 (D)] 

14.6.4.1.5 The signage shall indicate the floor level of, and 
the direction to, exit discharge. [707:7.2.2.5.4.1(E)] 

14.6.4.1.6 The signage shall be located inside the enclosure 
approximately 60 in. (1525 mm) above the floor landing in a 
position that is visible when the door is in the open or closed 
position. [707:7.2.2.5.4.1 (F)] 

14.6.4.1.7 The signage shall comply with 14.14.6.5.1 and 
14.14.6.5.2. [707:7.2.2.5.4.1(0] 

14.6.4.1.8 The floor level designation shall also be tactile in 
accordance with ICC/ANSI All 7.1, American National Standard 
for Accessible and Usable Buildings and Facilities. [707:7.2.2.5.4.1 (H)] 

14.6.4.2 Wherever an enclosed stair requires travel in an up 
ward direction to reach the level of exit discharge, special 
signs with directional indicators showing the direction to the 
level of exit discharge shall be provided at each floor level 
landing from which upward direction of travel is required, 
unless othenvise provided in 14.6.4.2.1 and 14.6.4.2.2, and the 
following also shall apply: 



(1) Such signage shall comply with 14.14.6.5.1 and 14.14.6.5.2. 

(2) Such signage shall be visible when the door is in the open 
or closed position. [707:7.2.2.5.4.2] 

14.6.4.2.1 The requirement of 14.6.4.2 shall not apply where 
signs required by 14.6.4.1 are provided. [707:7. 2. 2.5. 4.2(A)] 

14.6.4.2.2 The requirement of 14.6.4.2 shall not apply to 
stairs extending not more than one story below the level of 
exit discharge where the exit discharge is clearly obvious. 
[707:7.2.2.5.4.2(B)] 

14.6.4.3 The sign shall be painted or stenciled on the wall or on 
a separate sign securely attached to the wall. [707:7.2.2.5.4.3] 

14.6.4.4 The stairway identification letter shall be located at 
the top of the sign in minimum 1 in. (25 mm) high lettering 
and shall be in accordance witii 7.10.8.2 of NFPA 101. 
[707:7.2.2.5.4.4] 

14.6.4.5 Roof access or the lack thereof shall be designated 
by a sign that reads ROOF ACCESS or NO ROOF ACCESS and 
located under the stairway identification letter. Lettering shall 
be a minimum of 1 in. (25 mm) high and shall be in accor- 
dance witii 14.14.6.5.2. [707:7.2.2.5.4.5] 

14.6.4.6 The floor level number shall be located in the 
middle of the sign in minimum 5 in. (125 mm) high numbers 
and shall be in accordance with 14.14.6.5.2. Mezzanine levels 
shall have the letter "M" or other appropriate identification 
letter preceding the floor number, while basement levels shall 
have the letter "B" or other appropriate identification letter 
preceding the floor level number. [707:7.2.2.5.4.6] 

14.6.4.7 Identification of the lower and upper terminus of 
the stairway shall be located at the bottom of the sign in mini- 
mum 1 in. (25 mm) high letters or numbers and shall be in 
accordance witii 14.14.6.5.2. [707:7.2.2.5.4.7] 

14.6.4.8* Where new contrasting marking is applied to stairs, 
such marking shall comply with the following: 

(1) The marking shall include a continuous strip as a coating 
on, or as a material integral with, the full width of the 
leading edge of each tread. 

(2) The marking shall include a continuous strip as a coating 
on, or as a material integral with, the firll width of the 
leading edge of each landing nosing. 

(3) The marking strip width, measured horizontally from the 
leading vertical edge of the nosing, shall be consistent at 
all nosings. 

(4) The marking strip width shall be 1 in. to 2 in. (25 mm to 
51 mm). [707:7.2.2.5.4.8] 

14.7* Exit Passageways. 

14.7.1* General. Exit passageways used as exit components shall 
conform to the general requirements of Section 7.1 of NFPA 101 
and to the special requirements of Section 14.7. [707:7.2.6.1] 

14.7.2 Enclosure. An exit passageway shall be separated from 
other parts of the building as specified in Section 14.3, and the 
following alternatives shall be permitted: 

(1) Fire windows in accordance with 8.3.3 of NFPA 101 shall 
be permitted to be installed in the separation in a build- 
ing protected throughout by an approved, supervised au- 
tomatic sprinkler system in accordance with Section 13.3. 

(2) Existing fixed wired glass panels in steel sash shall be per- 
mitted to be continued in use in the separation in build- 
ings protected throughout by an approved, supervised au- 
tomatic sprinkler system in accordance with Section 13.3. 
[707:7.2.6.2] 



2006 Edition 



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1-113 



14.7.3 Stair Dischai^e. An exit passageway that serves as a dis- 
charge from a stair enclosure shall have not less than the same 
fire resistance rating and opening protective fire protection 
rating as those required for the stair enclosure. [iOi:7.2.6.3] 

14.7.4 \Wdth. The width of an exit passageway shall be ad- 
equate to accommodate the aggregate required capacity of all 
exits that discharge through it, unless one of the foUowring 
conditions applies: 

( 1 ) *Where an exit passageway serves occupants of the level of 

exit discharge as well as other stories, the capacity shall 
not be required to be aggregated. 

(2) As provided in Chapter 36 and Chapter 37 of NFPA 101, 
an exit passageway in a mall building shall be permitted to 
accommodate occupant loads independentiy from the 
mall and tiie tenant spaces. (See 36.2.2. 7.2 and 37.2.2. 7.2 
of NFPA 101.) [101:7.2.6.4] 

14.8 Capacity of Means of Egress. 

14.8.1 Occupant Load. 

14.8.1.1 Sufficient Capacity for Occupant Load. The total ca- 
pacity of the means of egress for any story, balcony, tier, or 
other occupied space shall be sufficient for the occupant load 
thereof [202:7.3.1.1] 

14.8.1.2* Occupant Load Factor. The occupant load in any 
building or portion thereof shall be not less than the number 
of persons determined by dividing the floor area assigned to 
that use by the occupant load factor for that use as specified in 
Table 14.8.1.2, Figure 14.8.1.2(a), and Figure 14.8.1.2(b). 
Where both gross and net area figures are given for the same 
occupancy, calculations shall be made by applying the gross 
area figure to the gross area of the portion of the building 
devoted to the use for which the gross area figure is specified 
and by applying the net area figure to the net area of the 
portion of the building devoted to the use for which the net 
area figure is specified. [202:7.3.1.2] 

14.8.1.3 Occupant Load Increases. 









^^ 












.* '' 










^' 










: ,^ - :_ 










-_,£ 




50 






_ 




__^ 






V 




N 




<< 










/ 






o 45 




/ 








^ 






9 




/ 










/ 










/ 










/ 










7- 










/ 






s 




/ 










/ 
















o * 










" 










o 




















on 










30 
< 


> 






^r 



5.1 



4.7 



54.2 



!3.3 



2.8 







^^' 








.* ^ 






-^ 






^^ 






V 






.-.7. 






Z 

7 




::::::::::-?: 






/ 






/ 






y 






/ 






/ 






/ 






/ 






/ 






/ 






/ 




























> 







100 150 200 250 300 350 400 450 500 
Gross leasable area (ft^ x 1 000) 

FIGURE 14.8.1.2(a) Mall Building Occupant Load Factors. 
(U.S. Customary Units) [202:Figure 7.3.1.2(a)] 



V 
"93 140 186 232 279 325 372 418 465 

Gross leasable area (m^ x 100) 

FIGURE 14.8.1.2(b) MaU BuUding Occupant Load Factors 
(SI Units). [202:Figure 7.3.1.2(b)] 



14.8.1.3.1 The occupant load in any building or portion 
thereof shall be permitted to be increased from the occupant 
load established for the given use in accordance with 14.8.1.2 
where all other requirements of this Code are also met, based 
on such increased occupant load. [202:7.3.1.3.1] 

14.8.1.3.2 The AHJ shall be permitted to require an ap- 
proved aisle, seating, or fixed equipment diagram to substan- 
tiate any increase in occupant load and shall be permitted to 
require that such a diagram be posted in an approved loca- 
tion. [202:7.3.1.3.2] 

14.8.1.4 Exits Serving More than One Story. Where an exit 
serves more than one story, only the occupant load of each story 
considered individually shall be used in computing the required 
capacity of the exit at that story, provided that the required egress 
capacity of the exit is not decreased in the direction of egress 
travel. [202:7.3.1.4] 

14.8.1.5 Capacity from a Point of Convergence. Where means 
of egress from a story above and a story below converge at an 
intermediate story, the capacity of the means of egress from 
the point of convergence shall be not less than the sum of the 
capacity of the two means of egress. [202:7.3.1.5] 

14.8.1.6 Egress Capacity from Balconies and Mezzanines. 

Where any required egress capacity from a balcony or mezza- 
nine passes through the room below, that required capacity 
shall be added to the required egress capacity of the room 
below. [202:7.3.1.6] 

14.8.2 Measurement of Means of Egress. 

14.8.2.1 The width of means of egress shall be measured in 
the clear at the narrowest point of the egress component un- 
der consideration, unless othenvise provided in 14.8.2.2 or 
14.8.2.3. [202:7.3.2.1] 

14.8.2.2 Projections within the means of egress of not more 
than 41/2 in. (114 mm) on each side shall be permitted at a 
height of 38 in. (965 mm) and below. [202:7.3.2.2] 

14.8.2.3 In health care and ambulatory health care occu- 
pancies, projections shall be permitted in corridors in ac- 
cordance with Chapter 18 through Chapter 21 of NFPA 101. 
[202:7.3.2.3] 



2006 Edition 



1-114 



UNIFORM FIRE CODE 



Table 14.8.1.2 Occupant Load Factor 



Table 14.8.1.2 Continued 



Use 



(ft^ per 
person)" 



Assembly Use 

Concentrated use, without 

fixed seating 
Less concentrated use, 

without fixed seating 
Bench-type seating 



Fixed seating 
Waiting spaces 



Kitchens 

Library stack areas 
Library reading rooms 
Swimming pools 

Swimming pool decks 
Exercise rooms with 

equipment 
Exercise rooms without 

equipment 
Stages 
Lighting and access catwalks, 

galleries, gridirons 
Casinos and similar 

gaming areas 
Skating rinks 

Educational Use 

Classrooms 
Shops, laboratories, 
vocational rooms 

Day-Care Use 

Health Care Use 

Inpatient treatment 

departments 
Sleeping departments 
Ambulatory health care 

Detention and Correctional 
Use 

Residential Use 

Hotels and dormitories 
Apartment buildings 
Board and care, large 

Industrial Use 
General and high- hazard 
industrial 



15 



100 



(m per 
person)*" 



7 net 


0.65 net 


15 net 


1.4 net 


1 person/ 18 
linear in. 


1 

person/455 
linear mm 


Number of 


Number of 


fixed seats 


fixed seats 


See 12.1.7.2 


See 12.1.7.2 


and 13.1.7.2 


and 13.1.7.2 


ofNFPA 101 
100 


ofNFPA 101 
9.3 


100 


9.3 


50 net 


4.6 net 


50 (water 


4.6 (water 


surface) 
30 


surface) 
2.8 


50 


4.6 



1.4 



15 net 


1.4 net 


100 net 


9.3 net 


11 


1 


50 


4.6 


20 net 


1.9 net 


50 net 


4.6 net 


35 net 


3.3 net 


240 


22.3 


120 


11.1 


100 


9.3 


120 


11.1 


200 


18.6 


200 


18.6 


200 


18.6 



9.3 



Special-purpose industrial 


NA 


NA 


Business Use 


100 


9.3 


Storage Use 
In storage occupancies 
In mercantile occupancies 
In other than storage and 


NA 
300 
500 


NA 

27.9 

46.5 


mercantile occupancies 







Use 



(ft^ per 
person)" 



(m^ per 
person)'' 



Mercantile Use 

Sales area on street floor''''' 
Sales area on two or more 

street floors '^ 
Sales area on floor below 

street floor'' 
Sales area on floors above 

street floor'' 
Floors or portions of floors 

used only for offices 
Floors or portions of floors 

used only for storage, 

receiving, and shipping, 

and not open to general 

public 
Mall buildings'* 



30 


2.8 


40 


3.7 


30 


2.8 


60 


5.6 


See business use 


See business 




use 


300 


27.9 



Per factors 
applicable to 
use of space" 



Per factors 
applicable 
to use of 
space" 



NA = Not applicable. The occupant load is the maximum probable 
number of occupants present at any time. 
"All factors are expressed in gross area unless marked "net." 
"Tor the purpose of determining occupant load in mercantile occu- 
pancies where, due to differences in grade of streets on different sides, 
two or more floors direcdy accessible from streets (not including al- 
leys or similar back streets) exist, each such floor is permitted to be 
considered a street floor. The occupant load factor is one person for 
each 40 ft^ (3.7 m^) of gross floor area of sales space. 
Tor the purpose of determining occupant load in mercandle occu- 
pancies with no street floor, as defined in 3.3.239 ofNFPA 101, but 
with access directly from the street by stairs or escalators, the floor at 
the point of entrance to the mercandle occupancy is considered the 
street floor. 

''For any food court or other assembly use areas located in the mall 
that are not included as a portion of the gross leasable area of the mall 
building, the occupant load is calculated based on the occupant load 
factor for that use as specified in Table 14.8.1.2. The remaining mall 
area is not required to be assigned an occupant load. 
""The portions of the mall that are considered a pedestrian way and not 
used as gross leasable area are not required to be assessed an occupant 
load based on Table 14.8.1.2. However, means of egress from a mall pe- 
destrian way are required to be provided for an occupant load deter- 
mined by dividing the gross leasable area of the mall building (not in- 
cluding anchor stores) by the appropriate lowest whole number 
occupant load factor from Figure 14.8.1.2(a) or Figure 14.8.1.2(b). 

Each individual tenant space is required to have means of egress to 
the outside or to the mall based on occupant loads calculated by using 
the appropriate occupant load factor from Table 14.8.1.2. 

Each individual anchor store is required to have means of egress 
independent of the mall. 
[i07:Table 7.3.1.2]. 



2006 Edition 



MEANS OF EGRESS 



1-115 



14.8.3 Egress Capacity. 

14.8.3.1 Egress capacity for approved components of 
means of egress shall be based on the capacity factors shown 
in Table 14.8.3.1. 1101:7.5.3.1} 



Table 14.8.3.1 Capacity Factors 





Stairways (width 
per person) 


Level Components 

and Ramps (width 

per person) 


Area 


in. 


mm 


in. 


mm 


Board and 


0.4 


10 


0.2 


5 


care 










Health care. 


0.3 


7.6 


0.2 


5 


sprinklered 
Health care. 


0.6 


15 


0.5 


13 


nonsprinklered 
High hazard 


0.7 


18 


0.4 


10 


contents 










All others 


0.3 


7.6 


0.2 


5 



[/W:Table 7.3.3.1] 



14.8.3.2 The required capacity of a corridor shall be the oc- 
cupant load that utilizes the corridor for exit access divided by 
the required number of exits to which the corridor connects, 
but the corridor capacity shall be not less than the required 
capacity of the exit to which the corridor leads. [702:7.3.3.2] 

14.8.3.3 Mmimum Width. 

14.8.3.3.1 The width of any means of egress, unless othervrise 
provided in 14.8.3.3.1.1 through 14.8.3.3.1.3, shall be as follows: 

( 1 ) Not less than that required for a given egress component in 
this chapter or Chapter 7 or Chapter 12 through Chapter 42 
ofNFPAiO; 

(2) Not less than 36 in. (915 mm) [/W:7.3.4.1] 

14.8.3.3.1.1* The width of exit access that is formed by furni- 
ture and movable partitions, that serves not more than six 
people, and that has a length not exceeding 50 ft (15 m) shall 
meet both of the following criteria: 

(1) The width shall be not less than 18 in. (455 mm), at and 
below a height of 38 in. (965 mm), and not less than 28 in. 
(710 mm) above a height of 38 in. (965 mm) . 

(2) A width of not less than 36 in. (915 mm) for new exit 
access, and not less than 28 in. (710 mm) for existing exit 
access, shall be capable of being provided without moving 
permanent walls. [1W:7.3.4.1.1] 

14.8.3.3.1.2 In existing buildings, the width of exit access 
shall be permitted to be not less than 28 in. (710 mm). 
[101:7.5.4.1.2] 

14.8.3.3.1.3 The requirement of 14.8.3.3.1 shall not apply to 
the following: 

(1) Doors as otherwise provided for in 7.2.1.2 of NFPA 101 

(2) Aisles and aisle accessways in assembly occupancies as other- 
wise provided in Chapter 12 and Chapter 13 of NFPA 101 

(3) Industrial equipment access as otherwise provided in 
40.2.5.2 of NFPA 101 [702:7.3.4.1.3] 



14.8.3.3.2 Where a single exit access leads to an exit, its ca- 
pacity in terms of width shall be not less than the required 
capacity of the exit to which it leads. [/01:7.3.4.2] 

14.8.3.3.3 Where more than one exit access leads to an exit, 
each shall have a width adequate for the number of persons it 
accommodates. [202:7.3.4.3] 

14.9 Number of Means of Egress. 
14.9.1 General. 

14.9.1.1 The number of means of egress from any balcony, 
mezzanine, story, or portion thereof shall be not less than two, 
except under one of the following conditions: 

(1) Where a single means of egress is permitted in Chapter 11 
through Chapter 42 of NFPA 101 

(2) Where a single means of egress is permitted for a mezza- 
nine or balcony and the common path of travel limita- 
tions of Chapter 12 through Chapter 42 of NFPA 101 are 
met [202:7.4.1.1] 

14.9.1.2 The number of means of egress from any story or 
portion thereof, other than for existing buildings as permitted 
in Chapter 12 through Chapter 42 of NFPA 101, shall be as 
follows: 

(1) Occupant load more than 500 but not more than 1000 — 
not less than 3 

(2) Occupant load more than 1000 — not less than 4 
[202:7.4.1.2] 

14.9.1.3 Accessible means of egress in accordance with 
14.10.4 that do not utilize elevators shall be permitted to serve 
as any or all of the required minimum number of means of 
egress. [202:7.4.1.3] 

14.9.1.4 The occupant load of each story considered indi- 
vidually shall be required to be used in computing the number 
of means of egress at each story, provided that the required 
number of means of egress is not decreased in the direction of 
egress travel. [202:7.4.1.4] 

14.9.1.5 Doors other than the hoistway door; the elevator car 
door; and doors that are readily openable from the car side 
without a key, a tool, special knowledge, or special effort, shall 
be prohibited at the point of access to an elevator car. 
[202:7.4.1.5] 

14.9.1.6 Elevator lobbies shall have access to at least one exit. 
Such exit access shall not require the use of a key, a tool, spe- 
cial knowledge, or special effort. [202:7.4.1.6] 

14.10 Arrangement of Means of Egress. 

14.10.1 General. 

14.10.1.1 Exits shall be located and exit access shall be ar- 
ranged so that exits are readily accessible at all times. 
[202:7.5.1.1] 

14.10.1.1.1* Where exits are not immediately accessible from 
an open floor area, continuous passageways, aisles, or corri- 
dors leading directiy to every exit shall be maintained and 
shall be arranged to provide access for each occupant to not 
less than two exits by separate ways of travel, unless otherwise 
provided in 14.10.1.1.3 and 14.10.1.1.4. [202:7.5.1.1.1] 

14.10.1.1.2 Exit access corridors shall provide access to not 
less than two approved exits, unless otherwise provided in 

14.10.1.1.3 and 14.10.1.1.4. [202:7.5.1.1.2] 



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14.10.1.1.3 The requirements of 14.10.1.1.1 and 14.10.1.1.2 
shall not apply where a single exit is permitted in Chapter 12 
through Chapter 42 of NFPA 101. [101:7.5.1.1.3] 

14. 1 0. 1 . 1 .4 Where common paths of travel are permitted for 
an occupancy in Chapter 12 through Chapter 42 of NFPA 101, 
such common paths of travel shall be permitted but shall not 
exceed the hmit specified. [101:7.5.1.1.4] 

14.10.1.2 Corridors shall provide exit access without passing 
through any intervening rooms other than corridors, lobbies, 
and other spaces permitted to be open to the corridor, unless 
odierwise provided in 14.10.1.2.1 and 14.10.1.2.2. [101:7.5.1.2] 

14.10.1.2.1 Approved existing corridors that require passage 
through a room to access an exit shall be permitted to con- 
tinue to be used, provided that the following criteria are met: 

(1) The path of travel is marked in accordance with Section 
14.14. 

(2) Doors to such rooms comply with 7.2.1 of NFPA 101. 

(3) Such arrangement is not prohibited by the applicable oc- 
cupancy chapter in NFPA 101. [101:7.5.1.2.1] 

14.10.1.2.2 Corridors that are not required to be fire resis- 
tance rated shall be permitted to discharge into open floor 
plan areas. [101:7.5.1.2.2] 

14.10.1.3 Remoteness shall be provided in accordance with 
14.10.1.3.1 through 14.10.1.3.7. [101:7.5.1.3] 

14.10.1.3.1 Where more than one exit is required from a 
building or portion thereof, such exits shall be remotely lo- 
cated from each other and shall be arranged and constructed 
to minimize the possibility that more than one has the poten- 
tial to be blocked by any one fire or other emergency condi- 
tion. [101:7.5.1.3.1] 

14.10.1.3.2* Where two exits or exit access doors are required, 
they shall be located at a distance from one another not less 
than one-half the length of the maximum overall diagonal 
dimension of the building or area to be served, measured in a 
straight line between the nearest edge of the exit doors or exit 
access doors, unless otherwise provided in 14.10.1.3.3 through 
14.10.1.3.5. [101:7.5.1.3.2] 

14.10.1.3.3 In buildings protected throughout by an ap- 
proved, supervised automatic sprinkler system in accordance 
with Section 13.3, the minimum separation distance between 
two exits or exit access doors measured in accordance With 

14.10.1.3.2 shall be not less than one-third the length of the 
maximum overall diagonal dimension of the building or area 
to be served. [101:7.5.1.3.3] 

14.10.1.3.4 Where exit enclosures are provided as the re- 
quired exits in 14.10.1.3.2 or 14.10.1.3.3 and are intercon- 
nected by not less than a 1-hour fire resistance-rated corridor, 
exit separation shall be permitted to be measured along the 
line of travel within the corridor. [101:7.5.1.3.4] 

14.10.1.3.5 In existing buildings, where more than one exit 
or exit access door is required, such exits or exit access doors 
shall be permitted to be remotely located in accordance vrith 
14.10.1.3.1. [101:7.5.1.3.5] 

14.10.1.3.6 Where more than two exits or exit access doors 
are required, at least two of the required exits or exit access 
doors shall be arranged to comply with the minimum separa- 
tion distance requirement. [101:7.5.1.3.6] 



14.10.1.3.7 The balance of the exits or exit access doors 
specified in 14. 10. 1.3.6 shall be located so that, if one becomes 
blocked, the others shall be available. [101:7.5.1.3.7] 

14.10.1.4 Interlocking or scissor stairs shall comply with 
14.10.1.4.1 and 14.10.1.4.2. [101:7.5.1.4] 

14. 10. 1 .4. 1 New interlocking or scissor stairs shall be permit- 
ted to be considered only as a single exit. [101:7.5.1.4.1] 

14.10.1.4.2* Existing interlocking or scissor stairs shall be per- 
mitted to be considered separate exits, provided that they 
meet the following criteria: 

( 1 ) They are enclosed in accordance with 14.3. 

(2) They are separated from each other by 2-hour fire 
resistance-rated noncombustible construction. 

(3) No protected or unprotected penetrations or communi- 
cating openings exist between the stair enclosures. 
[101:7.5.1.4.2] 

14.10.1.5* Exit access shall be arranged so that there are no dead 
ends in corridors, unless permitted by, and limited to the length 
specified in, Chapter 12 through Chapter 42 of NFPA 101. 
[101:7.5.1.5] 

14.10.1.6 Exit access from rooms or spaces shall be permitted 
to be through adjoining or intervening rooms or areas, pro- 
vided that such rooms or areas are accessory to the area 
served. Foyers, lobbies, and reception rooms constructed as 
required for corridors shall not be construed as intervening 
rooms. Exit access shall be arranged so that it is not necessary 
to pass through any area identified under Protection from 
Hazards in Chapter 11 tiirough Chapter 42 of NFPA 101. 
[101:7.5.1.6] 

14.10.2 Impediments to Egress. See also 7.1.9, 14.5.2, and 
7.2.1.5 of NFPA iOi. [101:7.5.2] 

14.10.2.1* Access to an exit shall not be through kitchens, store- 
rooms other than as provided in Chapter 36 and Chapter 37 of 
NFPA 101, restrooms, workrooms, closets, bedrooms or similar 
spaces, or other rooms or spaces subject to locking, unless pas- 
sage through such rooms or spaces is permitted for the occu- 
pancy by Chapter 18, Chapter 19, Chapter 22, and Chapter 23 of 
NFPA 101. [101:7.5.2.1] 

14.10.2.2* Exit access and exit doors shall be designed and 
arranged to be clearly recognizable. [101:7.5.2.2] 

14.10.2.2.1 Hangings or draperies shall not be placed over 
exit doors or located so that they conceal or obscure any exit, 
unless otherwise provided in 14.10.2.2.2. [101:7.5.2.2.1] 

14.10.2.2.2 Curtains shall be permitted across means of 
egress openings in tent walls, provided that the following cri- 
teria are met: 

(1) They are distinctly marked in contrast to the tent wall so 
as to be recognizable as means of egress. 

(2) They are installed across an opening that is at least 6 ft 
(1830 mm) in width. 

(3) They are hung from slide rings or equivalent hardware so 
as to be readily moved to the side to create an unob- 
structed opening in the tent wall that is of the minimum 
width required for door openings. [101:7.5.2.2.2] 

14.10.3 Exterior Ways of Exit Access. 

14.10.3.1 Exit access shall be permitted to be by means of any 
exterior balcony, porch, gallery, or roof that conforms to the 
requirements of Chapter 14 and Chapter 7 of NFPA 101. 
[101:7.5.3.1] 



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14.10.3.2 The long side of the balcony, porch, gallery, or simi- 
lar space shall be at least 50 percent open and shall be ar- 
ranged to restrict the accumulation of smoke. [101:7.53.2] 

14.10.3.3 Exterior exit access balconies shall be separated from 
the interior of the building by walls and opening protectives as 
required for corridors, unless the exterior exit access balcony is 
served by at least two remote stairs that can be accessed without 
any occupant traveling past an unprotected opening to reach 
one of the stairs, or unless dead ends on the exterior exit access 
do not exceed 20 ft (6100 mm). [101:7.5.3.3] 

14.10.3.4 Exterior exit access shall be arranged so that there are 
no dead ends in excess of those permitted for dead-end corridors 
in Chapter 11 through Chapter 42 of NFPA 101. [702:7.5.3.4] 

14.10.4 Accessible Means of Egress. 

14.10.4.1* Areas accessible to people with severe mobility im- 
pairment, other than in existing buildings, shall have not less 
than two accessible means of egress, unless otherwise provided 
in 14.10.4.1.2 through 14.10.4.1.4. [101:7.5.4.1] 

14.10.4.1.1 Access within the allowable travel distance shall 
be provided to not less than one accessible area of refuge or 
one accessible exit providing an accessible route to an exit 
discharge. [201:7.5.4.1.1] 

14.10.4.1.2 A single accessible means of egress shall be per- 
mitted from buildings or areas of buildings permitted to have 
a single exit. [/Oi:7.5.4.1.2] 

14.10.4.1.3 Accessible means of egress shall not be required 
in health care occupancies protected throughout by an ap- 
proved, super\'ised automatic sprinkler system in accordance 
with Section 13.3. [202:7.5.4.1.3] 

14.10.4.1.4 Exit access travel along the accessible means of 
egress shall be permitted to be common for the distances per- 
mitted as common paths of travel. [202:7.5.4.1.4] 

14.10.4.2 Where two accessible means of egress are required, 
the exits serving such means of egress shall be located at a 
distance from one another not less than one-half the length of 
the maximum overall diagonal dimension of the building or 
area to be served. The distance shall be measured in a straight 
line between the nearest edge of the exit doors or exit access 
doors, unless otherwise provided in 14.10.4.2.1 through 
14.10.4.2.3. [202:7.5.4.2] 

14.10.4.2.1 Where exit enclosures are provided as the re- 
quired exits specified in 14.10.4.2 and are interconnected by 
not less than a 1-hour fire resistance-rated corridor, exit sepa- 
ration shall be permitted to be measured along the line of 
travel within the corridor. [202:7.5.4.2.1] 

14.10.4.2.2 The requirement of 14.10.4.2 shall not apply to 
buildings protected throughout by an approved, supervised 
automatic sprinkler system in accordance with Section 13.3. 
[202:7.5.4.2.2] 

14.10.4.2.3 The requirement of 14.10.4.2 shall not apply 
where the physical arrangement of means of egress prevents 
the possibility that access to both accessible means of egress 
will be blocked by any one fire or other emergency condition 
as approved by the AHJ. [202:7.5.4.2.3] 

14.10.4.3 Each required accessible means of egress shall be 
continuous from each accessible occupied area to a public way 
or area of refuge in accordance with 7.2.12.2.2 of NFPA 101. 
[202:7.5.4.3] 



14.10.4.4 Where an exit stair is used in an accessible means of 
egress, it shall comply with 7.2.12.2.3 of NFPA 101 and either 
shall incorporate an area of refuge within an enlarged story- 
level landing or shall be accessed from an area of refuge. 
[202:7.5.4.4] 

14.10.4.5 To be considered part of an accessible means of 
egress, an elevator shall be in accordance with 7.2.12.2.4 of 
NFPA iOi. [202:7.5.4.5] 

14.10.4.6 To be considered part of an accessible means of 
egress, a smoke barrier in accordance with Section 8.5 of 
NFPA 101 with not less than a 1-hour fire resistance rating, or a 
horizontal exit in accordance with 7.2.4 of NFPA 101, shall 
discharge to an area of refuge in accordance with 7.2.12 of 
NFPA 101. [202:7.5.4.6] 

14.10.4.7 Accessible stories that are four or more stories 
above or below a story of exit discharge shall have not less than 
one elevator complying with 14.10.4.5, except as modified in 
14.10.4.8. [202:7.5.4.7] 

14.10.4.8 Where elevators are required by 14.10.4.7, the 
smokeproof enclosure required by 7.2.12.2.4 of NFPA 101, 
shall not be required in buildings protected throughout by an 
approved, supervised automatic sprinkler system in accor- 
dance with NFPA 13. [202:7.5.4.8] 

14.10.4.9 An area of refuge used as part of a required acces- 
sible means of egress shall be in accordance with 7.2.12 of 
NFPA 202. [202:7.5.4.9] 

14.11 Discharge from Exits. 

14.11.1* Exit Termination. Exits shall terminate directly, at a 
public way or at an exterior exit discharge, unless otherwise 
provided in 14.11.1.2 through 14.11.1.4. [202:7.7.1] 

14.11.1.1 Yards, courts, open spaces, or other portions of the 
exit discharge shall be of required width and size to provide all 
occupants with a safe access to a public way. [202:7.7.1.1] 

14.11.1.2 The requirement of 14.11.1 shall not apply to interior 
exit discharge as otherwise provided in 14.11.2. [202:7.7.1.2] 

14.11.1.3 The requirement of 14.11.1 shall not apply to rooftop 
exit discharge as otherwise provided in 14.11.6. [202:7.7.1.3] 

14.11.1.4 Means of egress shall be permitted to terminate 
in an exterior area of refuge for detention and correctional 
occupancies as otherwise provided in Chapter 22 and Chap- 
ter 23 of NFPA 101. [202:7.7.1.4] 

14.11.2 Discharge through Areas on Level of Exit Discharge. 

Not more than 50 percent of the required number of exits, 
and not more than 50 percent of the required egress capacity, 
shall discharge through areas on the level of exit discharge, 
unless otherwise permitted in 14.11.2.1 and 14.11.2.2, and 
provided that the criteria of 14.11.2.3 through 14.11.2.7 also 
are met. [202:7.7.2] 

14.11.2.1 One hundred percent of the exits shall be permit- 
ted to discharge through areas on the level of exit discharge in 
detention and correctional occupancies as otherwise provided 
in Chapter 22 and Chapter 23 of NFPA 101. [202:7.7.2.1] 

14.11.2.2 In existing buildings, the 50 percent limit on egress 
capacity shall not apply if the 50 percent limit on the required 
number of exits is met. [202:7.7.2.2] 



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14.11.2.3 The discharge specified in 14.11.2 shall lead to a 
free and unobstructed way to the exterior of the building, and 
such way shall be readily visible and identifiable from the 
point of discharge from the exit. [101:7.7.2.3] 

14.11.2.4 The level of discharge shall be protected through- 
out by an approved, automatic sprinkler system in accordance 
with Section 13.3, or the portion of the level of discharge used 
for discharge shall be protected by an approved, automatic 
sprinkler system in accordance with Section 13.3 and shall be 
separated from the nonsprinklered portion of the floor by a 
fire resistance rating meeting the requirements for the enclo- 
sure of exits. (See 14.3.1.) [101:7.7.2.4] 

14.11.2.5 The requirement of 14. 11.2.4 shall not apply where 
the discharge area is a vestibule or foyer that meets all of the 
following criteria: 

(1) The depth from the exterior of the building shall be not 
more than 10 ft (3050 mm), and the length shall be not 
more than 30 ft (9140 mm). 

(2) The foyer shall be separated from the remainder of the 
level of discharge by construction providing protection 
not less than the equivalent of wired glass in steel frames. 

(3) The foyer shall serve only as means of egress and shall 
include an exit directly to the outside. [101:7.7.2.5] 

14.11.2.6 The entire area on the level of discharge shall be 
separated from areas below by construction having a fire resis- 
tance rating not less than that required for the exit enclosure, 
unless otherwise provided in 14.11.2.7. [101:7.7.2.6] 

14.11.2.7 Levels below the level of discharge in an atrium 
shall be permitted to be open to the level of discharge where 
such level of discharge is protected in accordance with 8.6.7 of 
NFPA 101. [101:7.7.2.7] 

14.11.3 Arrangement and Marking of Exit Dischaige. The exit 
discharge shall be arranged and marked to make clear the 
direction of egress to a public way. Stairs shall be arranged so 
as to make clear the direction of egress to a public way. Stairs 
that continue more than one-half story beyond the level of exit 
discharge shall be interrupted at the level of exit discharge by 
partitions, doors, or other effective means. [101:7.7.3] 

14.11.4 Components of Exit Dischaige. Doors, stairs, ramps, 
corridors, exit passageways, bridges, balconies, escalators, 
moving walks, and other components of an exit discharge 
shall comply with the detailed requirements of this chapter for 
such components. [101:7.7.4] 

14.11.5 Signs. See 14.6.4. [101:7.7.5] 

14.11.6 Discharge to Roof. Where approved by the AHJ, exits 
shall be permitted to discharge to roofs or other sections of 
the building or an adjoining building where the following cri- 
teria are met: 

(1) The roof/ ceiling assembly construction has a fire resistance 
rating not less than that required for the exit enclosure. 

(2) A continuous and safe means of egress from the roof is 
available. [101:7.7.6] 

14.12 Illumination of Means of Egress. 

14.12.1 General. 

14.12.1.1* Illumination of means of egress shall be provided 
in accordance with Section 14.12 for every building and struc- 
ture where required in Chapter 11 through Chapter 42 of 
NFPA 101. For the purposes of this requirement, exit access 



shall include only designated stairs, aisles, corridors, ramps, 
escalators, and passageways leading to an exit. For the pur- 
poses of this requirement, exit discharge shall include only 
designated stairs, aisles, corridors, ramps, escalators, walkways, 
and exit passageways leading to a public way. [101:7.8.1.1] 

14.12.1.2 Illumination of means of egress shall be continuous 
during the time that the conditions of occupancy require that 
the means of egress be available for use, unless otherwise pro- 
vided in 14.12.1.2.2. [101:7.8.1.2] 

14.12.1.2.1 Artificial lighting shall be employed at such loca- 
tions and for such periods of time as are necessary to maintain 
the illumination to the minimum criteria values herein speci- 
fied. [101:7.8.1.2.1] 

14.12.1.2.2 Automatic, motion sensor-type lighting switches 
shall be permitted within the means of egress, provided that 
the switch controllers are equipped for fail-safe operation, the 
illumination timers are set for a minimum 15-minute dura- 
tion, and the motion sensor is activated by any occupant move- 
ment in the area served by the lighting units. [101:7.8.1.2.2] 

14.12.1.3* The floors and other walking surfaces within an 
exit and within the portions of the exit access and exit dis- 
charge designated in 14.12.1.1 shall be illuminated as follows: 

( 1 ) During conditions of stair use, the minimum illumination 
for new stairs shall be at least 10 ft-candle (108 lux) , mea- 
sured at the walking surfaces. 

(2) The minimum illumination for floors and walking sur- 
faces, other than new stairs during conditions of stair use, 
shall be to values of at least 1 ft-candle (10.8 lux), mea- 
sured at the floor. 

(3) In assembly occupancies, the illumination of the floors of 
exit access shall be at least 0.2 ft-candle (2.2 lux) during 
periods of performances or projections involving directed 
light. 

(4) *The minimum illumination requirements shall not apply 

where operations or processes require low lighting levels. 
[101:7.8.1.3] 

14.12.1.4* Required illumination shall be arranged so that the 
failure of any single lighting unit does not result in an illumi- 
nation level of less than 0.2 ft-candle (2.2 lux) in any desig- 
nated area. [101:7.8.1.4] 

14.12.1.5 The equipment or units installed to meet the re- 
quirements of Section 14.14 also shall be permitted to serve 
the function of illumination of means of egress, provided that 
all requirements of Section 14.12 for such illumination are 
met. [101:7.8.1.5] 

14.12.2 Sources of Illumination. 

14.12.2.1* Illumination of means of egress shall be from a 
source considered reliable by the AHJ. [101:7.8.2.1] 

14.12.2.2 Battery-operated electric lights and other types of 
portable lamps or lanterns shall not be used for primary illu- 
mination of means of egress. Battery-operated electric lights 
shall be permitted to be used as an emergency source to the 
extent permitted under Section 14.13. [101:7.8.2.2] 

14.13 Emergency Lighting. 

14.13.1 General. 

14.13.1.1* Emergency lighting facilities for means of egress 
shall be provided in accordance v«th Section 14.13 for the 
following: 



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(1) Buildings or structures where required in Chapter 11 
through Chapter 42 of NFPA 101 

(2) Underground and limited access structures as addressed 
in Section 11.7 of NFPA 101 

(3) High-rise buildings as required by NFPA 101 

(4) Doors equipped with delayed-egress locks 

(5) Stair shaft and vestibule of smokeproof enclosures, for 
which the following also apply: 

(a) The stair shaft and vestibule shall be permitted to 
include a standby generator that is installed for the 
smokeproof enclosure mechanical ventilation 
equipment. 

(b) The standby generator shall be permitted to be used 
for the stair shaft and vestibule emergency lighting 
power supply. 

(6) New access-controlled egress doors in accordance with 
14.5.3.2 [102:7.9.1.1] 

14. 1 3. 1 .2 For the purposes of 14. 1 3. 1 . 1 , exit access shall include 
only designated stairs, aisles, corridors, ramps, escalators, and 
passagevrays leading to an exit. For the purposes of 14.13.1.1, exit 
discharge shall include only designated stairs, ramps, aisles, walk- 
ways, and escalators leading to a public way. [/02:7.9.1.2] 

14.13.1.3 Where maintenance of illumination depends on 
changing from one energy source to another, a delay of not 
more than 10 seconds shall be permitted. [70/:7.9.1.3] 

14.13.2 Periodic Testing of Emei^ency lighting Equipment. 

14.13.2.1 Required emergency lighting systems shall be 
tested in accordance with one of the three options offered by 
14.13.2.1.1, 14.13.2.1.2, or 14.13.2.1.3. [/0/:7.9.3.1] 

14.13.2.1.1 Testing of required emergency lighting systems 
shall be permitted to be conducted as follows: 

(1) Functional testing shall be conducted at 30-day intervals 
for not less than 30 seconds. 

(2) Functional testing shall be conducted annually for not 
less than IVi hours if the emergency lighting system is 
battery powered. 

(3) The emergency lighting equipment shall be fully opera- 
tional for the duration of the tests required by 14.13.2.1.1 (1) 
and 14.13.2.1.1(2). 

(4) Written records of visual inspections and tests shall be kept 
by the owner for inspection by the AHJ. [i0i:7.9.3.1.1] 

14.13.2.1.2 Testing of required emergency lighting systems 
shall be permitted to be conducted as follows: 

(1) Self-testing/self-diagnostic battery-operated emergency 
lighting equipment shall be provided. 

(2) Self-testing/self-diagnostic battery-operated emergency 
lighting equipment shall automatically perform not less 
than once every 30 days a test for not less than 30 seconds 
and a diagnostic routine. 

(3) Self-testing/self-diagnostic battery-operated emer- 
gency lighting equipment shall indicate failures by a 
status indicator. 

(4) A visual inspection shall be performed at intervals not ex- 
ceeding 30 days. 

(5) Functional testing shall be conducted annually for not 
less than 1 VS hours. 

(6) Self-testing/self-diagnostic battery-operated emergency 
Ughting equipment shall be fully operational for the du- 
ration of the \Vi hour test. 

(7) Written records of visual inspections and tests sheill be kept 
by the owner for inspection by the AHJ. [/W:7.9.3.1.2] 



14.13.2.1.3 Testing of required emergency lighting systems 
shall be permitted to be conducted as follows: 

(1) Computer-based, self-testing/self-diagnostic battery-operated 
emergency lighting equipment shall be provided. 

(2) The emergency lighting equipment shall automatically 
perform not less than once every 30 days a test for not less 
than 30 seconds and a diagnostic routine. 

(3) The emergency lighting equipment shall automatically 
perform annually a test for not less than \V2 hours. 

(4) The emergency lighting equipment shall be fully opera- 
tional for the duration of the tests required by 14. 13.2.1. 3(2) 
and 14.13.2.1.3(3). 

(5) The computer-based system shall be capable of providing 
a report of the history of tests and failures at all times. 
[201:7.9.3.1.3] 

14.14 Markii^ of Means of Egress. 

14.14.1 General. 

14.14.1.1 Where Required. Means of egress shall be marked in 
accordance with Section 14.14 where required in Chapter 11 
tiirough Chapter 42 of NFPA 101. [/W:7.10.1.1] 

14.14.1.2* Exits. Exits, other than main exterior exit doors 
that obviously and clearly are identifiable as exits, shall be 
marked by an approved sign that is readily visible from any 
direction of exit access. [iOi:7.10.1.2] 

14.14.1.3 Exit Stair Door Tactile Signage. Tactile signage shall 
be provided to meet the following criteria, unless otherwise 
provided in 14.14.1.4: 

( 1 ) Tactile signage shall be located at each exit door requir- 
ing an exit sign. 

(2) Tactile signage shall read as follows: 

EXIT 

(3) Tactile signage shall comply with ICC/ ANSI A117.1, Ameri- 
can National Standard for Accessible and Usable Buildings and 
Facilities. [/0i:7.10.1.3] 

14.14.1.4 Existing Exemption. The requirements of 14.14.1.3 
shall not apply to existing buildings, provided that the occu- 
pancy classification does not change. [/0/:7.10.1.4] 

14.14.1.5 ExitAccess. 

14. 14. 1 .5. 1 Access to exits shall be marked by approved, readily 
visible signs in all cases where the exit or way to reach the exit is 
not readily apparent to the occupants. [iOi:7.10.1.5.1] 

14.14.1.5.2* New sign placement shall be such that no point in 
an exit access corridor is in excess of the rated viewing dis- 
tance or 100 ft (30 m) , whichever is less, from the nearest sign. 
[/W:7.10.1.5.2] 

14.14.1.6* Floor Proximity Exit Signs. Where floor proximity 
exit signs are required in Chapter 11 through Chapter 42 of 
NFPA 101, such signs shall be located near the floor level in 
addition to those signs required for doors or corridors. The 
signs shall be illuminated in accordance with 14.14.5. Exter- 
nally illuminated signs shall be sized in accordance with 
14.14.6. The bottom of the sign shall be not less than 6 in. 
(150 mm), but not more than 18 in. (455 mm), above the 
floor. For exit doors, the sign shall be mounted on the door or 
adjacent to the door, with the nearest edge of the sign within 
4 in. (100 mm) of tiie door frame. [7W:7.10.1.6] 



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14.14.1.7* Floor Proximity Egress Path Marking. Where floor 
proximity egress path marking is required in Chapter 11 
through Chapter 42 of NFPA 101, a listed and approved 
floor proximity egress path marking system that is internally 
illuminated shall be installed within 18 in. (455 mm) of the 
floor. The system shall provide a visible delineation of the 
path of travel along the designated exit access and shall be 
essentially continuous, except as interrupted by doorways, 
hallways, corridors, or other such architectural features. 
The system shall operate continuously or at any time the 
building fire alarm system is activated. The activation, dura- 
tion, and continuity of operation of the system shall be ac- 
cordance with 7.9.2 of NFPA 101. The system shall be main- 
tained in accordance with the product manufacturing 
listing. [i0i:7.10.1.7] 

14.14.1.8* Visibility. Every sign required in Section 14.14 shall 
be located and of such size, distinctive color, and design that it 
is readily visible and shall provide contrast with decorations, 
interior finish, or other signs. No decorations, furnishings, or 
equipment that impairs visibility of a sign shall be permitted. 
No brighdy illuminated sign (for other than exit purposes), 
display, or object in or near the line of vision of the required 
exit sign that could detract attention from the exit sign shall 
be permitted. [/W;7.10.1.8] 

14. 14. 1 .9 Mounting Location. The bottom of new egress mark- 
ings shall be located at a vertical distance of not more than 6 ft 
8 in. (2030 mm) above the top edge of the egress opening in- 
tended for designation by that marking. Egress markings shall be 
located at a horizontal distance of not more than the required 
width of the egress opening, as measured from the edge of the 
egress opening intended for designation by that marking to the 
nearest edge of the marking. [/0i:7.10.1.9] 

14.14.2* Directional Signs. Asign complying with 14.14.3 with 
a directional indicator showing the direction of travel shall be 
placed in every location where the direction of travel to reach 
the nearest exit is not apparent. [2W:7.10.2] 

14.14.3* Sign Legend. 

14.14.3.1 Signs required by 14.14.1 and 14.14.2 shall read as 
follows in plainly legible letters, or other appropriate wording 
shall be used: [iOi:7. 10.3.1] 

EXIT 

14.14.3.2* Where approved by the AHJ, pictograms shall be 
permitted. [iW:7.10.3.2] 

14.14.4* Power Source. Where emergency lighting facilities 
are required by the applicable provisions of Chapter 11 
through Chapter 42 of NFPA 101 for individual occupancies, 
the signs, other than approved self-luminous signs and listed 
photoluminescent signs in accordance with 14.14.6.4.2, shall 
be illuminated by the emergency lighting facilities. The level 
of illumination of the signs shall be in accordance with 
14.14.6.3 for the required emergency hghting duration as 
specified in 14.14.6.4. However, the level of illumination shall 
be permitted to decline to 60 percent at the end of the emer- 
gency lighting duration. [107:7.10.4] 

14.14.5 lUumination of Signs. 

14.14.5.1* General. Every sign required by 14.14.1.2, 
14.14.1.5, or 14.14.6.5.1, other than where operations or pro- 
cesses require low lighting levels, shall be suitably illuminated 



by a reliable light source. Externally and internally illumi- 
nated signs shall be legible in both the normal and emergency 
lighting mode. [;0i:7.10.5.1] 

14.14.5.2* Continuous lUumination. 

14.14.5.2.1 Every sign required to be illuminated by 
14.14.6.3, 14.14.6.4, and 14.14.6.5.1 shall be continuously illu- 
minated as required under the provisions of Section 14.12, 
unless otherwise provided in 14.14.5.2.2. [i07:7.10.5.2.1] 

14.14.5.2.2* Illumination for signs shall be permitted to 
flash on and off upon activation of the fire alarm system. 
[iOi:7.10.5.2.2] 

14.14.6 Externally lUuminated Signs. 

14.14.6.1* Size of Signs. 

14.14.6.1.1 Externally illuminated signs required by 14.14.1 
and 14.14.2, other than approved existing signs, unless other- 
wise provided in 14.14.6.1.2, shall read EXIT or shall use other 
appropriate wording in plainly legible letters sized as follows: 

(1) For new signs, the letters shall be not less than 6 in. 
(150 mm) high, with the principal strokes of letters not 
less than % in. (19 mm) wide. 

(2) For existing signs, the required wording shall be permit- 
ted to be in plainly legible letters not less than 4 in. 
(100 mm) high. 

(3) The word EXIT shall be in letters of a width not less than 
2 in. (51 mm), except the letter 1, and the minimum spac- 
ing between letters shall be not less than Vs in. (9.5 mm). 

(4) Sign legend elements larger than the minimum estab- 
lished in 14.14.6.1.1(1) through 14.14.6.1.1(3) shall use 
letter widths, strokes, and spacing in proportion to their 
height. [iW:7.10.6.1.1] 

14.14.6.1.2 The requirements of 14.14.6.1.1 shall not apply to 
marking required by 14.14.1.3 and 14.14.1.6. [70/: 7.10.6.1. 2] 

14.14.6.2* Size and Location of Directional Indicator. 

14.14.6.2.1 Directional indicators, unless otherwise provided 
in 14.14.6.2.2, shall comply with the following: 

The directional indicator shall be located outside of the 
EXIT legend, not less than % in. (9.5 mm) from any letter. 
The directional indicator shall be of a chevron type, as 
shown in Figure 14.14.6.2.1. 

The directional indicator shall be identifiable as a direc- 
tional indicator at a distance of 40 ft (12 m). 
A directional indicator larger than the minimum estab- 
lished for compliance with 14.14.6.2.1 (3) shall be propor- 
tionately increased in height, width, and stroke. 
The directional indicator shall be located at the end of 
the sign for the direction indicated. [201:7.10.6.2.1] 



(1) 
(2) 
(3) 
(4) 



(5) 




FIGURE 14.14.6.2.1 Chevron-Type Indicator. [702:Figure 
7.10.6.2.1] 



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14.14.6.2.2 The requirements of 14.14.6.2.1 shall not apply 
to approved existing signs. [iW:7.10.6.2.2] 

14.14.6.3* Level of lUuinination. Externally illuminated signs 
shall be illuminated by not less than 5 ft-candles (54 lux) at the 
illuminated surface and shall have a contrast ratio of not less 
than 0.5. [/W:7.10.6.3] 

14.14.6.4 Internally Illuminated Signs. 

14.14.6.4.1 Listing. Internally illuminated signs shall be listed 
in accordance with UL 924, Standard for Emergency Lighting and 
Power Equipment, unless they meet one of the following criteria: 

( 1 ) They are approved existing signs. 

(2) They are existing signs having the required wording in 
legible letters not less than 4 in. (100 mm) high. 

(3) They are signs that are in accordance with 14.14.1.3 and 
14.14.1.6. [/Oi:7.10.7.1] 

14.14.6.4.2* Photoluminescent Signs. The face of a photolu- 
minescent sign shall be continually illuminated while the 
building is occupied. The illumination levels on the face of the 
photoluminescent sign shall be in accordance with its listing. 
The charging illumination shall be a reliable light source as 
determined by the AHJ. The charging light source shall be of a 
type specified in the product markings. [101:1.10.1.2] 

14.14.6.5 Special Signs. 

14.14.6.5.1 Sign niumination. 

14.14.6.5.1.1 Where required by other provisions of this Code, 
special signs shall be illuminated in accordance with 14.14.5, 
14.14.6.3, and 14.14.6.4. [J'07:7.10.8.1.1] 

14.14.6.5.1.2 Where emergency lighting facilities are re- 
quired by the applicable provisions of Chapter 12 through 
Chapter 42 of NFPA 101, the required illumination of special 
signs shall additionally be provided under emergency lighting 
conditions. [/W:7.10.8.1.2] 

14.14.6.5.2 Characters. Special signs, where required by other 
provisions of this Code, shall comply with the visual character re- 
quirements of ICC/ANSI All 7.1, American National Standard for 
Accessible and Usable Buildings and Facilities. [/07:7.10.8.2] 

14.14.6.5.3* No Exit. 

14.14.6.5.3.1 Any door, passage, or stairway that is neither an 
exit nor a way of exit access and that is located or arranged so 
that it is likely to be mistaken for an exit shall be identified by 
a sign that reads as follows: [20/:7. 10.8.3. 1] 

NO 

EXIT 

14.14.6.5.3.2 The NO EXIT sign shall have the word NO in 
letters 2 in. (51 mm) high, with a stroke width of % in. 
(9.5 mm), and the word EXIT in letters 1 in. (25 mm) high, 
with the word EXIT below the word NO, unless such sign is an 
approved existing sign. [iOi:7.10.8.3.2] 

14.15 Secondary Means of Escape. 

14.15.1 Secondary means of escape shall comply with NFPA 
101. 

14.15.2 Where approved on secondary means of egress, secu- 
rity bars, grates, grilles, or similar devices shall be equipped 
with approved release mechanisms that are releasable from 
the inside without the use of a tool, a key, special knowledge, 
or force greater than that which it takes for normal operation 
of the door or window. 



Chapter 15 Planned Building Groups 

15.1 Applicability. 

15.1.1 Where required by the AHJ, Chapter 15 shall apply to 
planned building groups in suburban and rural areas that the 
AHJ determines would be impacted by one or more of the 
following during a fire: 

(1) Limited water supply 

(2) Limited fire department resources 

(3) Extended fire department response time 

(4) Delayed alarms 

(5) Limited access 

(6) Hazardous vegetation 

(7) Unusual terrain 

(8) Other unusual characteristics 

15.1.2 This chapter does not apply to farms or to mobile 
homes or recreational vehicle parks. (See Chapter 27.) 

15.2 Compliance. Planned building groups shall comply with 
NFPA1141, Standard for Fire Protection in Planned Building Groups. 

15.3 Plans. Plans for the planned building group shall be sub- 
mitted to the AHJ for review and approval. 



Chapter 16 Safeguards During Building 
Construction, Alteration, and Demolition Operations 

16.1 General Requirements. 

16.1.1 Structures undergoing construction, alteration, or 
demolition operations, including those in underground lo- 
cations, shall comply with NFPA 241, Standard for Safeguard- 
ing Construction, Alteration, and Demolition Operations, and 
this chapter. 

16.1.2 Afire protection plan shall be established where re- 
quired by the AHJ. 

16.1.3* In buildings under construction, adequate escape fa- 
cilities shall be maintained at all times for the use of construc- 
tion workers. Escape facilities shall consist of doors, walkways, 
stairs, ramps, fire escapes, ladders, or other approved means 
or devices arranged in accordance with the general principles 
of NFPA 101, insofar as they can reasonably be applied to 
buildings under construction. [i<?i:4.6.I01.2] 

16.1.4 Fire department access roads provided in accordance 
with 18.2.3 shall be provided at the start of a project and shall 
be maintained throughout construction. 

16.1.5 Permanent fire department access road markings shall 
not be required until the building is complete or occupied for 
use. 

16.2 Processes and Hazards. 

16.2.1 Temporary Heating Equipment. 

16.2.1.1 Temporary heating equipment shall be listed and 
shall be installed, used, and maintained in accordance with 
the manufacturer's instructions. [241:5.2.1] 

16.2.1.2 Chimney or vent connectors, where required from 
direct-fired heaters, shall be maintained at least 18 in. 
(460 mm) from combustibles and shall be installed in accor- 
dance with NFPA 211, Standard for Chimneys, Fireplaces, Vents, 
and Solid Fuel-Burning Appliances. [241:5.2.2] 



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16.2.1.3 Oil-fired heaters shall comply with Section 11.5. 
[241:5.2.3] 

16.2.1.4 Fuel supplies for liquefied petroleum gas-fired heat- 
ers shall comply with NFPA 54, National Fuel Gas Code, and 
Chapter 69. [241:5.2.4] 

16.2.1.5* Refiieling operations shall be conducted in an ap- 
proved manner. [241:5.2.5] 

16.2.1.6 Heating devices shall be situated so that they are 
secured. [241:5.2.6] 

16.2.1.7 Heating devices shall be installed in accordance with 
their listing, including clearance to combustible material, 
equipment, or construction. [241:5.2.7] 

16.2.1.8* Temporary heating equipment, where utilized, shall 
be monitored for safe operation and maintained by properly 
trained personnel. [241:5.2.8] 

16.2.2 Waste Disposal. 

16.2.2.1* Accumulations of combustible waste material, dust, 
and debris shall be removed from the structure and its imme- 
diate vicinity at the end of each work shift or more frequently 
as necessary for safe operations. [241:5.4.1] 

16.2.2.2 Rubbish shall not be burned on the premises with- 
out first obtaining a permit from the AHJ. (See Section 10.11.) 
[241:5.4.2] 

16.2.2.3 Materials susceptible to spontaneous ignition, such 
as oily rags, shall be stored in a Usted disposal container. 

[241:5.4.3] 

16.2.2.4* When a trash chute is used, an approved safety plan 
shall be submitted to tiie AHJ. [241:5.4.4] 

16.2.3 Flammable and Combustible liquids and Flammable 
Gases. 

16.2.3.1 Storage. 

16.2.3.1.1 Storage of flammable and combustible liquids 
shall be in accordance with Chapter 66, unless otherwise 
modified by 16.2.3. [241:5.5.1.1] 

16.2.3.1.2* Storage of Class I and Class II hquids shall not 
exceed 60 gal (227 L) within 50 ft (15 m) of the structure. 
[241:5.5.1.2] 

16.2.3.1.3 Storage areas shall be kept free of weeds, debris, 
and combustible materials not necessary to the storage. 
[241:5.5.1.3] 

16.2.3.1.4 Open flames and smoking shall not be permitted in 
flammable and combustible liquids storage areas. [241:5.5.1.4] 

16.2.3. 1 .5 Such storage areas shall be appropriately posted as 
"no smoking" areas. [241:5.5.1.5] 

16.2.3.1.6 Storage areas shall be appropriately posted with 
markings in accordance with NFR\ 704, Standard System for the 
Identification of the Hazards of Materials for Emergency Response. 
[241:5.5.1.6] 

16.2.3.2 Handling of Flammable and Combustible Liquids at 
Point of Final Use. 

16.2.3.2.1 Handling of flammable and combustible liquids 
shall be in accordance with Chapter 66, except as modified by 

16.2.3.2.2 through 16.2.3.2.4. [241:5.5.2.1] 



16.2.3.2.2 Class I and Class II Uquids shall be kept in ap- 
proved safety containers. [241:5.5.2.2] 

16.2.3.2.3 Means shall be provided to dispose of leakage and 
spills prompfly and safely. [241:5.5.2.3] 

16.2.3.2.4* Class I liquids shall be dispensed only where there 
are no open flames or other sources of ignition within the 
possible path of vapor travel. [241:5.5.2.4] 

16.2.3.3 Storage and Handling of Combustible and Flammable 
Gases. 

16.2.3.3.1 Storage and handling of combustible and flammable 
gases shall be in accordance with NFPA 54 and Chapter 69. 
[241:5.5.3.1] 

16.2.3.3.2 Open flames and smoking shall not be permitted 
in flammable gas storage areas. [241:5.5.3.2] 

16.3 Fire Protection. 

16.3.1 Fire Safety Program. An overall construction or demo- 
lition fire safety program shall be developed. Essential items to 
be emphasized include the following: 

(1) Good housekeeping 

(2) On-site security 

(3) Installation of new fire protection systems as construction 
progresses 

(4) Preservation of existing systems during demolition 

(5) Organization and training of an on-site fire brigade 

(6) Development of a prefire plan with the local fire department 

(7) Rapid communication 

(8) Consideration of special hazards resulting from previous 
occupancies 

(9) Protection of existing structures and equipment from ex- 
posure fires resulting from construction, alteration, and 
demolition operations [241:7.1] 

16.3.2 Owner's Responsibility for Fire Protection. 

16.3.2.1* The owner shall designate a person who shall be 
responsible for the fire prevention program and who shall en- 
sure that it is carried out to completion. [241:7.2.1] 

16.3.2.1.1 The fire prevention program manager shall have 
the authority to enforce the provisions of NFPA 241 and this 
chapter and other applicable fire protection standards. 
[241:7.2.1.1] 

16.3.2.1.2 The fire prevention program manager shall have 
knowledge of the applicable fire protection standards, avail- 
able fire protection systems, and fire inspection procedures. 
[241:7.2.1.2] 

16.3.2.1.3 Inspection records shall be available for review by 
theAHJ. [241:7.2.1.3] 

16.3.2.2 Where guard service is provided, the fire prevention 
program manager shall be responsible for the guard service. 
[241:7.2.2] 

16.3.2.3* Prefiie Plans. 

16.3.2.3.1 Where there is public fire protection or a private 
fire brigade, the manager shall be responsible for the develop- 
ment of prefire plans in conjunction with the fire agencies. 
[241:7.2.3.1] 

16.3.2.3.2 Prefire plans shall be updated as necessary. 
[241:7.2.3.2] 



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16.3.2.3.3 The prefire plan shall include provisions for on- 
site visits by the fire agency. [241:7.2.3.3] 

16.3.2.4 Program Manager Responsibilities. 

16.3.2.4.1 The manager shall be responsible for ensuring 
that proper training in the use of protection equipment has 
been provided. [241:7.2.4.1] 

16.3.2.4.2 The manager shall be responsible for the presence 
of adequate numbers and types of fire protection devices and 
appliances and for their proper maintenance. [241:7.2.4.2] 

16.3.2.4.3 The manager shall be responsible for supervising 
the permit system for hot work operations. (See Section 5. 1 of 
AKPA24i.; [241:7.2.4.3] 

16.3.2.4.4 A weekly self-inspection program shall be imple- 
mented, with records maintained and made available. 
[241:7.2.4.4] 

16.3.2.4.5* Impairments to the fire protection systems or fire 
alarm, detection, or communications systems shall be authorized 
only by the fire prevention program manager [241:7.2.4.5] 

16.3.2.4.6 Temporary protective coverings used on fire pro- 
tection devices during renovations, such as painting, shall be 
removed promptly when work has been completed in the 
area. [241:7.2.4.6] 

16.3.2.5 Site Security. 

16.3.2.5.1* Guard service shall be provided where required by 
theAHJ. [241:7.2.5.1] 

16.3.2.5.2* Where guard service is provided, the guard(s) 
shall be trained in the foUowring: 

(1) Noufication procedures that include calling the fire de- 
partment and management personnel 

(2) Knowledge of fire protection equipment 

(3) Familiarization with fire hazards 

(4) Use of construction elevators [241:7.2.5.2] 

16.3.2.5.3 Guards shall be informed of any special status of 
emergency equipment or hazards. [241:7.2.5.3] 

16.3.2.5.4* Security fences shall be provided where required 
by theAHJ. [241:7.2.5.4] 

16.3.2.5.5* Entrances (e.g., doors and windows) to the struc- 
ture under construction, alteration, or demolition shall be se- 
cured where required by theAHJ. [241:7.2.5.5] 

16.3.3* Fire Alarm Reporting. 

16.3.3.1 There shall be a readily available public fire alarm 
box near the premises, telephone service to the responding 
fire department, or equivalent facilities. [241:7.4.1] 

16.3.3.2 Instructions shall be issued for the immediate notifi- 
cation of the fire department in the case of a fire. Where tele- 
phone service is employed, the local fire department number 
and site address shall be conspicuously posted near each tele- 
phone. [241:7.4.2] 

16.3.4 Access for Fire Fighting. 

1 6.3.4. 1 A suitable location at the site shall be designated as a 
command post and provided with plans, emergency informa- 
tion, keys, communications, and equipment, as needed. 
[241:7.5.1] 



16.3.4.2 The person in charge of fire protection shall re- 
spond to the location command post whenever fire occurs. 
[241:7.5.2] 

16.3.4.3 Where access to or within a structure or an area is 
unduly difficult because of secured openings or where imme- 
diate access is necessary for life-saving or fire-fighting pur- 
poses, the AHJ shall be permitted to require a key box to be 
installed in an accessible location. [241:7.5.3] 

16.3.4.4 The key box shall be an approved type and shall 
contain keys to gain access as required by the AHJ. (See Section 
18.2.) [241:7.5.4] 

16.3.4.5 Stairs. 

16.3.4.5.1 In all buildings over one story in height, at least one 
stairway shall be provided that is in usable condition at all times 
and that meets the requirements of NFPA 101. [241:7.5.6.1] 

16.3.4.5.2 This stairway shall be extended upward as each 
floor is installed in new construction and maintained for each 
floor still remaining during demolition. [241:7.5.6.2] 

16.3.4.5.3 The stairway shall be lighted. [241:7.5.6.3] 

16.3.4.5.4 During construction, the stairway shall be enclosed 
where the building exterior walls are in place. [241:7.5.6.4] 

16.3.4.5.5 All exit stairs shall be provided with stair identi- 
fication signs to include the floor level, stair designation, 
and exit path direction as required to provide for safe 
egress. [241:7.5.6.5] 

16.3.5 Standpipes. In all new buildings in which standpipes 
are required or where standpipes exist in buildings being al- 
tered or demolished, such standpipes shall be maintained in 
conformity with the progress of building construction in such 
a manner that they are always ready for use. [241:7.6] 

16.3.6* First-Aid Fire-Fighting Equipment. 

16.3.6.1* The suitability, distribution, and maintenance of extin- 
guishers shall be in accordance with Section 13.6. [241:7.7.1] 

16.3.6.2 Wherever a toolhouse, storeroom, or other shanty is 
located in or adjacent to the building under construction or 
demolition, or where a room or space within that building is 
used for storage, a dressing room, or a workshop, at least one 
approved extinguisher shall be provided and maintained in 
an accessible location, unless otherwise permitted by 16.3.6.3. 
[241:7.7.2] 

16.3.6.3 The requirement of 16.3.6.2 shall be permitted to be 
waived where the structure does not exceed 150 ft^ (14 m^) in 
floor area or is equipped with automatic sprinklers or other 
approved protection. [241:7.7.3] 

16.3.6.4 At least one approved fire extinguisher also shall be 
provided in plain sight on each floor at each usable stairway as 
soon as combustible material accumulates. [241:7.7.4] 

16.3.6.5 Suitable fire extinguishers shall be provided on self- 
propelled equipment. [241:7.7.5] 

16.3.6.6* Free access to permanent, temporary, or portable 
first aid fire equipment shall be maintained at all times. 
[241:7.7.6] 

16.4 Safeguarding Construction and Alteration Operations. 

16.4.1* Scaffolding, Shoring, and Forms. 

16.4.1.1 Accumulations of unnecessary combustible forms or 
form lumber shall be prohibited. [241:8.2.1] 



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16.4. 1 .2 Combustible forms or form lumber shall be brought 
into the structure only when needed. [241:8.2.2] 

16.4.1.3 Combustible forms or form lumber shall be re- 
moved from the structure as soon as stripping is complete. 

[241:8.2.3] 

16.4.1.4 Those portions of the structure where combustible 
forms are present shall not be used for the storage of other 
combustible building materials. [241:8.2.4] 

16.4.1.5* During forming and stripping operations, portable fire 
extinguishers or charged hose lines shall be provided to protect 
the additional combustible loading adequately. [241:8.2.5] 

16.4.2 Temporary Separation Walls. 

16.4.2.1 Protection shall be provided to separate an occupied 
portion of the structure from a portion of the structure undergo- 
ing alteration, construction, or demolition operations when such 
operations are considered as having a higher level of hazard than 
the occupied portion of the building. [241:8.6.2.1] 

16.4.2.2 Walls shall have at least a 1-hour fire resistance rating. 
[241:8.6.2.2] 

16.4.2.3 Opening protectives shall have at least a 45-minute 
fire protection rating. [241:8.6.2.3] 

16.4.2.4* Nonrated walls and opening protectives shall be per- 
mitted when an approved automatic sprinkler system is installed. 

[241:8.6.2.4] 

16.4.3 Fire Protection During Construction. 

16.4.3.1 Water Supply. 

16.4.3.1.1* A water supply for fire protection, either tempo- 
rary or permanent, shall be made available as soon as combus- 
tible material accumulates. [241:8.7.2.1] 

16.4.3.1.2 There shall be no delay in the installation of fire 
protection equipment. (See A. 16.4. 1.3.) [241:8.7.2.2] 

16.4.3.1.3 Where underground water mains and hydrants are 
to be provided, they shall be installed, completed, and in ser- 
vice prior to construction work. [241:8.7.2.3] 

16.4.3.2 Sprinkler Protection. 

16.4.3.2-1* If automatic sprinkler protection is to be provided, 
the installation shall be placed in service as soon as practi- 
cable. [241:8.7.3.1] 

16.4.3.2.2 The details of installation shall be in accordance 
withNFPAlS. [241:8.7.3.2] 

16.4.3.2.3 Where sprinklers are required for safety to life, the 
building shall not be occupied until the sprinkler installation 
has been entirely completed and tested so that the protection 
is not susceptible to frequent impairment caused by testing 
and correction, unless otherwise permitted by 16.4.3.2.4. 
[241:8.7.3.3] 

16.4.3.2.4 The provision of 16.4.3.2.3 shall not prohibit occu- 
pancy of the lower floors of a building, even where the upper 
floors are in various stages of construction or protection, pro- 
vided the foUovring conditions are satisfied: 

(1) The sprinkler protection of the lower occupied floors is 
completed and tested in accordance with 16.4.3.2.3. 

(2) The sprinkler protection of the upper floors is supplied 
by entirely separate systems and separate control valves so 
that the absence or incompleteness of protection in no 
way impairs the sprinkler protection of the occupied 
lower floors. [241:8.7.3.4] 



16.4.3.2.5 The operation of sprinkler control valves shall be 
permitted only by properly authorized personnel and shall be 
accompanied by the notification of duly designated parties. 
[241:8.7.3.5] 

16.4.3.2.6 Where the sprinkler protection is regularly turned 
off and on to facilitate connection of newly completed seg- 
ments, the sprinkler control valves shall be checked at the end 
of each work shift to ascertain that protection is in service. 
[241:8.7.3.6] 

16.4.3.3 Standpipes. 

16.4.3.3.1 General. 

16.4.3.3.1.1* The pipe size, hose valves, hose, water supply, 
and other details for new construction shall be in accordance 
with Section 13.2. [241:8.7.4.1.1] 

16.4.3.3.1.2 On permanent Type II and Type III standpipes, 
hose and nozzles shall be provided and made ready for use as 
soon as the water supply is available to the standpipe, unless 
otherwise permitted by 16.4.3.3.1.3. [241:8.7.4.1.2] 

16.4.3.3.1.3* In combined systems where occupant hose is not 
required, temporary hose and nozzles shall be provided dur- 
ing construction. [241:8.7.4.1.3] 

16.4.3.3.2 Standpipe Installations in Buildings Under Con- 
struction. Where required by the AHJ, in buildings under con- 
struction, a standpipe system, either temporary or permanent 
in nature, shall be installed in accordance with 16.4.3.3.2.1 
through 16.4.3.3.2.10. [241:8.7.4.2] 

16.4.3.3.2.1 The standpipes shall be provided with conspicu- 
ously marked and readily accessible fire department connections 
on the outside of the building at the street level and shall have at 
least one standard hose oudet at each floor. [241:8.7.4.2.1] 

16.4.3.3.2.2 The pipe sizes, hose valves, hose, water supply, 
and other details for new construction shall be in accordance 
withNFPA241. [241:8.7.4.2.2] 

16.4.3.3.2.3 The standpipes shall be securely supported and 
restrained at each alternate floor. [241:8.7.4.2.3] 

16.4.3.3.2.4* At least one approved hose valve for attaching 
fire department hose shall be provided at each intermediate 
landing or floor level in the exit stairway, as determined by the 
AHJ. [241:8.7.4.2.4] 

16.4.3.3.2.5 Valves shall be kept closed at all times and 
guarded against mechanical injury. [241:8.7.4.2.5] 

16.4.3.3.2.6 Hose valves shall have NH standard external 
threads for the valve size specified in accordance with 
NFPA 1963, Standard for Fire Hose Connections, unless modified 
by 16.4.3.3.2.7. [241:8.7.4.2.6] 

16.4.3.3.2.7 Where local fire department connections do not 
conform to NFPA 1963, the AHJ shall designate the connec- 
tion to be used. [241:8.7.4.2.7] 

16.4.3.3.2.8* The standpipes shall be extended up with each 
floor and shall be securely capped at the top. [241:8.7.4.2.8] 

16.4.3.3.2.9 Top hose outiets shall be not more than one 
floor below the highest forms, staging, and similar combus- 
tibles at all times. [241:8.7.4.2.9] 



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16.4.3.3.2.10 Temporary standpipes shall remain in sei-vice 
until the permanent standpipe installation is complete. 

[241:8.7.4.2.10] 

16.4.4 Alteration of Buildings. 

16.4.4.1 Where the building is protected by fire protection 
systems, such systems shall be maintained operational at all 
times during alteration. 

16.4.4.2 Where alteration requires modification of a portion 
of the fire protection system, the remainder of the system shall 
be kept in service and the fire department shall be notified. 

16.4.4.3 When it is necessary to shut down the system, the 
AHJ shall have the authority to require alternate measures of 
protection until the system is returned to service. 

16.4.4.4 The fire department shall be notified when the sys- 
tem is shut down and when the system is returned to service. 

16.4.4.5 All required exit components shall be maintained in 
accordance with this Code as deemed necessary by the AHJ. 

16.4.4.6 Fire-resistive assemblies and construction shall be 
maintained. 

16.5 Fire Safety During Demolition. 

16.5.1 If a building intended to be demolished contains a 
sprinkler system, such system shall not be rendered inopera- 
tive without approval of the AHJ. 

16.5.2 Demolition operations involving the use of cutting 
and welding shall be done in accordance with Chapter 41. 

16.5.3 Combustible waste material shall not be burned at the 
demolition site unless approved by the AHJ. Combustible ma- 
terials shall be removed from the site as often as necessary to 
minimize the hazards therefrom. (See Section 10.11.) 

16.5.4 Where in the opinion of the AHJ the demolition site is 
of a hazardous nature, qualified personnel shall serve as an 
on-site fire watch. 

16.6 Torch-Applied RooSng Systems. 

16.6.1 Permits. Permits, where required, shall comply with 
Section 1.12. 

16.6.2 Torch-applied roofing systems shall be installed in ac- 
cordance with Chapter 7 of NFPA 241, Standard for Safeguard- 
ing Construction, Alteration, and Demolition Operations. 

16.7 Tar Kettles. 
16.7.1 General. 

16.7.1.1 The provisions of Section 16.7 shall apply to any type 
of equipment including, but not limited to, chassis-mounted 
equipment used for preheating or heating tar, asphalt, pitch, 
or similar substances for roofs, floors, pipes, or similar objects. 

16.7.1.2 Permits. Permits, where required, shall comply with 
Section 1.12. 

16.7.1.3 Operating kettles shall not be located inside of or on 
the roof of any building. 

16.7.1.4 Tar Kettle Location. The kettle shall be operated in a 
controlled area. The area shall be identified by the use of traf- 
fic cones, barriers, and other suitable means as approved by 
the AHJ. 



16.7.1.5 Kettie Supervision. 

16.7.1.5.1 An operating kettle shall be attended by a mini- 
mum of one employee who is knowledgeable of the opera- 
tions and hazards. 

16.7.1.5.2 The employee shall be within 25 ft (7.6 m) of the 
ketde and shall have the kettie within sight. 

16.7.1.6 Fire Extinguishers. 

16.7.1.6.1 Two approved 4A:40-B:C fire extinguishers shall 
be provided and maintained within 25 ft (7.6 m) of the oper- 
ating kettle. 

16.7.1.6.2* Aminimum of one approved 4A:40-B:C fire extin- 
guisher shall be provided and maintained on the roof in close 
proximity to the roofing operations while the roofing material 
is being applied. 

16.7.1.6.3 Fire extinguishers shall be mounted in an acces- 
sible and visible or identified location. 

16.7.1.7 Exits. 

16.7.1.7.1 Roofing kettles shall not block exits, means of 
egress, gates, roadways, or entrances. 

16.7.1.7.2 Kettles shall not be closer than 10 ft (3 m) from 
exits or means of egress. 

16.7.2 Fuel System. 

16.7.2.1 Fuel containers shall be constructed and approved 
for the use for which they were designed. 

16.7.2.2 Liquefied petroleum gas (LP-Gas) containers, hose, 
regulators, and burners shall conform to the requirements in 
Chapter 69. 

16.7.2.3 LP-Gas cylinders shall be secured to prevent acciden- 
tal tipover. 

16.7.2.4 Regulators shall be required on any cylinders. 

16.7.2.5 Where, in the opinion of the AHJ, there is danger of 
physical damage to the container, protection shall be pro- 
vided to prevent such physical damage. 

16.7.2.6 LP-Gas containers for roofing kettles shall not be 
used in any building. 

16.7.3 Maintenance. 

16.7.3.1 Roofing ketties and all integral working parts shall 
be in good working condition and shall be maintained free of 
excessive residue. 

16.7.3.2 All piping used for pumping heated material to the 
roof shall be installed in a manner to prevent loss of heated 
material. 

16.7.3.3 Flexible steel piping shall not be used on the vertical 
extension of piping systems. 

16.7.3.4 Flexible steel piping shall be limited to those con- 
nections that are immediately adjacent to the pump ketde or 
discharge outlet. 

16.7.3.5 No single length of flexible piping shall exceed 6 ft 
(1.8 m) in length, and all piping shall be able to withstand a 
pressure of at least four times the working pressure of the 
pump. 



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16.7.3.6 Roofing Kettle Doors. 

16.7.3.6.1 All roofing kettles shall have doors permanently 
attached. 

16.7.3.6.2 Roofing kettie doors shall be installed in a work- 
manlike manner and shall be provided with handles that allow 
them to be opened without the operator having to stand in 
fi-ont of same. 

16.7.3.6.3 All ketdes shall have an approved, working visible 
temperature gauge that indicates the temperature of the ma- 
terial being heated. 

16.7.3.7 All ketde doors shall be tighdy closed and latched 
when in transit. 

16.7.4 Constructioii. 

16.7.4.1 The materials and methods of construction of roof- 
ing ketdes shall be acceptable to the AHJ. 

16.7.4.2 Minimum Requirements. 

16.7.4.2.1 Paragraph 16.7.4.2 shall apply to all roofing ketdes 
or tar pots in excess of 1 gal (3.8 L) capacity. 

16.7.4.2.2 No roofing ketde shall have a capacity in excess of 
5 barrels (bbl). 

16.7.4.2.3 Roofing kettles of 2 bbl capacity or less shall be 
constructed of steel sheet having a thickness of not less than 
0.105 in. (No. 12 Manufacturers' Standard Gauge). Ketdes of 
more than 2 bbl capacity shall be constructed of steel sheet 
having a thickness of not less than 0.135 in. (No. 10 Manufac- 
turers' Standard Gauge) . All supports, corners, and the top 
and bottom of the fire box shall be bound with angle iron or 
other reinforcements approved by the AHJ. All doors shall be 
hinged, closely fitted, and adequately latched. Fire boxes shall 
be of sufficient height from the ground or shall be provided 
with a system of shields or insulation to prevent heat damage 
to the street surface. 

16.7.4.2.4 Lids that can be gravity operated shall be provided 
on all roofing kettles. The tops and covers of all kettles shall be 
constructed of steel sheet having a thickness of not less than 
0.075 in. (No. 14 Manufacturers' Standard Gauge) that is 
close fitting and attached to the ketde with hinges that allow 
gravity to close the lid. 

16.7.4.2.5 The chassis shall be substantially constructed and 
capable of carrying the load imposed upon it whether it is 
standing still or being transported. 

16.7.4.2.6 Fuel containers, burners, and related appurte- 
nances of roofing kettles in which LP-Gas is used for heating 
shall comply with all the requirements of Chapter 69. 

16.7.4.2.7 Fuel containers that operate under air pressure 
shall not exceed 20 gal (76 L) in capacity and shall be subject 
to the approval of the AHJ. 

16.7.4.2.8 All fuel containers shall be maintained in accor- 
dance with applicable NFPA codes and standards or shall be at 
least 10 ft (3 m) from the burner flame or at least 2 ft (0.6 m) 
therefrom when properly insulated from heat or flame. 

16.8 Asbestos Removal. 

16.8.1 Notification. The AHJ and the fire department shall be 
notified 24 hours prior to the commencement and closure of 
asbestos removal operations. 



16.8.2 Permits. Permits, where required, shall comply with 
Section 1.12. 

16.8.3 Signs. Approved signs shall be posted at the entrance, 
exit and exit access door, decontamination areas, and waste 
disposal areas for asbestos removal operations. 

16.8.3.1 The signs shall state that asbestos is being removed 
from the area, that asbestos is a suspected carcinogen, and 
that proper respiratory protection is required. 

16.8.3.2 Signs shall have a reflective surface, and lettering 
shall be a minimum of 2 in. (51 mm) high. 

Chapter 17 \^Mdland Urban Interface 

17.1 General. The planning, construction, maintenance, edu- 
cation, and management elements for the protection of life and 
property from wildfire shall comply with NFPA 1 144, Standard fin- 
Protection of Life and Property from Wildfire, and Chapter 17. 

17.2 Plans. The plans for construction and development 
within the wildland urban interface shall be submitted to the 
AHJ for review and approval. 

17.3 \Wldland Fire-Prone Areas. 

17.3.1* Safeguards. Safeguards to prevent the occurrence of 
fires and to provide adequate fire protection and mitigation 
measures in hazardous fire areas shall be provided and main- 
tained in accordance with Section 17.3. 

17.3.2* Permits and Approvals. Permits for use of hazardous 
areas shall not be issued when public safety would be at risk, as 
determined by the AHJ. (See Section 1.12 for additional require- 
ments for permits, j 

17.3.3 Restricted Entry. 

17.3.3.1 The AHJ shall determine and publicly announce 
when hazardous fire areas shall be closed to entry, and when 
such areas shall again be opened to entry. 

17.3.3.2 Unauthorized persons shall not be permitted to en- 
ter or remain in closed hazardous fire areas. 

17.3.3.3 Signs. Approved signs prohibiting entry by unautho- 
rized persons shall be placed on every closed area and access 
point. 

17.3.4 Use of Flammable Materials and Procedures. 

17.3.4.1 Smoking. Lighting, igniting, or otherwise setting fire to 
any smoking material shall be prohibited unless within structures 
or smoking areas approved by the AHJ. (See Section 10.10 for addi- 
tional requirements on smoking.) 

17.3.4.2 Tracer Bullets, Tracer Chaises, Rockets, and Model 
Aircraft. 

17.3.4.2.1 Tracer bullets and tracer charges shall not be pos- 
sessed, fired, or caused to be fired into or across hazardous fire 
areas. 

17.3.4.2.2 Rockets, model planes, gliders, and balloons pow- 
ered with an engine, propellant, or other feature liable to start 
or cause fire shall not be fired or projected into or across 
hazardous fire areas. 

17.3.4.3 Explosives and Blasting. Explosives shall not be pos- 
sessed, kept, stored, sold, offered for sale, given away, used, 
discharged, transported, or disposed of vrithin hazardous fire 
areas except as permitted by the AHJ. (See Chapter 65 for addi- 
tional guidance. ) 



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1-127 



17.3.4.4 Fireworks. Fireworks shall not be used or possessed in 
hazardous fire areas unless permitted by the AHJ. (See Chapter 65 
for additional guidance. ) 

17.3.4.5 Apiaries. Lighted and smoldering material used in 
connection with smoking bees shall not be allowed in or upon 
hazardous fire areas except by permit fi"om the AHJ. 

17.3.4.6 Open-Flame Devices. 

17.3.4.6.1* Welding torches, tar pots, decorative torches, and 
other devices, machines, or processes liable to start or cause 
fire shall not be operated or used in or upon hazardous fire 
areas, except by permit fi"om the AHJ. 

17.3.4.6.2 Flame-employing devices, such as lanterns or kero- 
sene road flares, and fiises shall not be operated or used as a 
signal or marker in or upon hazardous fire areas unless at the 
scene of emergencies or railroad operations. (See Chapter 16 
and Chapter 65 for additional guidance.) 

17.3.4.7 Outdoor Fires. 

17.3.4.7.1* Outdoor fires shall not be built, ignited, or main- 
tained in or upon hazardous fire areas, except by permit firom 
the AHJ. 

17.3.4.7.2 Permanent barbecues, portable barbecues, out- 
door fireplaces, or grills shall not be used for the disposal of 
rubbish, trash, or combustible waste material. (See Section 10. 11 
for additional guidance.) 

17.3.4.8 Incinerators and Fireplaces. 

17.3.4.8.1 Incinerators, outdoor fireplaces, permanent bar- 
becues, and grills shall not be built, installed, or maintained in 
hazardous fire areas without prior approval of the AHJ. 

17.3.4.8.2 Incinerators, outdoor fireplaces, permanent bar- 
becues, and grills shall be maintained in good repair and in a 
safe condition at all times. 

17.3.4.8.3 Openings in incinerators, outdoor fireplaces, per- 
manent barbecues, and grills shall be provided with an ap- 
proved spark arrester, screen, or door. 

17.3.4.9 Spark Arresters. Chimneys used in conjunction vrith 
outdoor fireplaces, barbecues, incinerators, or heating appli- 
ances in which solid or liquid fuel is used, upon buildings, 
structures, or premises located within 10 ft (3.05 m) of hazard- 
ous vegetation shall be provided with a spark arrester in accor- 
dance with Section 8.7 of NFPA 1144. 

17.3.5 Clearance of Brush and Vegetative Growth. 

17.3.5.1 Electrical Transmission Lines. 

17.3.5.1.1 Clearance of brush and vegetative growth from 
electrical transmission and distribution line(s) shall be pro- 
vided and maintained in accordance with 17.3.5.1. 

17.3.5.1.2 A combustible-free space around poles and towers 
shall consist of a clearing of not less than 10 ft (3.05 m) in each 
direction from the outer circumference of the pole or tower 
during such periods of time as designated by the AHJ. 

17.3.5.1.3 Trimming Clearance. 

1 7.3.5. 1 .3. 1 At the time of trimming, clearances not less than 
those estaWished by Table 17.3.5.1.5.1 shzl] be provided. 



Table 17.3.5.1.3.1 Minimiun Clearances between Vegetation 
and Electrical Lines at lime of Trimming 





Minimal Radial Clearance 
from Conductor 


Line Voltage 


ft 


m 


2400-72,000 
72,001-110,000 
110,001-300,000 
300,001 or more 


4 

6 

10 

15 


1.2 
1.8 
3.0 
4.6 



17.3.5.1.3.2 The radial clearances in Table 17.3.5.1.3.1 are 
minimum clearances that shall be established at time of trim- 
ming between the vegetation and the energized conductors 
and associated live parts. 

17.3.5.1.4 Clearances not less than those established by 
Table 17.3.5.1.4 shall be maintained during such periods of 
time as designated by the AHJ. 



Table 17.3.5.1.4 Minimimi Clearances between Vegetation 
and Electrical Lines to Be Maintained 

Minimwn Clearance 



Line Voltage 


in. 


cm 


750-35,000 


6 


15.2 


35,001-60,000 


12 


30.5 


60,001-115,000 


19 


48.3 


115,001-230,000 


30.5 


77.5 


230,001-500,000 


115 


292 



17.3.5.1.4.1 The site-specific clearance achieved, at the time of 
pruning, shall vary based on species' growth rates, the utility com- 
pany specific trim cycle, the potential line sway due to wind, line 
sway due to electrical loading and ambient temperamre, and the 
tree's location in proximity to the high voltage lines. 

17.3.5.1.4.2 The AHJ shall establish minimum clearances dif- 
ferent than those specified by Table 17.3.5.1.4 when evidence 
substantiating such other clearances is submitted to the AHJ 
and approved. 

17.3.5.1.5* Electrical Power Line Emergencies. During emer- 
gencies, the utility company shall perform the required work 
to the extent necessary to clear the hazard. 

17.3.5.2 Structures. 

17.3.5.2.1 Persons ovming, leasing, controlling, operating, or 
maintaining buildings or structures in, upon, or adjoining haz- 
ardous fire areas, and persons owning, leasing, or controlling 
land adjacent to such buildings or structures, shall maintain an 
effective defensible space in accordance with NFPA 1144. 

17.3.5.2.2 Where required by the AHJ because of extra haz- 
ardous conditions, additional areas shall be maintained to in- 
clude additional defensible space from buildings or struc- 
tures, trees adjacent to or overhanging a building shall be 
maintained free of deadwood, and the roof of a structure shall 
be free of leaves, needles, or other dead vegetative growth. 



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UNIFORM FIRE CODE 



17.3.5.3 Roadways. Areas within 10 ft (3 m) on each side of 
portions of highways and private streets shall be cleared of 
combusdble vegetation and other combustible growth. Single 
specimens of trees, shrubbery, or cultivated ground cover such 
as green grass, ivy, succulents, or similar plants used as ground 
covers, shall be permitted to be exempt provided that they do 
not form a means of readily transmitting fire. 

17.3.6 Unusual Circumstances. The AHJ shall determine that 
difficult terrain, danger of erosion, or other unusual circum- 
stances could require additional safeguards. 

17.3.7 Fire Roads, Firebreaks, and Emeigency Access. 

17.3.7.1 The provisions of 17.3.7, NFPA 1141, Standard for Fire 
Protection in Planned Building Groups, and NFPA 1144 shall be 
used to determine the design, clearances, and provisions for 
emergency access (ingress and egress) . 

17.3.7.2 Unauthorized vehicles shall not be driven upon fire 
roads or firebreaks. Vehicles shall not be parked in a manner 
that obstructs the entrance to a fire road or firebreak. 

17.3.7.3 Radio and television aerials, guy wires, and other 
obstructions shall not be installed or maintained on fire roads 
or firebreaks unless the vertical clearance is sufilcient to allow 
the movement of fire and emergency apparatus. 

17.3.7.4 Motorcycles, motor scooters, and motor vehicles 
shall not be operated within hazardous fire areas, except upon 
clearly established public or private roads. 

17.3.8 Tampering with Fire Safety Equipment. See Section 
10.8 for requirements on tampering with fire safety equipment. 

17.3.9 Maintenance. See Section 10.4 for requirements on 
maintenance. 



Chapter 18 Fire Department Access 
and Water Supply 

18.1 General. Fire department access and water supplies shall 
comply with this chapter. 

18.1.1 Plans. 

18.1.1.1 Fire Apparatus Access. Plans for fire apparatus access 
roads shall be submitted to the fire department for review and 
approval prior to constrtiction. 

18.1.1.2 Fire Hydrant Systems. Plans and specifications for 
fire hydrant systems shall be submitted to the fire department 
for review and approval prior to construction. 

18.2 Fire Department Access. 

18.2.1 Fire department access and fire department access 
roads shall be provided and maintained in accordance with 
Section 18.2. 

18.2.2* Access to Structra-es or Areas. 

18.2.2.1 Access Box(es). The AHJ shall have the authority to 
require an access box(es) to be installed in an accessible loca- 
tion where access to or within a structure or area is difficult 
because of security. 

18.2.2.2 Access to Gated Subdivisions or Developments. The 

AHJ shall have the authority to require fire department access 
be provided to gated subdivisions or developments through 
the use of an approved device or system. 



18.2.2.3 Access Maintenance. The owner or occupant of a 
structure or area, with required fire department access as 
specified in 18.2.2.1 or 18.2.2.2, shall notify the AHJ when the 
access is modified in a manner that could prevent fire depart- 
ment access. 

18.2.3 Fire Department Access Roads. 

18.2.3.1 Required Access. 

18.2.3.1.1 Approved fire department access roads shall be 
provided for every facility, building, or portion of a building 
hereafter constructed or relocated. 

18.2.3.1.2 Fire department access roads shall consist of road- 
ways, fire lanes, parking lots lanes, or a combination thereof. 

18.2.3.1.3* When not more than two one- and two-family dwell- 
ings or private garages, carports, sheds, agricultural buildings, 
and detached buildings or structures 400 ft^ (37 m^) or less are 
present, the requirements of 18.2.3.1 through 18.2.3.2.1 shall be 
permitted to be modified by the AHJ. 

18.2.3.1.4 When fire department access roads cannot be in- 
stalled due to location on property, topography, waterways, non- 
negotiable grades, or other similar conditions, the AHJ shall be 
authorized to require additional fire protection features. 

18.2.3.2 Access to Building. 

18.2.3.2.1 A fire department access road shall extend to 
within 50 ft (15 m) of at least one exterior door that can be 
opened from the outside and that provides access to the inte- 
rior of the building. 

18.2.3.2.1.1 Where a one- or two-family dwelling is protected 
with an approved automatic sprinkler system that is installed 
in accordance with NFPA 13D, die distance in 18.2.3.2.1 shall 
be permitted to be increased to 150 ft (46 m). 

18.2.3.2.2 Fire department access roads shall be provided 
such that any portion of the facility or any portion of an exte- 
rior wall of the first story of the building is located not more 
than 150 ft (46 m) from fire department access roads as mea- 
sured by an approved route around the exterior of the build- 
ing or facility. 

18.2.3.2.2. 1 When buildings are protected throughout with an 
approved automatic sprinkler system that is installed in accor- 
dance witii NFPA 13, NFPA 13D, or NFPA 13R, die distance in 
18.2.3.2.2 shall be permitted to be increased to 450 ft (137 m). 

18.2.3.3 Multiple Access Roads. More than one fire depart- 
ment access road shall be provided when it is determined by 
the AHJ that access by a single road could be impaired by 
vehicle congestion, condition of terrain, climatic conditions, 
or other factors that could limit access. 

18.2.3.4 Specifications. 
18.2.3.4.1 Dimensions. 

18.2.3.4.1.1 Fire department access roads shall have an unob- 
structed width of not less than 20 ft (6.1 m). 

18.2.3.4.1.2 Fire department access roads shall have an unob- 
structed vertical clearance of not less than 13 ft 6 in. (4.1 m). 

18.2.3.4.1.2.1 Vertical clearance shall be permitted to be re- 
duced, provided such reduction does not impair access by fire 
apparatus, and approved signs are installed and maintained 
indicating the established vertical clearance when approved. 



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18.2.3.4.1.2.2 Vertical clearances or widths shall be increased 
when vertical clearances or widths are not adequate to accom- 
modate fire apparatus. 

18.2.3.4.2 Siu-face. Fire department access roads shall be de- 
signed and maintained to support the imposed loads of fire 
apparatus and shall be provided with an all-weather driving 
surface. 

18.2.3.4.3 Turning Radius. 

18.2.3.4.3.1 The turning radius of a fire department access 
road shall be as approved by the AHJ. 

18.2.3.4.3.2 Turns in fire department access roads shall main- 
tain the minimum road width. 

18.2.3.4.4 Dead Ends. Dead-end fire department access roads 
in excess of 150 ft (46 m) in length shall be provided with 
approved provisions for the fire apparatus to turn around. 

18.2.3.4.5 Bridges. 

18.2.3.4.5.1 When a bridge is required to be used as part of a 
fire department access road, it shall be constructed and main- 
tained in accordance with nationally recognized standards. 

18.2.3.4.5.2 The bridge shall be designed for a live load suffi- 
cient to carry the imposed loads of fire apparatus. 

18.2.3.4.5.3 Vehicle load limits shall be posted at both en- 
trances to bridges where required by the AHJ. 

18.2.3.4.6 Grade. 

18.2.3.4.6.1 The gradient for a fire department access road 
shall not exceed the maximum approved. 

18.2.3.4.6.2* The angle of approach and departure for any 
means of fire department access road shall not exceed 1 ft 
drop in 20 ft (0.3 m drop in 6 m) or the design limitations of 
the fire apparatus of the fire department, and shall be subject 
to approval by the AHJ. 

18.2.3.4.6.3 Fire department access roads connecting to 
roadways shall be provided with curb cuts extending at least 
2 ft (0.61 m) beyond each edge of the fire lane. 

18.2.3.4.7 Traffic Calming Devices. The design and use of 
traffic calming devices shall be approved by the AHJ. 

18.2.3.5 Marking of Fire Apparatus Access Road. 

18.2.3.5.1 Where required by the AHJ, approved signs or 
other approved notices shall be provided and maintained to 
identify fire department access roads or to prohibit the ob- 
struction thereof or both. 

18.2.3.5.2 A marked fire apparatus access road shall also be 
known as a fire lane. 

18.2.4* Obstruction and Control of Fire Department Access 
Road. 

18.2.4.1 General. 

18.2.4.1.1 The required width of a fire department access 
road shall not be obstructed in any manner, including by the 
parking of vehicles. 

18.2.4.1.2 Minimum required widths and clearances estab- 
lished under 18.2.3.4 shall be maintained at all times. 

18.2.4.1.3* Facilities and structures shall be maintained in a 
manner that does not impair or impede accessibility for fire 
department operations. 



18.2.4.1.4 Entrances to fire departments access roads that 
have been closed with gates and barriers in accordance with 
18.2.4.2.1 shall not be obstructed by parked vehicles. 

18.2.4.2 Closure of Accessways. 

18.2.4.2.1 The AHJ shall be authorized to require the instal- 
lation and maintenance of gates or other approved barricades 
across roads, trails, or other accessways not including public 
streets, alleys, or highways. 

18.2.4.2.2 Where required, gates and barricades shall be se- 
cured in an approved manner. 

18.2.4.2.3 Roads, trails, and other accessways that have been 
closed and obstructed in the manner prescribed by 18.2.4.2.1 
shall not be trespassed upon or used unless authorized by the 
owner and the AHJ. 

18.2.4.2.4 Public officers acting within their scope of duty 
shall be permitted to access restricted property identified in 
18.2.4.2.1. 

18.2.4.2.5 Locks, gates, doors, barricades, chains, enclosures, 
signs, tags, or seals that have been installed by the fire depart- 
ment or by its order or under its control shall not be removed, 
unlocked, destroyed, tampered with, or otherwise vandalized 
in any manner. 

18.2.4.2.6 When authorized by the AHJ, public officers acting 
vrithin their scope of duty shall be permitted to obtain access 
through secured means identified in 18.2.4.2.1. 

18.3 Water Supplies and Fire Hydrants. 

18.3.1* An approved water supply capable of supplying the 
required fire flow for fire protection shall be provided to all 
premises upon which facilities, buildings, or portions of build- 
ings are hereafter constructed or moved into the jurisdiction. 

18.3.2* Where no adequate or reliable water distribution sys- 
tem exists, approved reservoirs, pressure tanks, elevated tanks, 
fire department tanker shuttles, or other approved systems 
capable of providing the required fire flow shall be permitted. 

18.3.3* The number and type of fire hydrants and connec- 
tions to other approved water supplies shall be capable of de- 
livering the required fire flow and shall be provided at ap- 
proved locations. 

18.3.4 Fire hydrants and connections to other approved water 
supplies shall be accessible to the fire department. 

18.3.5 Private water supply systems shall be tested and main- 
tained in accordance with NFPA 25. 

18.3.6 Where required by the AHJ, fire hydrants subject to 
vehicular damage shall be protected unless located within a 
public right of way. 



Chapter 19 Combustible Waste and Refuse 

19.1 General. 

19.1.1 Permits. Permits, where required, shall comply with 
Section 1.12. 

19.1.2 No person owning or having control of any property 
shall allow any combustible waste material to accumulate in 
any area or in any manner that creates a fire hazard to life or 
property. 



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19.1.3 Combustible waste or refuse shall be properly stored 
or disposed of to prevent unsafe conditions. 

19.1.4 Fire extinguishing capabilities approved by the AHJ 
including, but not limited to, fire extinguishers, water supply 
and hose, and earth-moving equipment shall be provided at 
waste disposal sites. 

1 9. 1 .5 Burning debris shall not be dumped at a waste disposal 
site except at a remote location on the site where fire extin- 
guishment can be accomplished before compacting, covering, 
or other disposal activity is carried out. (See Section 10.11 for 
additional guidance.) 

19.1.6 Electrical Wiring. 

19.1.6.1 Electrical wiring and equipment in any combustible 
fiber storage room or building shall be installed in accordance 
with the requirements of Section 11.1 and NFPA70, for Class III 
hazardous locations. 

19.1.6.2 The AHJ shall be responsible for designating the 
areas that require hazardous location electrical classifications 
and shall classify the areas in accordance with the classification 
system set forth in NFPA 70. 

19.1.7 No Smoking. 

19.1.7.1 No smoking or open flame shall be permitted in any 
area where combustilDle fibers are handled or stored or within 
50 ft (15 m) of any uncovered pile of such fibers. 

19.1.7.2 "No Smoking" signs shall be posted. 

19.1.8 Vehicles or Conveyances Used to Transport Combustible 
\fete or Refuse. 

19.1.8.1 Vehicles or conveyances used to transport combus- 
tible waste or refuse over public thoroughfares shall have all 
cargo space covered and maintained tight enough to ensure 
against ignition from external fire sources and the scattering 
of burning and combustible debris that can come in contact 
with ignition sources. 

19.1.8.2 Transporting burning waste or refuse shall be pro- 
hibited. 

19.1.8.3 Trucks or automobiles, other than mechanical han- 
dling equipment and approved industrial trucks as listed in 
NFPA 505, Fire Safety Standard for Powered Industrial Trucks In- 
cluding Type Designations, Areas of Use, Conversions, Maintenance, 
and Operations, shall not enter any fiber storage room or build- 
ing but shall be permitted to be used at loading platforms. 

19.2 Combustible Waste and Refuse. 

19.2.1 Rubbish Containers. 

19.2.1.1 General. Rubbish containers kept outside of rooms 
or vaults shall not exceed 40.5 ft^ (1.15 m ) capacity. 

19.2.1.1.1 Containers exceeding a capacity of 5Mt ft^ [40 gal 
(0.15 m~^)] shall be provided with lids. 

19.2.1.1.2 Such containers and lids as described in 19.2.1.1.1 
shall be constructed of noncombustible materials or nonme- 
tallic materials complying with 19.2.1.2. 

19.2.1.2 Nonmetallic Containers. 

19.2.1.2.1* Nonmetallic rubbish containers exceeding a capac- 
ity of 5y3 ft^ [40 gal (0. 15 m^) ] shall be manufactured of materials 
having a peak rate of heat release not exceeding 300 kW/m^ at a 
flux of 50 kW/m^ when tested in the horizontal orientation, at a 
thickness as used in the container but not less than of 0.25 in. 



(6 mm), in accordance with ASTM E 1354, Test Method for Heat 
and Visible Smoke Release Rates for Materials and Products Using an 
Oxygm Consumption Calorimeter, or NFPA 271, Standard Method of 
Test for Heat and Visible Smoke Release Rates for Materials and Products 
Using an Oxygen Consumption Calorimeter. 

19.2.1.2.2 Such containers shall be permanently labeled indi- 
cating capacity and peak rate of heat release. 

19.2.1.3 Removal. Combustible rubbish stored in containers 
outside of noncombustible vaults or rooms shall be removed 
from buildings at least once each working day. 

19.2.1.4 Rubbish within Dimipsters. Dumpsters and contain- 
ers with an individual capacity of 1.5 yd' [40.5 ft' (1.15 m')] or 
more shall not be stored in buildings or placed within 10 ft (3 m) 
of combustible walls, openings, or combustible roof eave lines. 

19.2.1.4.1 Areas containing dumpsters or containers shall be 
protected by an approved automatic sprinkler system and en- 
closed with a fire resistance rating of 1 hour. 

19.2.1.4.2 Structures of Types 1 and II fire-resistive construc- 
tion used for dumpster or container storage shall be located 
not less than 10 ft (3 m) from openings and other buildings. 

19.2.1.5 Commercial Rubbish-Handling Operations. Occu- 
pancies exclusively performing commercial rubbish handling 
or recycling shall maintain rubbish or product to be processed 
or recycled in one of the following ways: 

(1) In approved vaults 

(2) In covered metal or metal-lined receptacles or bins 

(3) Completely baled and stacked in an orderly manner in an 
approved location 

19.2.1.6 Approved metal receptacles with self-closing covers 
shall be provided for the storage or disposal of oil-soaked 
waste or cloths. 



Chapter 20 Occupancy Fire Safety 

20.1 Assembly Occupancies. 

20.1.1 Application. New and existing assembly occupancies 
shall comply with Section 20.1 and NFPA 101. 

20.1.1.1 Permits. Permits, where required, shall comply vnth 
Section 1.12. 

20.1.2 Flame-Retardant Requirements. 

20.1.2.1 Combustible scenery of cloth, film, vegetation (dry), 
and similar materials shall meet the requirements of NFPA 701, 
Standard Methods of Fire Tests for Flame Propagation of Textiles and 
Elms. [101:12.4.5.11.1; 101:13.4.5.11.1] 

20. 1 .2.2 Foamed plastics (see definition of cellular or foamed plas- 
tic in 3.3.32 o/NFPA 101) shall be permitted to be used only by 
specific approval of theAHJ. [101:12.4.5.11.2; 101:13.4.5.11.2] 

20.1.2.3 For new assembly occupancies, scenery and stage 
properties not separated from the audience by proscenium 
opening protection shall be of noncombustible materials, 
limited-combustible materials, or fire-retardant-treated wood. 
[101:12.4.5.11.3] 

20.1.2.3.1 For existing assembly occupancies, scenery and 
stage properties on thrust stages shall be of noncombustible 
materials, limited-combustible materials, or fire retardant- 
treatedwood. [101:13.4.5.11.3] 



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20.1.2.4 In theaters, motion picture theaters, and television 
stage settings, with or without horizontal projections, and in 
simulated caves and caverns of foamed plastic, any single fuel 
package shall have a heat release rate not to exceed 100 kW 
where tested in accordance with UL 1975, Standard for Fire Tests 
for Foamed Plastics Used for Decorative Purposes. [202:12.4.5.11.4] 

20.1.3''' Special Amusement Buildings. 

20.1.3.1* General. Special amusement buildings, regardless of 
occupant load, shall meet the requirements for assembly occu- 
pancies in addition to the requirements of 20.1.3, unless the spe- 
cial amusement building is a multilevel play structure that is not 
more than 10 ft (3050 mm) in height and has aggregate horizon- 
tal projections not exceeding 160 ft^ (15 m ). [202:12.4.7.1; 
202:13.4.7.1] 

20. 1 .3.2* Automatic Sprinklers. Every special amusement build- 
ing, other than buildings or structares not exceeding 10 ft 
(3050 mm) in height and not exceeding 160 ft^ ( 15 m^) in aggre- 
gate horizontal projection, shall be protected throughout by an 
approved, supervised automatic sprinkler system installed and 
meiintained in accordance mlh Section 13.3. [202:12.4.7.2; 
202:13.4.7.2] 

20.1.3.3 Temporary Water Supply. Where the special amuse- 
ment building required to be sprinklered by 20.1.3.2 is movable 
or portable, the sprinkler water supply shall be permitted to be 
provided by an approved temporary means. [202:12.4.7.3; 
202:13.4.7.3] 

20.1.3.4 Smoke Detection. Where the nature of the special 
amusement building is such that it operates in reduced light- 
ing levels, the building shall be protected throughout by an 
approved automatic smoke detection system in accordance 
with 13.7.1.4. [202:12.4.7.4; 202:13.4.7.4] 

20.1.3.5 Alarm Initiation. Actuation of any smoke detection 
system device shall sound an alarm at a constantly attended 
location on the premises. [202:12.4.7.5, 202:13.4.7.5] 

20.1.3.6 Illumination. Actuation of the automatic sprinkler sys- 
tem, or any other suppression system, or actuation of a smoke 
detection system having an approved verification or cross-zoning 
operation capability shall provide for the following: 

(1) Increase in illumination in the means of egress to that 
required by Section 14.12 

(2) Termination of any conflicting or confusing sounds and 
visuals [202:12.4.7.6; 202:13.4.7.6] 

20.1.3.7 Exit Marking. 

20.1.3.7.1 Exit marking shall be in accordance vrith Section 
14.14. [202:12.4.7.7.1; 202:13.4.7.7.1] 

20.1.3.7.2 Floor proximity exit signs shall be provided in ac- 
cordance with 14.14.1.6. [202:12.4.7.7.2; 202:13.4.7.7.2] 

20.1.3.7.3* In special amusement buildings where mazes, mir- 
rors, or other designs are used to confound the egress path, ap- 
proved directional exit marking that becomes apparent in an 
emergency shall be provided. [202:12.4.7.7.3; 202:13.4.7.7.3] 

20.1.3.8 Interior Finish. Interior wall and ceiling finish mate- 
rials complying with Section 10.2 of NFPA 101 shall be Class A 
throughout. [202:12.4.7.8; 202:13.4,7.8] 

20.1.4 Operating Features. 

20.1.4.1 Means of Egress Inspection. 

20.1.4.1.1 The building owner or agent shall inspect the 
means of egress to ensure it is maintained free of obstructions, 
and correct any deficiencies found, prior to each opening of 
the building to the public. [202:12.7.1.1; 202:13.7.1.1] 



20.1.4.1.2 The building owner or agent shall prepare and 
maintain records of the date and time of each inspection on 
approved forms, Usting any deficiencies found and actions 
Uken to correct them. [202:12.7.1.2; 202:13.7.1.2] 

20.1.4.2 Special Provisions for Food Service Operations. 

20.1.4.2.1 All devices in connection with the preparation of 
food shall be installed and operated to avoid hazard to the 
safety of occupants. [202:12.7.2.1; 202:13.7.2.1] 

20.1.4.2.2 All devices in connection with the preparation of 
food shall be of an approved type and shall be installed in an 
approved manner. [202:12.7.2.2; 202:13.7.2.2] 

20.1.4.2.3 Food preparation facilities shall be protected in 
accordance with 11.2.3 and shall not be required to have 
openings protected between food preparation areas and din- 
ing areas. [202:12.7.2.3; 202:13.7.2.3] 

20.1.4.2.4 Portable cooking equipment that is not flue- 
connected shall be permitted only as follows: 

(1) Equipment fiieled by small heat sources that can be readily 
extinguished by water, such as candles or alcohol-burning 
equipment, including solid alcohol, shall be permitted to be 
used, provided that precautions satisfactory to the AHJ are 
taken to prevent ignition of any combustible materials. 

(2) Candles shall be permitted to be used on tables used for 
food service where securely supported on substantial non- 
combustible bases located to avoid danger of ignition of 
combustible materials and only where approved by the AHJ. 

(3) Candle flames shall be protected. 

(4) "Flaming sword" or other equipment involving open 
flames and flamed dishes, such as cherries jubilee or 
crepe suzette, shall be permitted to be used, provided that 
precautions subject to the approval of the AHJ are taken. 

(5) *Listed and approved LP-Gas commercial food service ap- 

pliances shall be permitted to be used where in accor- 
dance with Chapter 69. [202:12.7.2.4; 202:13.7.2.4] 

20.1.4.2.4.1 Permits. Permits, where required, shall comply 
with Section 1.12. 

20.1.4.3 Open Flame Devices and Pyrotechnics. No open 
flame devices or p)TOtechnic devices shall be used in any assem- 
bly occupancy, unless otherwise permitted by the following: 

(1 ) Pyrotechnic special eifect devices shall be permitted to be 
used on stages before proximate audiences for ceremo- 
nial or religious purposes, as part of a demonstration in 
exhibits, or as part of a performance, provided that both 
of the following criteria are met: 

(a) Precautions satisfactory to the AHJ are taken to pre- 
vent ignition of any combustible material. 

(b) Use of the pyrotechnic device complies with Section 
65.3. 

(2) Flame effects before an audience shall be permitted in 
accordance with Section 65.4. 

(3) Open flame devices shall be permitted to be used in the 
following situations, provided that precautions satisfac- 
tory to the AHJ are taken to prevent ignition of any com- 
bustible material or injury to occupants: 

(a)*For ceremonial or religious purposes 

(b) On stages and platforms where part of a performance 

(c) Where candles on tables are securely supported on 
substantial noncombustible bases and candle flame is 
protected 



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(4) The requirement of 20.1.4.3 shall not apply to heat- 
producing equipment complying with 11.2.2. 

(5) The requirement of 20.1.4.3 shall not apply to food ser- 
vice operations in accordance with 20.1.4.2. 

(6) Gas lights shall be permitted to be used, provided that pre- 
cautions are taken, subject to the approval of the AHJ, to 
prevent ignition of any combustible materials. [iOi:12.7.3; 
/0i:13.7.3] 

20.1.4.3.1 Permits. Permits, where required, shall comply 
with Section 1.12. 

20.1.4.4 Furnishings, Decorations, and Scenery. 

20.1.4.4.1 Fabrics and films used for decorative purposes, all 
draperies and curtains, and similar furnishings shall be in ac- 
cordance with the provisions of 20.1.4.4.2. [107:12.7.4.1; 
iOi:13.7.4.1] 

20.1.4.4.2* Where required by the applicable provisions of 
this Code, draperies, curtains, and other similar loosely hang- 
ing furnishings and decorations shall meet the flame propaga- 
tion performance criteria contained in NFPA 701, Standard 
Methods of Fire Tests for Flame Propagation of Textiles and Films. 
[lOhW.3.1] 

20.1.4.4.3* Furnishings or decorations of an explosive or 
highly flammable character shall not be used. [i0i:10.3.5] 

20.1.4.4.4 Fire-retardant coadngs shall be maintained to re- 
tain the effectiveness of the treatment under service condi- 
tions encountered in actual use. [iOI:10.3.6] 

20.1.4.4.5 The AHJ shall impose controls on the quantity and 
arrangement of combustible contents in assembly occupan- 
cies to provide an adequate level of safety to life from fire. 
[iOi:12.7.4.2; 107:13.7.4.2] 

20.1.4.4.6* Exposed foamed plastic materials and unpro- 
tected materials containing foamed plastic used for decorative 
purposes or stage scenery shall have a heat release rate not 
exceeding 100 kW where tested in accordance with UL 1975, 
Standard for Fire Tests for Foamed Plastics Used for Decorative Pur- 
poses. [102:12.7.4.3; 107:13.7.4.3] 

20.1.4.4.7 The requirement of 20.1.4.4.6 shall not apply to 
individual foamed plastic items and items containing foamed 
plastic where the foamed plastic does not exceed 1 lb (0.45 kg) 
in weight. [707:12.7.4.4; 707:13.7.4.4] 

20.1.4.4.8 The provision of 10.3.2 of NFPA 101 for cigarette 
ignition resistance of newly introduced upholstered furniture 
and mattresses shall not apply to assembly occupancies. 
[707:12.7.4.5; 707:13.7.4.5] 

20.1.4.5 Special Provisions for Exposition Facilities. 

20.1.4.5.1 Permits. Permits, where required, shall comply 
with Section 1.12. 

20.1.4.5.2 General. No display or exhibit shall be installed or 
operated to interfere in any way with access to any required 
exit or with the visibility of any required exit or required exit 
sign; nor shall any display block access to fire-fighting equip- 
ment. [707:12.7.5.1; 707:13.7.5.1] 

20. 1 .4.5.3 Materials Not on Display. A storage room having an 
enclosure consisting of a smoke barrier having a fire resistance 
rating of 1 hour and protected by an automatic extinguishing 
system shall be provided for combustible materials not on dis- 
play, including combustible packing crates used to ship ex- 
hibitors' supplies and products. [707:12.7.5.2; 707:13.7.5.2] 



20.1.4.5.4 Exhibits. 

20.1.4.5.4.1 Exhibits shall comply with 20.1.4,5.4.2 through 
20.1.4.5.4.11. [707:12.7.5.3.1; 707:13.7.5.3.1] 

20.1.4.5.4.2 The travel distance within the exhibit booth or 
exhibit enclosure to an exit access aisle shall not exceed 50 ft 
(15 m). [707:12.7.5.3.2; 707:13.7.5.3.2] 

20.1.4.5.4.3 The upper deck of multilevel exhibits exceeding 
300 ft^ (28 m^) shall have not less than two remote means of 
egress. [707:12.7.5.3.3; 707:13.7.5.3.3] 

20. 1 .4.5.4.4 Exhibit booths shall be constructed of the following: 

(1) Noncombustible or limited-combustible materials 

(2) Wood exceeding Vi in. (6.3 mm) nominal 

(3) Wood that is pressure-treated, fire-retardant wood meeting 
the requirements of NFPA 703, Standard for Fire Retardant- 
Treated Wood and Fire-Retardant Coatings fcrr Building Materials 

(4) Flame-retardant materials complying with NFPA 701 

(5) Textile wall coverings, such as carpeting and similar prod- 
ucts used as wall or ceiling finishes, complying with the 
provisions of 10.2.2 and 10.2.4 of NFPA 101 

(6) Plastics limited to those that comply with 12.3.3, 13.3.3, 
and Section 10.2 of NFPA 101 

(7) Foamed plastics and materials containing foamed plastics 
having a heat release rate for any single fuel package that 
does not exceed 100 kW where tested in accordance with 
UL 1975, Standard for Fire Tests for Foamed Plastics Used for 
Decorative Purposes 

(8) Cardboard, honeycombed paper, and other combustible 
materials having a heat release rate for any single fuel 
package that does not exceed 150 kW where tested in ac- 
cordance with UL 1975 [707:12.7.5.3.4; 707:13.7.5.3.4] 

20.1.4.5.4.5 Curtains, drapes, and decorations shall comply 
with 20.1.4.4.2. [707:12.7.5.3.5; 707:13.7.5.3.5] 

20.1.4.5.4.6 Acoustical and decorative material including, 
but not limited to, cotton, hay, paper, straw, moss, split bam- 
boo, and wood chips shall be flame-retardant treated to the 
satisfaction of the AHJ. [707:12.7.5.3.6; 707:13.7.5.3.6] 

20.1.4.5.4.6.1 Materials that cannot be treated for flame re- 
tardancy shall not be used. [707:12.7.5.3.6.1; 707:13.7.5.3.6.1] 

20.1.4.5.4.6.2 Foamed plastics, and materials containing 
foamed plastics and used as decorative objects such as, but 
not limited to, mannequins, murals, and signs, shall have a 
heat release rate for any single fuel package that does not 
exceed 150 kW where tested in accordance with UL 1975. 
[707:12.7.5.3.6.2; 707:13.7.5.3.6.2] 

20.1.4.5.4.6.3 Where the aggregate area of acoustical and deco- 
rative materials is less than 10 percent of the individual floor or 
wall area, such materials shall be permitted to be used subject to 
die approval of the AHJ. [707:12.7.5.3.6.3; 707:13.7.5.3.6.3] 

20.1.4.5.4.7 The following shall be protected by automatic 
extinguishing systems: 

(1) Single-level exhibit booths exceeding 300 ft^ (28 m^) and 
covered with a ceiling 

(2) Each level of multilevel exhibit booths, including the up- 
permost level where the uppermost level is covered with a 
ceiling [707:12.7.5.3.7; 707:13.7.5.3.7] 

20.1.4.5.4.7.1 The requirements of 20.1.4.5.4.7 shall not ap- 
ply where othenvise permitted by the following: 



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(1) Ceilings that are constructed of open grate design or 
listed dropout ceilings in accordance with NFPA 13, Stan- 
dard for the Installation of Sprinkler Systems, shall not be con- 
sidered ceilings within the context of 20.1.4.5.4.7. 

(2) Vehicles, boats, and similar exhibited products having 
over 100 ft^ (9.3 m^) of roofed area shall be provided with 
smoke detectors acceptable to the AHJ. 

(3)*The requirement of 20.1.4.5.4.7(2) shall not apply where 
fire protection of multilevel exhibit booths is consistent 
with the criteria developed through a life safety evalua- 
tion of the exhibition hall in accordance with 12.4.1 or 
13.4.1 of NFPA 101, subject to approval of the AHJ. 
[70/:12.7.5.3.7.1;iO/:13.7.5.3.7.1] 

20. 1 .4.5.4.7.2 A single exhibit or group of exhibits with ceilings 
that do not require sprinklers shall be separated by a distance of 
not less than 10 ft (3050 mm) where the aggregate ceiling ex- 
ceeds 300 ft^ (28 m^). [/0/:12.7.5.3.7.2; 707:13.7.5.3.7.2] 

20.1.4.5.4.7.3 The water supply and piping for the sprinkler 
system shall be permitted to be of an approved temporary means 
that is provided by a domestic water supply, a standpipe system, 
or a sprinkler system. [707:12.7.5.3.7.3; 707:13.7.5.3.7.3] 

20.1.4.5.4.8 Open flame devices within exhibit booths shall 
comply with 20.1.4.3. [707:12.7.5.3.8; 707:13.7.5.3.8] 

20.1.4.5.4.9 Cooking and food-warming devices in exhibit 
booths shall comply with 20.1.4.2 and the foUovring: 

(1) Gas-fired devices shall comply with the following: 

(a) Natural gas-fired devices shall comply with 9.1.1 of 
NFPA 101. 

(b) The requirement of 20. 1 .4.5.4.9 ( 1 ) (a) shall not apply to 
compressed natural gas where permitted by the AHJ. 

(c) The use of LP-Gas cylinders shall be prohibited. 

(d) NonrefiUable LP-Gas cyhnders shall be approved for 
use where permitted by the AHJ. 

(2) The devices shall be isolated from the public by not less 
than 48 in. (1220 mm) or by a barrier between the devices 
and the public. 

(3) Multi-well cooking equipment using combustible oils or 
solids shall comply with 11.2.3. 

(4) Single-well cooking equipment using combustible oils or 
solids shall meet the following criteria: 

(a) They shall have lids available for immediate use. 

(b) They shall be limited to 2 ft^ (0.2 m^) of cooking 
surface. 

(c) They shall be placed on noncombustible surface ma- 
terials. 

(d) They shall be separated from each other by a horizon- 
tal distance of not less than 24 in. (610 mm). 

(e) The requirement of 20.1.4.5.4.9(4) (d) shall not apply 
to multiple single-well cooking equipment where the 
aggregate cooking surface area does not exceed 2 ft^ 
(0.2 m^). 

(f) They shall be kept at a horizontal distance of not less 
than 24 in. (610 mm) from any combustible material. 

(5) Aportable fire extinguisher in accordance viith Section 13.6 
shall be provided within the booth for each device, or an 
approved automatic extinguishing system shall be provided. 
[707:12.7.5.3.9; 707:13.7.5.3.9] 

20.1.4.5.4.10 Combustible materials within exhibit booths 
shall be limited to a one-day supply. Storage of combustible 
materials behind the booth shall be prohibited. (See 20.1.4.4.5 
and 20.1.4.5.3.) [707:12.7.5.3.10; 707:13.7.5.3.10] 



20.1.4.5.4.11 Plans for the exposition, in an acceptable form, 
shall be submitted to the AHJ for approval prior to setting up 
any exhibit. [707:12.7.5.3.11; 707:13.7.5.3.11] 

20.1.4.5.4.11.1 The plan shall show all details of the proposed 
exposition. [707:12.7.5.3.11.1; 707:13.7.5.3.11.1] 

20.1.4.5.4.11.2 No exposition shall occupy any exposition facil- 
ity without approved plans. [707:12.7.5.3.11.2; 707:13.7.5.3.11.2] 

20.1.4.5.4.12 Vehicles. Vehicles on display within an exposi- 
tion faciUty shall comply with 20.1.4.5.4.12.1 through 
20.1.4.5.4.12.5. [707:12.7.5.4; 707:13.7.5.4] 

20.1.4.5.4.12.1 All fuel tank openings shall be locked and 
sealed in an approved manner to prevent the escape of vapors; 
fuel tanks shall not contain in excess of one-half their capacity 
or contain in excess of 10 gal (38 L) of fuel, whichever is less. 
[707:12.7.5.4.1; 707:13.7.5.4.1] 

20.1.4.5.4.12.2 At least one battery cable shall be removed from 
the batteries used to start the vehicle engine, and the discon- 
nected battery cable shall then be taped. [707:12.7.5.4.2; 
707:13.7.5.4.2] 

20.1.4.5.4.12.3 Batteries used to power auxiliary equipment 
shall be permitted to be kept in service. [707:12.7.5.4.3; 
707:13.7.5.4.3] 

20.1.4.5.4.12.4 Fueling or defueling of vehicles shall be pro- 
hibited. [707:12.7.5.4.4; 707:13.7.5.4.4] 

20.1.4.5.4.12.5 Vehicles shall not be moved during exhibit 
hours. [707:12.7.5.4.5; 707:13.7.5.4.5] 

20.1.4.5.4.13 Prohibited Materials. 

20.1.4.5.4.13.1 The following items shall be prohibited 
within exhibit halls: 

(1) Compressed flammable gases 

(2) Flammable or combustible liquids 

(3) Hazardous chemicals or materials 

(4) Class II or greater lasers, blasting agents, and explosives 
[707:12.7.5.5.1; 707:13.7.5.5.1] 

20.1.4.5.4.13.2 The AHJ shall be permitted to allow die lim- 
ited use of any items specified in 20.1.4.5.4.13.1 under special 
circumstances. [707:12.7.5.5.2; 707:13.7.5.5.2] 

20.1.4.6* Crowd Managers. 

20.1.4.6.1 Assembly occupancies shall be provided with a 
minimum of one trained crowd manager or crowd manager 
supervisor. Where the occupant load exceeds 250, additional 
trained crowd managers or crowd manager supervisors shall 
be provided at a ratio of 1 crowd manager or crowd manager 
supervisor for every 250 occupants, unless otherwise permit- 
ted by the following: 

( 1 ) This requirement shall not apply to assembly occupancies 
used exclusively for religious worship with an occupant 
load not exceeding 2000. 

(2) The ratio of trained crowd managers to occupants shall be 
permitted to be reduced where, in the opinion of the 
AHJ, the existence of an approved, supervised automatic 
sprinkler system and the nature of the event warrant. 
[707:12.7.6.1; 707:13.7.6.1] 



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20.1.4.6.2 The crowd manager shall receive approved training 
in crowd management techniques. [101:12.7.6.2; /W:13.7.6.2] 

20.1.4.7* Fire Detail. Fire details, if deemed necessary in any 
assembly occupancy, shall be determined by the AHJ. [102:9.5] 

20.1.4.8* Drills. 

20.1.4.8.1 The employees or attendants of assembly occupan- 
cies shall be trained and drilled in the duties they are to per- 
form in case of fire, panic, or other emergency to effect or- 
derly exiting. [101:12.7.7.1; 101:15.7.7.1] 

20.1.4.8.2 Employees or attendants of assembly occupancies 
shall be instructed in the proper use of portable fire extin- 
guishers and other manual fire suppression equipment where 
provided. [101:12.7.7.2; 101:13.7.7.2] 

20.1.4.8.3* In the following assembly occupancies, an audible 
announcement shall be made, or a projected image shall be 
shown, prior to the start of each program that notifies occu- 
pants of the location of the exits to be used in case of a fire or 
other emergency: 

(1) Theaters 

(2) Motion picture theaters 

(3) Auditoriums 

(4) Other similar assembly occupancies with occupant loads 
exceeding 300 where there are noncontinuous programs 
[iOi:12.7.7.3; 707:13.7.7.3] 

20.1.4.8.4 The requirement of 20.1.4.8.3 shall not apply to 
assembly occupancies in schools where used for nonpublic 
events. [101:12.7.7.4; 101:13.7.7.4] 

20.1.4.9 Smoking. 

20.1.4.9.1 Smoking in assembly occupancies shall be regu- 
lated by the AHJ. [iOi:12.7.8.1; 70i:13.7.8.1] 

20.1.4.9.2 In rooms or areas where smoking is prohibited, 
plainly visible signs shall be posted that read as follows: 
[101:12.7.8.2; 101:13.7.8.2] 

NO SMOKING. 

20.1.4.9.3 No person shall smoke in prohibited areas that are 
so posted, unless permitted by the AHJ under both of the fol- 
lowing conditions: 

(1) Smoking shall be permitted on a stage only where it is a 
necessary and rehearsed part of a performance. 

(2) Smoking shall be permitted only where the smoker is a 
regular performing member of the cast. [707:12.7.8.3; 
707:13.7.8.3] 

20.1.4.9.4 Where smoking is permitted, suitable ashtrays or 
receptacles shall be provided in convenient locations. 
[707:12.7.8.4; 707:13.7.8.4] 

20.1.4.10 Seating. 
20.1.4.10.1 Secured Seating. 

20.1.4.10.1.1 Seats in assembly occupancies accommodating 
more than 200 persons shall be securely fastened to the floor, 
except where fastened together in groups of not less than 
three and not exceeding seven and as permitted by 
20.1.4.10.2. [707:12.7.9.1.1; 707:13.7.9.1.1] 

20.1.4.10.1.2 All seats in balconies and galleries shall be se- 
curely fastened to the floor, except in places of religious wor- 
ship. [707:12.7.9.1.2; 707:13.7.9.1.2] 



20.1.4.10.2 Unsecured Seating. 

20.1.4.10.2.1 Seats not secured to the floor shall be permitted 
in restaurants, night clubs, and other occupancies where fasten- 
ing seats to the floor might be impracticable. [707:12.7.9.2.1; 
707:13.7.9.2.1] 

20.1.4.10.2.2 Unsecured seats shall be permitted, provided 
that, in the area used for seating, excluding such areas as dance 
floors and stages, there is not more than one seat for each 15 ft^ 
(1.4 m^) of net floor area, and adequate aisles to reach exits are 
maintained at all times. [707:12.7.9.2.2; 707:13.7.9.2.2] 

20.1.4.10.2.3 Seating diagrams shall be submitted for ap- 
proval by the AHJ to permit an increase in occupant load per 
14.8.1.3. [707:12.7.9.2.3; 707:13.7.9.2.3] 

20.1.4.10.3 Occupant Load Posting. 

20.1.4.10.3.1 Every room constituting an assembly occupancy 
and not having fixed seats shall have the occupant load of the 
room posted in a conspicuous place near the main exit from 
the room. [707:12.7.9.3.1; 707:13.7.9.3.1] 

20.1.4.10.3.2 Approved signs shall be maintained in a legible 
manner by the owner or authorized agent. [707:12.7.9.3.2; 
707:13.7.9.3.2] 

20.1.4.10.3.3 Signs shall be durable and shall indicate the num- 
ber of occupants permitted for each room use. [707:12.7.9.3.3; 
707:13.7.9.3.3] 

20.1.4.11 Clothing. Qothing and personal effects shall not be 
stored in corridors, unless otherwise permitted by the following: 

(1) For new occupancies, this requirement shall not apply 
to corridors protected by an approved, supervised auto- 
matic sprinkler system in accordance with Section 13.3. 
[707:12.7.12] 

(2) For existing occupancies, this requirement shall not ap- 
ply to corridors protected by an approved, automatic 
sprinkler system in accordance with Section 13.3. 
[707:13.7.12(1)] 

(3) This requirement shall not apply to corridor areas protected 
by a smoke detection system in accordance with 13.7.1 .4. 

(4) This requirement shall not apply to storage in metal lock- 
ers, provided that the required egress width is main- 
tained. [707:12.7.12] 

20. 1 .4. 1 2 Projection Rooms. 

20.1.4.12.1 Film or video projectors or spodights utilizing light 
sources that produce particulate matter, or toxic gases or light 
sources that produce hazardous radiation, without protective 
shielding shall be located within a projection room complying 
with 12.3.2.1.2 of NFPA 101. [707:12.4.6.3; 707:13.4.6.3] 

20.1.4.12.2 Every projection room shall be of permanent 
construction consistent with the construction requirements 
for the type of building in which the projection room is lo- 
cated and shall comply with the following: 

(1) Openings shall not be required to be protected. 

(2) The room shall have a floor area of not less than 80 ft^ 
(7.4 m^) for a single machine and not less than 40 ft^ 
(3.7 m^) for each additional machine. 

(3) Each motion picture projector, floodlight, spotiight, or 
similar piece of equipment shall have a clear working 
space of not less than 30 in. (760 mm) on each side and at 
its rear, but only one such space shall be required between 
adjacent projectors. [707:12.4.6.4; 707:13.4.6.4] 



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20.2 Educational Occupancies. 

20.2.1 Application. New and existing educational occupan- 
cies sliall comply with Section 20.2 and NFPA 101. 

20.2.2 Flexible Plan and Open Plan Buildings. 

20.2.2.1 Flexible plan and open plan buildings shall comply 
with the requirements of 20.2,2 as modified by 20.2.2.2 
through 20.2.2.5. [202:14.4.3.1; 202:15.4.3.1] 

20.2.2.2 Each room occupied by more than 300 persons shall 
have two or more means of egress entering into separate atmo- 
spheres. [202:14.4.3.2; 202:15.4.3.2] 

20.2.2.3 Where three or more means of egress are required, the 
number of means of egress permitted to enter into the same 
atmosphere shall not exceed two. [202:14.4.3.3; 202:15.4.3.3] 

20.2.2.4 Flexible plan buildings shall be permitted to have walls 
and partitions rearranged periodically only if revised plans or 
diagrams have been approved by the AHJ. [202:14.4.3.4; 
202:15.4.3.4] 

20.2.2.5 Flexible plan buildings shall be evaluated while all 
folding walls are extended and in use as well as when they are 
in the retracted position. [202:14.4.3.5; 202:15.4.3.5] 

20.2.3 Operating Features. 

20.2.3.1 Emergency Plan. Emergency plans shall be provided 
in accordance with Section 4.8 of NFPA 101. [202:14.7.1] 

20.2.3.2 Emeigency Egress Drills. 

20.2.3.2.1"' Emergency egress drills shall be conducted in ac- 
cordance with Section 10.6 and the applicable provisions of 
20.2.3.2.2. [202:14.7.2.1; 202:15.7.2.1] 

20.2.3.2.2 Emergency egress drills shall be conducted as 
follows: 

(1) Not less than one emergency egress drill shall be con- 
ducted every month the facility is in session, unless both 
of the following criteria are met: 

(a) In climates where the weather is severe, the 
monthly emergency egress drills shall be permitted 
to be deferred. 

(b) The required number of emergency egress drills shall 
be conducted, and not less than four shall be con- 
ducted before the drills are deferred. 

(2) All occupants of the building shall participate in the drill. 

(3) One additional emergency egress drill, other than for 
educational occupancies that are open on a year-round 
basis, shall be required within the first 30 days of opera- 
tion. [202:14.7.2.2; 202:15.7.2.2] 

20.2.3.2.3 All emergency drill alarms shall be sounded on the 
fire alarm system. [202:14.7.2.3; 202:15.7.2.3] 

20.2.3.3 Inspection. 

20.2.3.3.1* It shall be the duty of principals, teachers, or staff 
to inspect all exit facilities daily to ensure that all stairways, 
doors, and other exits are in proper condition. [202:14.7.3.1; 
202:15.7.3.1] 

20.2.3.3.2 Open plan buildings shall require extra surveil- 
lance to ensure that exit paths are maintained clear of obstruc- 
tion and are obvious. [202:14.7.3.2; 202:15.7.3.2] 



20.2.3.4 Furnishings and Decorations. 

20.2.3.4.1 Draperies, curtains, and other similar furnish- 
ings and decorations in educational occupancies shall be in 
accordance with the provisions of 20.2.3.4.2. [202:14.7.4.1; 
202:15.7.4.1] 

20.2.3.4.2* Where required by the applicable provisions of 
this Code, draperies, curtains, and other similar loosely hang- 
ing furnishings and decorations shall meet the flame propaga- 
tion performance criteria contained in NFPA 701, Standard 
Methods of Fire Tests for Flame Propagation of Textiles and Films. 
[202:10.3.1] 

20.2.3.4.3* Furnishings or decorations of an explosive or 
highly flammable character shall not be used. [202:10.3.5] 

20.2.3.4.4 Fire-retardant coatings shall be maintained to re- 
tain the effectiveness of the treatment under service condi- 
tions encountered in actual use. [202:10.3.6] 

20.2.3.4.5 Clothing and personal effects shall not be stored in 
corridors, unless otherwise permitted by the following: 

(1) This requirement shall not apply to corridors protected 
by an automatic sprinkler system in accordance with 
Section 13.3. 

(2) This requirement shall not apply to corridor areas pro- 
tected by a smoke detection system in accordance with 
13.7.1.4. 

(3) This requirement shall not apply to storage in metal lock- 
ers, provided that the required egress width is main- 
tained. [202:14.7.4.2; 202:15.7.4.2] 

20.2.3.4.6 Artwork and teaching materials shall be permitted 
to be attached directiy to the walls in accordance with the 
following: 

(1) For new occupancies, the artwork and teaching materials 
shall not exceed 20 percent of the wall area in a building that 
is not protected throughout by an approved, supervised au- 
tomatic sprinkler system in accordance with Section 13.3. 
[202:14.7.4.3] 

(2) For existing occupancies, the artwork and teaching ma- 
terials shall not exceed 20 percent of the wall area in a 
building that is not protected throughout by an ap- 
proved automatic sprinkler system in accordance with 
Section 13.3. [202:15.7.4.3(1)] 

(3) The artwork and teaching materials shall not exceed 
50 percent of the wall area in a building that is pro- 
tected throughout by an approved, supervised auto- 
matic sprinkler system in accordance with Section 13.3. 
[202:14.7.4.3] 

20.2.3.4.7 The provision of 10.3.2 of NFPA 101 for cigarette 
ignition resistance of newly introduced upholstered furni- 
ture and mattresses shall not apply to educational occupan- 
cies protected throughout by an approved, supervised auto- 
matic sprinkler system in accordance with Section 13.3. 
[202:14.7.4.4; 202:15.7.4.5] 

20.2.3.5 Unvented Fuel-Fired Heating Equipment. Unvented 
fuel-fired heating equipment, other than gas space heaters in 
compliance with NFPA 54/ANSI Z223.1, National Fuel Gas 
Code, shall be prohibited. [202:14.5.2.2; 202:15.5.2.2] 

20.3 Day-Care Occupancies. 

20.3.1 Application. New and existing day-care occupancies 
shall comply with Section 20.3 and NFPA 101. 



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20.3.1.1 In new day-care occupancies, where a facility houses 
more than one age group or self-preservation capability, the 
strictest requirements applicable to any group present shall 
apply throughout the day-care occupancy or building, as ap- 
propriate to a given area, unless the area housing such a group 
is maintained as a separate fire area. [iW;16.1.1.4] 

20.3.1.2 In existing day-care occupancies, where a facility 
houses clients of more than one self-preservation capability, 
the strictest requirements applicable to any group present 
shall apply throughout the day-care occupancy or building, as 
appropriate to a given area, unless the area housing such a 
group is maintained as a separate fire area. [201:17.1.1.4] 

20.3.1.3 Places of religious worship shall not be required to 
meet the provisions of Section 20.3 where providing day care 
while services are being held in the building. [iW:16.1.1.5; 
iW:17.1.1.5] 

20.3.1.4 General. Occupancies that include part-day pre- 
schools, kindergartens, and other schools whose purpose is 
primarily educational, even though the children who attend 
such schools are of preschool age, shall comply vnth the provi- 
sions of Chapter 14 of NFPA 101. [70/:16.1.4.1; 101:17.1.4.1] 

20.3.1.5 Adult Day-Care Occupancies. 

20.3.1.5.1 Adult day-care occupancies shall include any build- 
ing or portion thereof used for less than 24 hours per day to 
house more than three adults requiring care, maintenance, and 
supervision by other than their relative(s). [iC7:16.1. 4.2.1; 
/W:17.1.4.2.1] 

20.3.1.5.2 Clients in adult day-care occupancies shall be am- 
bulatory or semiambulatory and shall not be bedridden. 
[10i:16.1.4.2.2; 201:17.1.4.2.2] 

20.3.1.5.3 Clients in adult day-care occupancies shall not ex- 
hibit behavior that is harmful to themselves or to others. 
[101:16.1.4.2.3; 101:17.1.4.2.3] 

20.3.2 General Requirements. 

20.3.2.1 Unvented fuel-fired heating equipment, other than 
gas space heaters in compliance with NFPA 54/ ANSI Z223.1, 
National Fuel Gas Code, shall be prohibited. [101:16.5.2.2; 
101:17.5.2.2] 

20.3.2.2* Closet Doors. Every closet door latch shall be such 
that clients can open the door from inside the closet. 
[101:16.2.2.2.4; 101:17.2.2.2.4] 

20.3.2.3 Bathroom Doors. Every bathroom door lock shall be 
designed to allow opening of the locked door from the outside 
by an opening device that shall be readily accessible to the 
staff. [101:16.2.2.2.5; 101:17.2.2.2.5] 

20.3.2.4 Flexible Plan and Open Plan Buildings. 

20.3.2.4.1 In new day-care occupancies, flexible plan and 
open plan buildings shall comply with the requirements of 
20.3.2.4 as modified by 20.3.2.4.3 through 20.3.2.4.6. 
[101:16.4.3.1] 

20.3.2.4.2 In existing day-care occupancies, flexible plan and 
open plan buildings shall comply with the requirements of 
20.3.2.4 as modified by 20.3.2.4.3 and 20.3.2.4.4. [101:17.4.3.1] 

20.3.2.4.3 Flexible plan buildings shall be permitted to have 
walls and partitions rearranged periodically only if revised plans 
or diagrams have been approved by the AHJ. [101:16.4.3.2; 
101:17.4.3.2] 



20.3.2.4.4 Flexible plan buildings shall be evaluated while all 
folding walls are extended and in use as well as when they are 
in the retracted position. [101:16.4.3.3; 101:17.4.3.3] 

20.3.2.4.5 Each room occupied by more than 300 persons 
shall have two or more means of egress entering into separate 
atmospheres. [101:16.4.3.4] 

20.3.2.4.6 Where three or more means of egress are required 
from a single room, the number of means of egress permitted 
to enter into a common atmosphere shall not exceed two. 
[101:16.4.3.5] 

20.3.3 Day-Care Homes. 

20.3.3.1 Classification. 

20.3.3.1.1 In new day-care homes, the requirements of Sec- 
tion 16.6 of NFPA 101 shall apply to day-care homes in which 
more than 3, but not more than 12, clients receive care, main- 
tenance, and supervision by other than their relative (s) or le- 
gal guardian (s) for less than 24 hours per day, generally within 
a dwelling unit. (Seealso 16.6.1.4 of NFPA 101.) [101:16.6.1.1.2] 

20.3.3.1.2* In existing day-care homes, the requirements of Sec- 
tion 17.6 of NFPA 101 shall apply to existing day-care homes in 
which more than 3, but not more than 12, clients receive care, 
maintenance, and supervision by other than their relative (s) or 
legal guardian (s) for less than 24 hours per day, generally vnthin 
a dwelling unit. An existing day-care home shall be permitted the 
option of meeting the requirements of Section 16.6 of NFPA 101 
in lieu of Section 1 7.6 of NFPA 101. Any existing day-care home 
that meets the requirements of Chapter 16 of NFPA 101 shall be 
judged as meeting the requirements of this chapter. (See also 
17.61.4 of NFPA 101.) [101:17.6.1.1.2] 

20.3.3.1.3 In new day-care homes, where a facility houses 
more than one age group or one self-preservation capability, 
the strictest requirements applicable to any group present 
shall apply throughout the day-care home or building, as ap- 
propriate to a given area, unless the area housing such a group 
is maintained as a separate fire area. [201:16.6.1.1.3] 

20.3.3.1.4 In existing day-care homes, where a facility houses 
clients of more than one self-preservation capability, the strict- 
est requirements applicable to any group present shall apply 
throughout the day-care home or building, as appropriate to a 
given area, unless the area housing such a group is maintained 
as a separate fire area. [101:17.6.1.1.3] 

20.3.3.1.5 Facilities that supervise clients on a temporary ba- 
sis with a parent or guardian in close proximity shall not be 
required to meet the provisions of Section 16.6 or Section 17.6 
of NFPA iOi. [101:16.6.1.1.4; 101:17.6.1.1.4] 

20.3.3.1.6 Places of religious worship shall not be required to 
meet the provisions of Section 16.6 or Section 17.6 of NFPA 101 
where operating a nursery (day-care home) while services are 
being held in tiie building. [101:16.6.1.1.5; 101:17.6.1.1.5] 

20.3.3.2 Operating Features. 

20.3.3.2.1* Emergency Plans. Emergency plans shall be pro- 
vided in accordance with Section 4.8 of NFPA 101. [101:16.7.1; 
101:17.7.1] 

20.3.3.2.2 Emergency Egress and Relocation Drills. 

20.3.3.2.2.1* Emergency egress and relocation drills shall be 
conducted in accordance with Section 10.6 and the applicable 
provisions of 20.3.3.2.2.2. [101:16.7.2.1; 101:17.7.2.1] 



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20.3.3.2.2.2 Emergency egress and relocation drills shall be 
conducted as follows: 

(1) Not less than one emergency egress and relocation drill 
shall be conducted every month the facility is in session, 
unless both of the following criteria are met: 

(a) In climates where the weather is severe, the monthly 
emergency egress and relocation drills shall be per- 
mitted to be deferred. 

(b) The required number of emergency egress and relo- 
cation drills shall be conducted, and not less than 
four shall be conducted before the drills are 
deferred. 

(2) All occupants of the building shall participate in the drill. 

(3) One additional emergency egress and relocation drill, 
other than for day-care occupancies that are open on a 
year-round basis, shall be required within the first 30 days 
of operation. [1W:16.7.2.2; 101:17.7.2.2] 

20.3.3.2.3 Inspections. 

20.3.3.2.3.1 Fire prevention inspections shall be conducted 
monthly by a trained senior member of the staff, after which a 
copy of the latest inspection report shall be posted in a conspicu- 
ous place in the day-care facility. [/W:16. 7.3.1; iOi:17. 7.3.1] 

20.3.3.2.3.2* It shall be the duty of site administrators and staff 
members to inspect all exit facilities daily to ensure that all 
stairways, doors, and other exits are in proper condition. 
[iW:16.7.3.2; /W:17.7.3.2] 

20.3.3.2.3.3 Open plan buildings shall require extra sur- 
veillance to ensure that exit paths are maintained clear of 
obstruction and are obvious. [/W:16.7.3.3; 101:17.7.3.3] 

20.3.3.2.3.4 Furnishings and Decorations. 

20.3.3.2.3.4.1 Draperies, curtains, and other similar furnish- 
ings and decorations in day-care occupancies shall be in accor- 
dance with the provisions of 20.3.3.2.3.4.2. [iW:16.7.4.1; 
iW:17.7.4.1] 

20.3.3.2.3.4.2* Where required by the applicable provisions of 
this Code, draperies, curtains, and other similar loosely hang- 
ing furnishings and decorations shall meet the flame propaga- 
tion performance criteria contained in NFPA 70 1 . [101:10.3.1] 

20.3.3.2.3.4.3 Clothing and personal effects shall not be stored 
in corridors, unless otherwise permitted by the following: 

(1) This requirement shall not apply to corridors protected 
by an automatic sprinkler system in accordance with 
Section 13.3. 

(2) This requirement shall not apply to corridor areas pro- 
tected by a smoke detection system in accordance with 
Section 13.7. 

(3) This requirement shall not apply to storage in metal lock- 
ers, provided that the required egress width is main- 
tained. [201:16.7.4.2; 7W:17.7.4.2] 

20.3.3.2.3.4.4 Artwork and teaching materials shall be per- 
mitted to be attached directly to the walls in accordance with 
the following: 

(1) In new day-care homes, the artwork and teaching materi- 
als shall not exceed 20 percent of the wall area in a build- 
ing that is not protected throughout by an approved, su- 
pervised automatic sprinkler system in accordance with 
Section 13.3. [201:16.7.4.3] 



(2) In existing day-care homes, the artwork and teaching mate- 
rials shall not exceed 20 percent of the vrall area in a build- 
ing that is not protected throughout by an approved auto- 
matic sprinkler system in accordance with Section 13.3. 
[iW:l7.7.4.3(l)] 

(3) The artwork and teaching materials shall not exceed 50 per- 
cent of the wall area in a building that is protected through- 
out by an approved, supervised automatic sprinkler system 
in accordance with Section 13.3. [i0/:16.7.4.3] 

20.3.3.2.3.4.5* Day-Car« Staff. Adequate adult staff shall be on 
duty, alert, awake, and in the facility at all times where clients 
are present. [107:16.7.5; /02:17.7.5] 

20.4 Health Care Occupancies. 

20.4.1 Application. New and existing health care occupancies 
shall comply witii Section 20.4, NFPA 101, and NFPA 99. 

20.4.2* Operating Features. 

20.4.2.1 Evacuation and Relocation Plan and Fire Drills. 

20.4.2.1.1 The administration of every health care occupancy 
shall have, in effect and available to all supervisory personnel, 
written copies of a plan for the protection of all persons in the 
event of fire, for their evacuation to areas of refiige, and for their 
evacuation from the building when necessary. [102:18.7.1.1; 
/0/:19.7.1.1] 

20.4.2.1.2 All employees shall be periodically instructed and 
kept informed with respect to their duties under the plan re- 
quired by 20.4.2.1.1. [202:18.7.1.2; 202:19.7.1.2] 

20.4.2.1.3 A copy of the plan required by 20.4.2.1.1 shall be 
readily available at all times in the telephone operator's loca- 
tion or at the security center. [202:18.7.1.3; 202:19.7.1.3] 

20.4.2.1.4 The provisions of Section 10.6 and 20.4.2.1.2 
through 20.4.2.2.3 shall apply 

20.4.2.1.5* Fire drills in health care occupancies shall include 
the transmission of a fire alarm signal and simulation of emer- 
gency fire conditions. [202:18.7.1.4; 202:19.7.1.4] 

20.4.2.1.6 Infirm or bedridden patients shall not be required 
to be moved during drills to safe areas or to the exterior of the 
building. [202:18.7.1.5; 202:19.7.1.5] 

20.4.2.1.7 Drills shall be conducted quarterly on each shift to 
familiarize facility personnel (nurses, interns, maintenance 
engineers, and administrative staff) with the signals and emer- 
gency action required under varied conditions. [202:18.7.1.6; 
202:19.7.1.6] 

20.4.2.1.8 When drills are conducted between 9:00 p.m. 
(2100 hours) and 6:00 a.m. (0600 hours), a coded announce- 
ment shall be permitted to be used instead of audible alarms. 
[202:18.7.1.7; 202:19.7.1.7] 

20.4.2.1.9 Employees of health care occupancies shall be in- 
structed in life safety procedures and devices. [202:18.7.1.8; 
202:19.7.1.8] 

20.4.2.2 Procedure in Case of Fire. 

20.4.2.2.1* Protection of Patients. 

20.4.2.2.1.1 For health care occupancies, the proper protec- 
tion of patients shall require the prompt and effective response 
of health care personnel. [202:18.7.2.1.1; 202:19.7.2.1.1] 



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20.4.2.2.1.2 The basic response required of staff shall include 
the following: 

(1) Removal of all occupants directly involved with the fire 
emergency 

(2) Transmission of an appropriate fire alarm signal to warn 
other building occupants and summon staff 

(3) Confinement of the effects of the fire by closing doors to 
isolate the fire area 

(4) Relocation of patients as detailed in the health care occu- 
pancy's fire safety plan [101:18.7.2.1.2; 101:19.7.2.1.2] 

20.4.2.2.2 Fire Safety Plan. A written health care occupancy 
fire safety plan shall provide for the following: 

(1) Use of alarms 

(2) Transmission of alarms to fire department 

(3) Emergency phone call to fire department 

(4) Response to alarms 

(5) Isolation of fire 

(6) Evacuation of immediate area 

(7) Evacuation of smoke compartment 

(8) Preparation of floors and building for evacuation 

(9) Extinguishment of fire [101:18.7.2.2; 101:19.7.2.2] 

20.4.2.2.3 Staff Response. 

20.4.2.2.3.1 All health care occupancy personnel shall be in- 
structed in the use of and response to fire alarms. [101:18.7.2.3.1; 
101:19.7.2.3.1] 

20.4.2.2.3.2 All health care occupancy personnel shall be in- 
structed in the use of the code phrase to ensure transmission 
of an alarm under the following conditions: 

(1) When the individual who discovers a fire must immedi- 
ately go to the aid of an endangered person 

(2) During a malfunction of the building fire alarm system 
[101:18.7.2.3.2; 101:19.7.2.3.2] 

20.4.2.2.3.3 Personnel hearing the code announced shall first 
activate the building fire cilarm using the nearest manual fire 
alarm box and then shall execute immediately their duties as 
outlined in the fire safety plan. [101:18.7.2.3.3; 101:19.7.2.3.3] 

20.4.2.3 Maintenance of Exits. 

20.4.2.3.1 Proper maintenance shall be provided to ensure 
the dependability of the method of evacuation selected. 
[101:18.7.3.1; 101:19.7.3.1] 

20.4.2.3.2 Health care occupancies that find it necessary to 
lock exits shall, at all times, maintain an adequate staff quali- 
fied to release locks and direct occupants from the immediate 
danger area to a place of safety in case of fire or other emer- 
gency. [101:18.7.3.2; 101:19.7.3.2] 

20.4.2.4* Smoking. Smoking regulations shall be adopted and 
shall include not less than the following provisions: 

(1) Smoking shall be prohibited in any room, ward, or com- 
partment where flammable liquids, combustible gases, or 
oxygen is used or stored and in any other hazardous loca- 
tion, and such areas shall be posted with signs that read 
NO SMOKING or shall be posted with the international 
symbol for no smoking. 

(2) In health care occupancies where smoldng is prohibited 
and signs are prominently placed at all major entrances, 
secondary signs with language that prohibits smoking 
shall not be required. 



(3) Smoking by patients classified as not responsible shall be 
prohibited. 

(4) The requirement of 20.4.2.4(3) shall not apply where the 
patient is under direct supervision. 

(5) Ashtrays of noncombustible material and safe design shall 
be provided in all areas where smoking is permitted. 

(6) Metal containers with self-closing cover devices into which 
ashtrays can be emptied shall be readily available to all areas 
where smoking is permitted. [101:18.7.4; 101:19.7.4] 

20.4.2.5 Furnishings, Bedding, and Decorations. 

20.4.2.5.1* Draperies, curtains, and other loosely hanging fab- 
rics and films serving as furnishings or decorations in health 
care occupancies shall be in accordance with the provisions of 

20.4.2.5.2 (see 18.3.5.9 or 19.3.5.9 of NFPA 101), and the follow- 
ing also shall apply: 

(1) Such curtains shall include cubicle curtains. 

(2) Such curtains shall not include curtains at showers. 
[101:18.7.5.1] 

(3) In new occupancies, such draperies and curtains shall not 
include draperies and curtains at windows in patient 
sleeping rooms in sprinklered smoke compartments. 

(4) In existing occupancies, such draperies and curtains shall 
not include draperies and curtains at windows in patient 
sleeping rooms in sprinklered smoke compartments. 
[101:19.7.5.1(3)] 

20.4.2.5.2* Where required by the applicable provisions of 
this Code, draperies, curtains, and other similar loosely hang- 
ing furnishings and decorations shall meet the flame propaga- 
tion performance criteria contained in NFPA70I. [101:10.3.1] 

20.4.2.5.3 Newly introduced upholstered furniture within 
health care occupancies shall comply with one of the follow- 
ing provisions: 

(1) The furniture shall meet the criteria specified in 10.3.2.1 
and 10.3.3 of NFPAiOl. 

(2) The furniture shall be in a building protected throughout 
by an approved, supervised automatic sprinkler system in 
accordance with NFPA 13. [101:18.7.5.2; 101:19.7.5.2] 

20.4.2.5.4 The requirements of 19.7.5.2, 10.3.2.1, and 10.3.3 
of NFPA 101 shall not apply to upholstered furniture belong- 
ing to the patient in sleeping rooms of nursing homes where 
the following criteria are met: 

(1) A smoke detector shall be installed where the patient 
sleeping room is not protected by automatic sprinklers. 

(2) Battery-powered single-station smoke detectors shall be 
permitted. [101:19.7.5.3] 

20.4.2.5.5 Newly introduced mattresses within health care oc- 
cupancies shall comply with one of the following provisions: 

(1) The mattresses shall meet the criteria specified in 10.3.2.2 
and 10.3.4 of NFPA 701. 

(2) The mattresses shall be in a building protected throughout 
by an approved, supervised automatic sprinkler system in 
accordance with NFPA 13. [101:18.7.5.4; 101:19.7.5.4] 

20.4.2.5.6 The requirements of 19.7.5.4, 10.3.2.2, and 10.3.4 
of NFPA 101 shall not apply to mattresses belonging to the 
patient in sleeping rooms of nursing homes where the follow- 
ing criteria are met: 

(1) A smoke detector shall be installed where the patient 
sleeping room is not protected by automatic sprinklers. 

(2) Battery-powered single-station smoke detectors shall be 
permitted. [101:19.7.5.5] 



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20.4.2.5.7 Combustible decorations shall be prohibited in 
any health care occupancy, unless one of the following criteria 
is met: 

(1) They are flame-retardant. 

(2)*They are decorations, such as photographs and paintings, 
in such limited quantities that a hazard of fire develop 
ment or spread is not present. [707:18.7.5.6; 707:19.7.5.6] 

20.4.2.5.8 Soiled linen or trash collection receptacles shall 
not exceed 32 gal (121 L) in capacity and shall meet the fol- 
lowing requirements: 

(1) The average density of container capacity in a room or 
space shall not exceed 0.5 gal/ft^ (20.4 L/m^). 

(2) A capacity of 32 gal (121 L) shall not be exceeded within 
any 64 ft (6 m^) area. 

(3) Mobile soiled linen or trash collection receptacles with 
capacities greater than 32 gal (121 L) shall be located in a 
room protected as a hazardous area when not attended. 

(4) Container size and density shall not be limited in hazard- 
ous areas. [707:18.7.5.7; 707:19.7.5.7 ] 

20.4.2.6 Portable Space-Heating Devices. Portable space- 
heating devices shall be prohibited in all health care occupan- 
cies, unless both of the following criteria are met: 

(1) Such devices are permitted to be used only in nonsleeping 
staff and employee areas. 

(2) The heating elements of such devices do not exceed 
212°F (lOOX). [707:18.7.8; 707:19.7.8] 

20.5 Residential Board and Care Occupancies. 

20.5. 1 Application. New and existing residential board and care 
occupancies shall comply with Section 20.5 and NFPA 101. 

20.5.2 Operating Features. 

20.5.2.1 Emeigency Plan. 

20.5.2.1.1 The administration of every residential board and 
care facility shall have, in effect and available to all supervisory 
personnel, written copies of a plan for protecting all persons 
in the event of fire, for keeping persons in place, for evacuat- 
ing persons to areas of refuge, and for evacuating persons 
from the building when necessary. [707:32.7.1.1; 707:33.7.1.1] 

20.5.2.1.2 The emergency plan shall include special staff re- 
sponse, including the fire protection procedures needed to 
ensure the safety of any resident, and shall be amended or 
revised whenever any resident with unusual needs is admitted 
to die home. [707:32.7.1.2; 707:33.7.1.2] 

20.5.2.1.3 All employees shall be periodically instructed and 
kept informed with respect to their duties and responsibilities 
under the plan, and such instruction shall be reviewed by the 
staff not less than every 2 months. [707:32.7.1.3; 707:33.7.1.3] 

20.5.2.1.4 The requirements of 19.7.5.2, 10.3.2.1, and 10.3.3 
of NFPA 101 shall not apply to upholstered furniture belong- 
ing to the patient in sleeping rooms of nursing homes where 
the following criteria are met: 

(1) A smoke detector shall be installed where the patient 
sleeping room is not protected by automatic sprinklers. 

(2) Battery-powered single-station smoke detectors shall be 
permitted. [707:19.7.5.3] 

20.5.2.2 Resident Training. 

20.5.2.2.1 All residents participating in the emergency plan 
shall be trained in the proper actions to be taken in the event 
of fire. [707:32.7.2.1; 707:33.7.2.1] 



20.5.2.2.2 The training required by 20.5.2.2.1 shall include 
actions to be taken if the primary escape route is blocked. 
[707:32.7.2.2; 707:33.7.2.2] 

20.5.2.2.3 If a resident is given rehabilitation or habilitation 
training, training in fire prevention and the actions to be 
taken in the event of a fire shall be a part of the training pro- 
gram. [707:32.7.2.3; 707:33.7.2.3] 

20.5.2.2.4 Residents shall be trained to assist each other in 
case of fire to the extent that their physical and mental abili- 
ties permit them to do so without additional personal risk. 
[707:32.7.2.4; 707:33.7.2.4] 

20.5.2.3 Emergency Egress and Relocation Drills. Emergency 
egress and relocation drills shall be conducted in accordance 
with 20.5.2.3.1 through 20.5.2.3.6. [707:32.7.3; 707:33.7.3] 

20.5.2.3.1 Emergency egress and relocation drills shall be 
conducted not less than six times per year on a bimonthly 
basis, with not less than two drills conducted during the night 
when residents are sleeping, as modified by 20.5.2.3.5 and 
20.5.2.3.6. [707:32.7.3.1; 707:33.7.3.1] 

20.5.2.3.2 The emergency drills shall be permitted to be an- 
nounced in advance to die residents. [707:32.7.3.2; 707:33.7.3.2] 

20.5.2.3.3 The drills shall involve the actual evacuation of all 
residents to an assembly point, as specified in the emergency 
plan, and shall provide residents with experience in egressing 
through all exits and means of escape required by this Code. 
[707:32.7.3.3; 707:33.7.3.3] 

20.5.2.3.4 Exits and means of escape not used in any drill 
shall not be credited in meeting the requirements of this Code 
for board and care facilities. [707:32.7.3.4; 707:33.7.3.4] 

20.5.2.3.5 Actual exiting fi-om windows shall not be required to 
comply with 20.5.2.3; opening the window and signaling for help 
shall be an acceptable alternative. [707:32.7.3.5; 707:33.7.3.5] 

20.5.2.3.6 If the board and care facility has an evacuation 
capability classification of impractical, those residents who 
cannot meaningfully assist in their own evacuation or who 
have special health problems shall not be required to actively 
participate in the drill. Subsection 20.4.2 shall apply in such 
instances. [707:32.7.3.6; 707:33.7.3.6] 

20.5.2.4 Smoking. 

20.5.2.4.1* Smoking regulations shall be adopted by the ad- 
ministration of board and care occupancies. [707:32.7.4.1; 
707:33.7.4.1] 

20.5.2.4.2 Where smoking is permitted, noncombustible 
safety-type ashtrays or receptacles shall be provided in conve- 
nient locations. [707:32.7.4.2; 707:33.7.4.2] 

20.5.2.5* Furnishings, Bedding, and Decorations. 

20.5.2.5.1 New draperies, curtains, and other similar loosely 
hanging furnishings and decorations in board and care facili- 
ties shall be in accordance with the provisions of 20.1.4.4.2. 
[707:32.7.5.1; 707:33.7.5.1] 

20.5.2.5.2* New upholstered furniture within board and 
care facihties shall comply with 20.5.2.5.2.1 or 20.5.2.5.2.2. 
[707:32.7.5.2; 707:33.7.5.2] 

20.5.2.5.2.1 New upholstered furniture shall be tested in ac- 
cordance with the provisions of 10.3.2.1(1) and 10.3.3 of 
NFPA 101. [707:32.7.5.2.1; 707:33.7.5.2.1] 



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20.5.2.5.2.2 Upholstered furniture belonging to residents in 
sleeping rooms shall not be required to be tested, provided 
that a smoke alarm is installed in such rooms; battery-powered 
single-station smoke alarms shall be permitted in such rooms. 
[;0/:32.7.5.2.2; iW:33.7.5.2.2] 

20.5.2.5.2.3* New mattresses within board and care facilities 
shall comply with 20.5.2.5.2.3.1 or 20.5.2.5.2.3.2. [iOi:32.7.5.3; 
101:33.7.5.3] 

20.5.2.5.2.3.1 New upholstered fiimiture shall be tested in ac- 
cordance with the provisions of 10.3.2.2 and 10.3.4 of NFPA 101. 
[101:32.7. 5.3.1; iW:33.7.5.3.1] 

20.5.2.5.2.3.2 Mattresses belonging to residents in sleeping 
rooms shall not be required to be tested, provided that a 
smoke alarm is installed in such rooms; battery-powered 
single-station smoke alarms shall be permitted in such rooms. 
[202:32.7.5.3.2; /0i:33.7.5.3.2] 

20.5.2.5.3 No stove or combustion heater shall be located to 
block escape in case of fire caused by the malfunction of the 
stove or heater. [702:32.2.5.2.2; 202:33.2.5.2.2] 

20.5.2.5.4 Unvented fuel-fired heaters shall not be used in any 
residential board and care facility. [202:32.2.5.2.3; 202:33.2.5.2.3] 

20.6 Ambulatory Health Care Centers. 

20.6.1 Application. New and existing ambulatory health care 
centers shall comply with Section 20.6 and NFPA 101. 

20.6.2* Operating Features. 

20.6.2.1 Evacuation and Relocation Plan and Fire Drills. 

20.6.2.1.1 The administration of every ambulatory health 
care facility shall have, in effect and available to all supervisory 
personnel, written copies of a plan for the protection of all 
persons in the event of fire, for their evacuation to areas of 
refuge, and for their evacuation from the building when nec- 
essary. [202:20.7.1.1; 202:21.7.1.1] 

20.6.2.1.1.1 All employees shall be periodically instructed 
and kept informed with respect to their duties under the plan 
required by 20.6.2.1.1. [202:20.7.1.2; 202:21.7.1.2] 

20.6.2.1.1.2 Acopyofthe plan required by 20.6.2.1.1 shall be 
readily available at all times in the telephone operator's loca- 
tion or at the security center. [202:20.7.1.3; 202:21.7.1.3] 

20.6.2.1.1.3 The provisions of Section 10.6 and 20.6.2.1.2 
through 20.6.2.2.3 shall apply. 

20.6.2.1.2* Fire drills in ambulatory health care facilities shall 
include the transmission of a fire alarm signal and simulation 
of emergency fire conditions. [202:20.7.1.4; 202:21.7.1.4] 

20.6.2.1.2.1 Patients shall not be required to be moved dur- 
ing drills to safe areas or to the exterior of the building. 
[202:20.7.1.5; 202:21.7.1.5] 

20.6.2.1.2.2 Drills shall be conducted quarterly on each shift 
to familiarize facility personnel (nurses, interns, maintenance 
engineers, and administrative staff) with the signals and emer- 
gency action required under varied conditions. [202:20.7.1.6; 
202:21.7.1.6] 

20.6.2.1.2.3 When drills are conducted between 9:00 p.m. 
(2100 hours) and 6:00 a.m. (0600 hours), a coded announce- 
ment shall be permitted to be used instead of audible alarms. 
[202:20.7.1.7; 202:21.7.1.7] 



20.6.2.1.3 Employees of ambulatory health care facilities 
shall be instructed in life safety procedures and devices. 
[202:20.7.1.8; 202:21.7.1.8] 

20.6.2.2 Procedure in Case of Fire. 
20.6.2.2.1* Protection of Patients. 

20.6.2.2.1.1 For ambulatory health care facilities, the proper 
protection of patients shall require the prompt and effective re- 
sponse of ambulatory health care personnel. [202:20.7.2.1.1; 
202:21.7.2.1.1] 

20.6.2.2.1.2 The basic response required of staff shall include 
the following: 

(1) Removal of all occupants directiy involved with the fire 
emergency 

(2) Transmission of an appropriate fire alarm signal to warn 
other building occupants and summon staff 

(3) Confinement of the effects of the fire by closing doors to 
isolate the fire area 

(4) Relocation of patients as detailed in the facility's fire 
safety plan [202:20.7.2.1.2; 202:21.7.2.1.2] 

20.6.2.2.2 Fire Safety Plan. A written fire safety plan shall pro- 
vide for the following: 

(1) Use of alarms 

(2) Transmission of alarms to fire department 

(3) Response to alarms 

(4) Isolation of fire 

(5) Evacuation of immediate area 

(6) Evacuation of smoke compartment 

(7) Preparation of floors and building for evacuation 

(8) Extinguishment of fire [202:20.7.2.2; 202:21.7.2.2] 

20.6.2.2.3 Staff Response. 

20.6.2.2.3.1 All personnel shall be instructed in the use of 
and response to fire alarms. [202:20.7.2.3.1; 202:21.7.2.3.1] 

20.6.2.2.3.2 All health care personnel shall be instructed in 
the use of the code phrase to ensure transmission of an alarm 
under the following conditions: 

(1) When the individual who discovers a fire must immedi- 
ately go to the aid of an endangered person 

(2) During a malfunction of the building fire alarm system 
[202:20.7.2.3.2; 202:21.7.2.3.2] 

20.6.2.2.3.3 Personnel hearing the code announced shall 
first activate the building fire alarm using the nearest fire 
alarm box and then shall execute immediately their duties 
as outiined in the fire safety plan. [202:20.7.2.3.3; 
202:21.7.2.3.3] 

20.6.2.3 Maintenance of Exits. 

20.6.2.3.1 Proper maintenance shall be provided to ensure 
the dependability of the method of evacuation selected. 
[202:20.7.3.1; 202:21.7.3.1] 

20.6.2.3.2 Ambulatory health care occupancies that find it 
necessary to lock exits shall, at all times, maintain an adequate 
staff qualified to release locks and direct occupants from the 
immediate danger area to a place of safety in case of fire or 
other emergency. [202:20.7.3.2; 202:21.7.3.2] 



2006 Edition 



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1-141 



20.6.2.4* Smoking. Smoking regulations shall be adopted and 
shall include not less than the following provisions: 

(1) Smoking shall be prohibited in any room, ward, or com- 
partment where flammable liquids, combustible gases, or 
oxygen is used or stored and in any other hazardous loca- 
tion, and such areas shall be posted with signs that read 
NO SMOKING or shall be posted with the international 
symbol for no smoking. 

(2) In ambulatory health care facilities where smoking is pro- 
hibited and signs are placed at all major entrances, sec- 
ondary signs with language that prohibits smoking shall 
not be required. 

(3) Smoking by patients classified as not responsible shall be 
prohibited. 

(4) The requirement of 20.6.2.4(3) shall not apply where the 
patient is under direct supervision. 

(5) Ashtrays of noncombustible material and safe design shall 
be provided in all areas where smoking is permitted. 

(6) Metal containers with self-closing cover devices into which 
ashtrays can be emptied shall be readily available to all areas 
where smoking is permitted. [/07:20.7.4; 101:21.7 A] 

20.6.2.5 Furnishings, Bedding, and Decorations. 

20.6.2.5.1* Draperies, curtains, and other loosely hanging fab- 
rics and films serving as furnishings or decorations in ambula- 
tory health care occupancies shall be in accordance with the 
provisions of 20.6.2.5.2, and the following also shall apply: 

(1) Such curtains shall include cubicle curtains. 

(2) Such curtains shall not include curtains at showers. 
[7W:20.7.5.1; 101:21.7.5.1} 

20.6.2.5.2* Where required by the applicable provisions of 
this Code, draperies, curtains, and other similar loosely hang- 
ing furnishings and decorations shall meet the flame propaga- 
tion performance criteria contained in NFPA701. [101:10.3.1] 

20.6.2.5.3 Newly introduced upholstered furniture shall 
comply with one of the following provisions: 

(1) The furniture shall meet the criteria specified in 10.3.2.1 
and 10.3.3 of NFPAiOi. 

(2) The furniture shall be in a building protected throughout 
by an approved, supervised automatic sprinkler system in 
accordance with NFPA 13. [2W:20.7.5.2; /W:21.7.5.2] 

20.6.2.5.4 Newly introduced mattresses shall comply with 
one of the following provisions: 

(1) The mattresses shall meet the criteria specified in 10.3.2.2 
and 10.3.4 of NFPA iOi. 

(2) The mattresses shall be in a building protected throughout 
by an approved, supervised automatic sprinkler system in 
accordance with NFPA 13. [101:20.7.5.2,; 101:21.7.5.3] 

20.6.2.5.5 Combustible decorations shall be prohibited, un- 
less one of the following criteria is met: 

(1) They are flame-retardant. 

(2) They are decorations, such as photographs and paintings, 
in such limited quantities that a hazard of fire develop- 
ment or spread is not present. [101:20.7.5.4; 101:21.7.5.4] 

20.6.2.5.6 Soiled linen or trash collection receptacles shall 
not exceed 32 gal (121 L) in capacity, and the following also 
shall apply: 

(1) The average density of container capacity in a room or 
space shall not exceed 0.5 gal/ft^ (20.4 L/m^). 



(2) A capacity of 32 gal (121 L) shall not be exceeded within 
any 64 ft (6 m^) area. 

(3) Mobile soiled linen or trash collection receptacles with 
capacities greater than 32 gal (121 L) shall be located in a 
room protected as a hazardous area when not attended. 

(4) Container size and density shall not be limited in hazard- 
ous areas. [107:20.7.5.5; iW:21.7.5.5] 

20.6.2.6 Portable Space-Heating Devices. Portable space- 
heating devices shall be prohibited in all ambulatory health care 
occupancies, unless both of the following criteria are met: 

(1) Such devices are used only in nonsleeping staff and em- 
ployee areas. 

(2) The heating elements of such devices do not exceed 
212°F (100°C). [/W:20.7.8; 102:21.7.8] 

20.7 Detention and Correctional Occupancies. 

20.7.1 Application. New and existing detention and correc- 
tional occupancies shall comply with Section 20.7 and NFPA 101. 

20.7.2 Operating Features. 

20.7.2.1 Attendants, Evacuation Plan, Fire Drills. 

20.7.2.1.1 Detention and correctional facilities, or those por- 
tions of facilities having such occupancy, shall be provided 
with 24-hour staffing, and the following requirements also 
shall apply: 

(1) Staffshallbewithin threefloorsora300ft (91 m) horizontal 
distance of the access door of each resident housing area. 

(2) For Use Condition III, Use Condition IV, and Use Condi- 
tion V, the arrangement shall be such that the staff in- 
volved starts the release of locks necessary for emergency 
evacuation or rescue and initiates other necessary emer- 
gency actions within 2 minutes of alarm. 

(3) The following shall apply to areas in which all locks are 
unlocked remotely in compliance with 22.2.11.8 or 
23.2.11.8 of NFPA iOi: 

(a) Staff shall not be required to be within three floors or 
300 ft (91 m) of the access door. 

(b) The 10-lock, manual key exemption of 22.2.11.8.2 or 
23.2.11.8.2 of NFPA 101 shall not be permitted to be 
used in conjunction with the alternative requirement 
of 20.7.2.1.1(3)(a). [101:22.7.1.1; 101:23.7.1.1] 

20.7.2.1.2* Provisions shall be made so that residents in Use 
Condition 111, Use Condition IV, and Use Condition V shall be 
able to notify staff of an emergency. [101:22.7.1.2; 101:23.7.1.2] 

20.7.2.1.3* The administration of every detention or correc- 
tional facility shall have, in effect and available to all supervi- 
sory personnel, written copies of a plan for the protection of 
all persons in the event of fire, for their evacuation to areas of 
refuge, and for evacuation from the building when necessary. 
[101:22.7.1.3; 101:23.7.1.3] 

20.7.2.1.3.1 All employees shall be instructed and drilled 
with respect to their duties under the plan. [101:22.7.1.3.1; 
101:23.7.1.3.1] 

20.7.2.1.3.2 The plan shall be coordinated with, and re- 
viewed by, the fire department legally committed to serve the 
facility. [101:22.7.1.3.2; 101:23.7.1.3.2] 

20.7.2.1.4 Employees of detention and correctional occupan- 
cies shall be instructed in the proper use of portable fire extin- 
guishers and other manual fire suppression equipment. 
[101:22.7.1.4; 101:23.7.1.4] 



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20.7.2.1.4.1 The training specified in 20.7.2.1.4 shall be pro- 
vided to new staff promptly upon commencement of duty. 
[iW:22.7.1.4.1; /W:23.7.1.4.1] 

20.7.2.1.4.2 Refresher training shall be provided to exist- 
ing staff at not less than annual intervals. [i0i:22.7.1.4.2; 
iO/:23.7.1.4.2] 

20.7.2.2 Combustible Personal Property. Books, clothing, 
and other combustible personal property allowed in sleeping 
rooms shall be stored in closable metal lockers or an approved 
fire-resistant container. [101:22.7.2; 101:25.7.2] 

20.7.2.3 Heat-Producing Appliances. The number of heat- 
producing appliances, such as toasters and hot plates, and the 
overall use of electrical power within a sleeping room shall be 
controlled by facility administration. [101:22.7.3; 101:23.7.3] 

20.7.2.4* Furnishings, Bedding, and Decorations. 

20.7.2.4. 1 Draperies and curtains, including privacy curtains, in 
detention and correctional occupancies shall be in accordance 
with the provisions of 20.7.2.4.2. [101:22.7.4.1; 101:23.7.4.1] 

20.7.2.4.2* Where required by the applicable provisions of 
this Code, draperies, curtains, and other similar loosely hang- 
ing furnishings and decorations shall meet the flame propaga- 
tion performance criteria contained in NFPA701. [202:10.3.1] 

20.7.2.4.3 Newly introduced upholstered furniture within de- 
tention and correctional occupancies shall be tested in accor- 
dance with the provisions of 10.3.2.1 (2) and 10.3.3 of NFFA 101. 
[101:23.7.4.2] 

20.7.2.4.4* Newly introduced mattresses within detention and 
correctional occupancies shall be tested in accordance with the 
provisions of 10.3.2.2 and 10.3.4 of NFPA 101. [/0/:23.7.4.3] 

20.7.2.4.5 Combustible decorations shall be prohibited in 
any detention or correctional occupancy unless flame- 
retardant. [70/:22.7.4.4; /0i:23.7.4.4] 

20.7.2.4.6 Wastebaskets and other waste containers shall be 
of noncombustible or other approved materials. Waste con- 
tainers with a capacity exceeding 20 gal (76 L) shall be pro- 
vided with a noncombustible lid or lid of other approved ma- 
terial. [iOi:22.7.4.5; 702:23.7.4.5] 

20.7.2.5 Keys. All keys necessary for unlocking doors installed 
in a means of egress shall be individually identified by both 
touch and sight. [101:22.7.5; 101:23.7.5] 

20.7.2.6 Portable Space-Heating Devices. Portable space- 
heating devices shall be prohibited in all detention and cor- 
rectional occupancies. [202:22.7.6; 202:23.7.6] 

20.8 Hotels and Dormitories. 

20.8.1 Application. New and existing hotels and dormitories 
shall comply with Section 20.8 and NFPA 101. 

20.8.2 Operating Features. 

20.8.2.1 Hotel Emeigenqf Organization. 

20.8.2.1.1* Employees of hotels shall be instructed and drilled 
in the duties they are to perform in the event of fire, panic, or 
other emergency. [202:28.7.1.1; 202:29.7.1.1] 

20.8.2.1.2* Drills of the emergency organization shall be held 
at quarterly intervals and shall cover such points as the opera- 
tion and maintenance of the available first aid fire appliances, 
the testing of devices to alert guests, and a study of instructions 
for emergency duties. [202:28.7.1.2; 202:29.7.1.2] 



20.8.2.2 Emeigency Duties. Upon discovery of a fire, employ- 
ees shall carry out the following duties: 

( 1 ) Activation of the facility fire protection signaling system, if 
provided 

(2) Notification of the public fire department 

(3) Other action as previously instructed [202:28.7.2; 
202:29.7.2] 

20.8.2.3 Drills in Dormitories. Emergency egress and reloca- 
tion drills shall be regularly conducted in accordance with 
Section 10.6. [202:28.7.3; 202:29.7.3] 

20.8.2.4 Emeigency Instructions for Residents or Guests. 

20.8.2.4.1* A floor diagram reflecting the actual floor arrange- 
ment, exit locations, and room identification shall be posted in a 
location and manner acceptable to the AHJ on, or immediately 
adjacent to, every guest room door in hotels and in every resident 
room in dormitories. [202:28.7.4.1; 202:29.7.4.1] 

20.8.2.4.2* Fire safety information shall be provided to allow 
guests to make the decision to evacuate to the outside, to evacu- 
ate to an area of refuge, to remain in place, or to employ any 
combination of die tiiree options. [202:28.7.4.2; 202:29.7.4.2] 

20.8.2.5 Contents and Furnishings. 

20.8.2.5.1 Contents and furnishings shall not be required 
to comply with Section 10.3 of NFPA 101. [202:28.3.3.4.1; 
202:29.3.3.4.1] 

20.8.2.5.2 New draperies, curtains, and other similar loosely 
hanging furnishings and decorations shall be flame resistant 
as demonstrated by testing in accordance with NFPA 701. 
[202:28.3.3.4.2; 202:29.3.3.4.2] 

20.8.2.5.3 Furnishings or decorations of an explosive or 
highly flammable character shall not be used. [202:28.3.3.4.3; 
202:29.3.3.4.3] 

20.8.2.5.4 Fire-retardant coatings shall be maintained to retain 
the effectiveness of the treatment under service conditions en- 
countered in acuial use. [202:28.3.3.4.4; 202:29.3.3.4.4] 

20.8.2.5.5* Where required by the applicable provisions of 
this Code, draperies, curtains, and other similar loosely hang- 
ing furnishings and decorations shall meet the flame propaga- 
tion performance criteria in NFPA 701. [202:10.3.1] 

20.8.2.6 Fuel-Fired Heaters. Unvented fuel-fired heaters, other 
than gas space heaters in compliance with NFPA 54, NationalFuel 
Gas Code, shall not be used. [202:28.5.2.2; 202:29.5.2.2] 

20.9 Apartment Buildings. 

20.9.1 Application. New and existing apartment buildings 
shall comply with Section 20.9 and NFPA 101. 

20.9.2 Operating Features. 

20.9.2.1 Emergency Instructions for Residents of Apartment 
Buildings. Emergency instructions shall be provided annually 
to each dwelling unit to indicate the location of alarms, egress 
paths, and actions to be taken, both in response to a fire in the 
dwelling unit and in response to the sounding of the alarm 
system. [202:30.7; 202:31.7] 

20.9.2.2 Fuel-Fired Heaters. Unvented fuel-fired heaters, 
other than gas space heaters in compliance with NFPA 54, 
shall not be used. [202:30.5.2.2; 202:31.5.2.2] 



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20.10 Lodging or Rooming Houses. 

20.10.1 Application. New and existing lodging or rooming 
houses shall comply with Section 20.10 and NFPA 101. 

20.10.2 Fuel-Fired Heaters. Unvented fuel-fired heaters, 
other than gas space heaters in compliance with NFPA 54, 
shall not be used. [/Oi:26.5.2.2] 

20.11 One- and Two-Family Dwellings and Manufactured 
Housing. 

20.11.1 Application. New and existing one- and two-family 
dwellings shall comply with Section 20.11 and NFPA 101. 

20.11.2 Fuel-Fired Heaters. Unvented fuel-fired heaters shall 
not be used, unless they are listed and approved. [iOi:24.5.1.2] 

20.11.3 Manufactured Housing. New manufactured housing 
shall comply with Section 20.11 and NFPA 501, Standard on 
Manufactured Housing. 

20.12 Mercantile Occupancies. 

20.12.1 Application. New and existing mercantile occupan- 
cies shall comply with Section 20.12 and NFPA 101. 

20.12.2 Operating Features. 

20.12.2.1 Drills. In every Class A or Class B mercantile occu- 
pancy, employees shall be periodically trained in accordance 
with Section 10.6. [;W:36.7.1; 207:37.7.1] 

20.12.2.2 Extinguisher Training. Employees of mercantile oc- 
cupancies shall be periodically instructed in the use of por- 
table fire extinguishers. [i02:36.7.2; 202:37.7.2] 

20.13 Business Occupancies. 

20.13.1 Application. New and existing business occupancies 
shall comply witii Section 20.13 and NFPA 101. 

20.13.2 Operating Features. 

20.13.2.1 Drills. In all business occupancy buildings occupied 
by more than 500 persons, or by more than 100 persons above or 
below the street level, employees and supervisory personnel shall 
be periodically instructed in accordance with Section 10.6 and 
shall hold drills periodically where practicable. [202:38.7.1; 
202:39.7.1] 

20.13.2.2 Extinguisher Training. Designated employees of 
business occupancies shall be periodically instructed in the 
use of portable fire extinguishers. [202:38.7.2; 202:39.7.2] 

20.14 Industrial Occupancies. 

20.14.1 Application. New and existing industrial occupancies 
shall comply with Section 20.14 and NFPA 101. 

20.15 Storage Occupancies. 

20.15.1 Application. New and existing storage occupancies 
shall comply with NFPA 101, Chapter 34, appropriate codes or 
standards referenced in Chapter 2, and Section 20.15. 

20.15.2 Permits. Permits, where required, shall comply with 
Section 1.12. 

20.15.3 Storage, Arrangement, Protection, and Quantities of 
Hazardous Commodities. The storage, arrangement, protec- 
tion, and quantities of hazardous commodities shall be in ac- 
cordance with the applicable provisions of the following: 

(1) NFPA 13, Standard for the Installation of Sprinkler Systems 

(2) Chapter 66 



(3) Chapter 61 

(4) Chapter 70 

(5) NFPA 434, Code for the Storage of Pesticides 

(6) Chapter 65 [202:36.4.5.3; 202:37.4.5.3] 

20.15.4 Bulk Storage Elevators. Bulk storage elevators shall 
comply with 20.15.4.1 andNFPA61, Standard for the Prevention 
of Fires and Dust Explosions in Agricultural and Food Processing 
Facilities. 

20.15.4.1* Bulk storage elevators shall apply to all of the 
following: 

(1) All facilities that receive, handle, process, dry, blend, use, 
mill, package, store, or ship dry agricultural bulk materi- 
als, their by-products, or dusts that include grains, oil- 
seeds, agricultural seeds, legumes, sugar, flour, spices, 
feeds, and other related materials 

(2) All facilities designed for manufacturing and handling 
starch, including drying, grinding, conveying, processing, 
packaging, and storing dry or modified starch, and dry 
products and dusts generated from these processes 

(3) Those seed preparation and meal-handling systems of oil- 
seed processing plants not covered by NFPA 36, Standard 
for Solvent Extraction Plants [61:1.1.1] 

20.15.4.2 NFPA 61 shall not apply to oilseed extraction plants 
tiiat are covered by NFPA36. [61:1.1.2] 

20.15.4.3 AppUcabiUty. 

20.15.4.3.1 Unless otherwise noted, the provisions of 20.15.4 
on bulk storage elevators shall not be applied to facilities, 
equipment, structures, or installations that were existing or 
approved for construction or installation prior to the effective 
date of this Code, except in those cases where it is determined 
by the AHJ that the existing situation involves a distinct hazard 
to life or adjacent property. 

20.15.4.3.2 The requirements of Chapter 11 of NFPA61 shall 
apply to all facilities. 

20.15.5 Record Storage. 

20.15.5.1 Records protection equipment, facilities, and 
records-handling techniques that provide protection from the 
hazards of fire shall comply with 20.15.5 and NFPA 232, Stan- 
dard for the Protection of Records. 

20.15.5.2* Because of the volume of records, 20.15.5.1 shall 
not cover large archives or records storage buildings. 

20.15.6 Cellulose Nitrate Motion Picture Film Storage. 

20.15.6.1 The storage and handling of cellulose nitrate film 
records shall comply with 20.15.6 and NFPA 40, Standard for the 
Storage and Handling of Cellulose Nitrate Film. 

20.15.6.2 Permits. Permits, where required, shall comply with 
Section 1.12. 

20.15.7 High-PUed Storage. 

20.15.7.1 Buildings containing high-piled storage shall com- 
ply with NFPA 13, Chapter 34, and 20.15.7. 

20.15.7.2 Permits. Permits, where required, shall comply vrith 
Section 1.12. 

20.16 Special Structiires and High-Rise Buildings. 

20.16.1 Application. 

20.16.1.1 New and existing special structures and high-rise 
buildings shall comply with NFPA 101. 



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20.16.1.2 Motion picture and television production studio 
soundstages and approved production facilities shall comply 
with Chapter 32. 

20.17 Historic Buildings and Cultural Resources. 

20.17.1 Historic buildings shall comply with this Code or with 
the provisions of NFPA 914, Code for Fire Protection of Historic 
Structures. 

20.17.2 Buildings that store or display cultural resources, in- 
cluding museum or library collections, or spaces within other 
buildings used for such culturally significant purposes, shall 
comply with this Corf? or with the provisions of NFPA 909, Code 
for the Protection of Cultural Resources. 

20.17.3 The provisions of this Co<ferelating to the construction, 
repair, alteration, enlargement, restoration, and moving of build- 
ings or structures shall not be mandatory for the following: 

(1) Existing buildings or structures identified and classified 
by the state or local government authority as historic 
buildings where such buildings comply with NFPA 914 

{2)*Buildings or spaces within buildings that store or display 
cultural resources and comply with the provisions of 
NFPA 909 



Chapter 21 Airports and Heliports 

21.1 Hangars. The construction and protection of aircraft 
hangars from fire shall comply with this section; NFPA 409, 
Standard on Aircraft Hungary, NFPA 410, Standard on Aircraft 
Maintenance, and Section 40.6 and Section 42.6 of NFPA 101. 

21.1.1 Permits. Permits, where required, shall comply with 
Section 1.12. 

21.1.2 Fire Department Access. Fire department access 
roads shall be provided and maintained in accordance with 
Section 18.2 for all aircraft hangars. 

21.1.3 Smoking. 

21.1.3.1 Smoking shall be prohibited in aircraft hangars. 

21.1.3.2 Smoking shall be in accordance with Section 10.10. 

21.2 Terminals. 

21.2.1 Application. Airport terminal buildings shall comply 
with the requirements of Section 21.2 and NFPA 415, Standard 
on Airport Terminal Buildings, Fueling Ramp Drainage, and Load- 
ing Walkways. 

21.2.2 General. 

21.2.2.1 Permits. Permits, where required, shall comply with 
Section 1.12. 

21.2.2.2 Fire Department Access. Fire department access 
roads for all airport terminal buildings shall be provided and 
maintained in accordance with Section 18.2. 

21.2.2.3 Smoking. 

21.2.2.3.1 Smoking shall be prohibited in fuel ramp areas 
and loading walkways. 

21.2.2.3.2 Smoking shall be in accordance with Section 10.10. 



21.2.3 General. 

21.2.3.1* Airport terminal buildings shall be of Type 1, Type II, 
or Type IV construction, as defined in NFPA 220, Standard on 
Types of Building Construction. [4 1 5:4. 1 . 1 ] 

21.2.3.2* Interior finish shall be limited to that permitted in 
Class A places of assembly as specified in NFPA 101. [415:4. 1.2] 

21.2.3.3 Aircraft fueling facilities and ramps shall be designed 
in accordance with NPPA 407, Standard for Aircraft Fu£l Servicing 
and Chapter 5 of NFPA415, Standard on Airport Terminal Buildings, 
Fueling Ramp Drainage, and Loading Walkways. [415:4.1.3] 

21.2.3.4 Belowgrade areas or blind spaces in airport terminal 
buildings shall be protected against flammable fuel or vapor pen- 
etration or shall be mechanically ventilated to provide at least 
four complete air changes per hour. The mechanical ventilation 
system shall be installed in accordance with Chapters 2 and 3 of 
NFPA 91, Standard for Exhaust Systems for Air Conveying of Vapors, 
Gases, Mists, and Noncombustibk Particulate Solids. [415:4.1.4] 

21.2.3.5 Glazii^ Material Covered Openings Facing the Ramp. 

21.2.3.5.1 Openings covered with glazing material that have 
the lowest part of the glazing material not less than 7 ft (2.1 m) 
above each finished floor level shall not be required to comply 
with 21.2.3.5.3. [415:4.1.5.1] 

21.2.3.5.2 Openings covered with glazing material listed for 
use in a fire barrier and installed in accordance with the listing 
shall not be required to comply with 21.2.3.5.3. [415:4.1.5.2] 

21.2.3.5.3 Where potential fuel spill points are located less than 
100 ft (30.5 m) horizontally from glazing material covered open- 
ings in airport terminal building walls facing the airport ramp, 
they shall be provided with an automatically activated water spray 
system in accordance vrith 21.2.3.5.3.1 or an automatically acti- 
vated, listed fire shutter system in accordance with 21.2.3.5.3.2. 
(See Annex C of NFPA 415.) [415:4.1.5.3] 

21.2.3.5.3.1 Where an automatically activated water spray sys- 
tem (s) is provided, it shall be installed in accordance with 
NFPA 15, Standard for Water Spray Fixed Systems for Fire Protection. 
[415:4.1.5.3.1] 

21.2.3.5.3.1.1 The system shall be designed to provide a den- 
sity of at least 0.25 gpm/ft^ [10.2 (L/min)/m^] over the exte- 
rior surface area of the glazing material. [415:4.1.5.3.1.1] 

21.2.3.5.3.1.2 Where multiple water spray systems are used, 
the water supply shall be capable of supplying all systems that 
could be expected to operate as a result of one fire incident. 
[415:4.1.5.3.1.2] 

21.2.3.5.3.1.3 The detection system design analysis for the 
water spray system shall include consideration of false alarms 
and detector response time. [415:4.1.5.3.1.3] 

21.2.3.5.3.2 Where an automatically activated, listed fire 
shutter is provided, it shall be installed in accordance with its 
listing. [415:4.1.5.3.2] 

21.2.4 Heating, Ventilating, and Air Conditioning. 

21.2.4.1 Heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning systems shall 
be installed in accordance with Section 11.2 and Section 11.5, as 
applicable. 

21.2.4.2* Air supply intake and exhaust openings for air- 
conditioning or ventilating equipment serving the terminal 
building, if located on the ramp side, shall be not less than 
10 ft (3 m) above the grade level of the ramp and shall be at 
least 50 ft (15 m) from any point of flammable vapor release. 
[415:4.2.2] 



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21.2.4.3* Openings to rooms containing coal-, gas-, or oil-fired 
equipment, or any rooms containing any other open flame 
device, that face the ramp side of the terminal shall be above 
ramp grade and 50 ft (15 m) from any point of flammable 
vapor release. [415:4.2.3] 

2 1 .2.4.4 Stacks or chimneys from a boiler, heater, or incinera- 
tor shall terminate at least 20 ft (6.1 m) above ramp grade and 
above the roof of the building. Stacks or chimneys from boil- 
ers or heaters using solid fuel or from any incinerator shall be 
fitted with double screening to control fly ash and sparks. 
Such stacks or chimneys shall be located so the outiet is at least 
100 ft (30.5 m) horizontally from any aircraft position or point 
of flammable vapor release. [415:4.2.4] 

21.2.5* In addition to exit signage requirements specified in 
NFPA 101, doors serving as exits that discharge onto an airport 
ramp and are provided solely for the purpose of meeting emer- 
gency egress requirements from public areas shall be placarded 
"Emergency Exit Only" in letters at least 2 in. (50 mm) high. 
[415:4.3.2] 

21.2.6* Fire Protection — Sprinkler Systems. 

21.2.6.1 The airport terminal building with more than 
12,000 ft^ (1115 m^) total floor area for the assembly portion of 
die occupancy shall be provided with an automatic sprinkler sys- 
tem installed in accordance with NFPA 13. [415:4.5.1.1] 

21.2.6.2 Terminal buildings with less dian 12,000 ft^ (1115 m^) 
total floor area for the assembly portion of the occupancy shall 
not be required to be provided with an automatic sprinkler sys- 
tem. [415:4.5.1.2] 

21.2.6.2.1 Passenger handling areas shall be classified as Or- 
dinary Hazard Group 1 Occupancy, as defined in NFPA 13, for 
the purpose of sprinkler system design. [415:4.5.1.3] 

21.2.6.2.2 Baggage, package, and mail handling areas shall 
be classified as Ordinary Hazard Group 2 Occupancy, as de- 
fined in NFPA 13, for the purpose of sprinkler system design. 
[415:4.5.1.4] 

21.2.6.2.3* Other areas of the airport terminal building shall 
be classified in accordance with 3.8.1 of NFPA 13, based on the 
occupancy of the area. [415:4.5.1.5] 

21.2.6.2.4 Covered Plane-Loading Positions. Airport terminal 
buildings having canopy areas or roofed-over recesses at air- 
craft loading positions that, in effect, place the aircraft totally 
or substantially under such canopies or roofs shall have these 
canopies or roofs protected by automatic sprinkler systems in 
accordance with NFPA 409, Standard on Aircraft Hangars. 
[415:4.5.1.6] 

21.2.6.3 Fire Alarm and Communications Systems. A fire 
alarm and communications system shall be installed as re- 
quired by 13.7.2.1. [415:4.5.2] 

21.2.6.3.1 Means to alert the public fire department or the 
airport fire station shall be available through manual fire 
alarm pull stations. Manual fire alarm services shall be in- 
stalled in accordance with NFPA 72. [415:4.5.2.1] 

21.2.6.3.2* Annunciation for all building fire alarm signals 
shall be provided near the front entrance of the building. 
[415:4.5.2.2] 

21.2.6.3.3 If the public fire department has two-way voice 
communication with a constantly attended location, 21.2.6.3.3 
shall not apply. [415:4.5.2.3] 



21.2.6.4 Fire Hydrants. Fire hydrants shall be provided on 
both the ramp and street sides of airport terminal buildings. 
Such hydrants shall be located so that no portion of the termi- 
nal building is more than 500 ft (152.4 m) from a hydrant. 
[415:4.5.3] 

21.2.6.5 Standpipe and Hose Systems. Standpipe and hose sys- 
tems shall be provided for all airport terminal buildings in excess 
of two stories [35 ft (10.7 m)] in height or 100 ft (30.5 m) in 
shortest horizontal dimension. Standpipe and hose systems shall 
be installed in accordance with Section 13.2. [415:4.5.4] 

21.2.6.5.1 Class I standpipe systems shall be provided in 
buildings protected throughout by an approved automatic 
sprinkler system. Each 2^2 in. (63.5 mm) hose connection 
shall be equipped with a 2V& in. x \V2 in. (63.5 mm x 38 mm) 
reducer and cap. [415:4.5.4.1] 

21.2.6.5.2 Class III standpipe systems shall be provided in 
nonsprinklered buildings. Paragraphs 5.3.3.1 and 5.3.3.2 of 
NFPA 14, Standard for the Installation of Standpipe and Hose Sys- 
tems, for Class III systems shall be applicable to this require- 
ment. [415:4.5.4.2] 

21.2.6.6 Portable Fire Extinguishers. Portable fire extinguish- 
ers shall be provided throughout the airport terminal building 
in accordance with Section 13.6. [415:4.5.6] 

21.3 Rooftop Heliport Construction and Protection. 

21.3.1 Application. Rooftop heliport construction and pro- 
tection shall comply with Section 21.3 and NFPA 418, Standard 
for Heliports. 

21.3.1.1 Section 21.3 does not apply to ground level helicop- 
ter hangars. All hangars not covered by this section shall com- 
ply with NFPA 409. 

21.3.1.2 Temporary landing sites and emergency evacuation 
facilities are outside the scope of Section 21.3. 

21.3.2 General. 

21.3.2.1 Permits. Permits, where required, shall comply with 
Section 1.12. 

21.3.2.2 Fire Department Access. Fire department access 
roads for all buildings vrith a rooftop heliport shall be pro- 
vided and maintained in accordance vrith Section 18.2. 

21.3.2.3 Smoking. 

21.3.2.3.1 Smoking shall be prohibited at rooftop heliports. 

21.3.2.3.2 Smoking shall be in accordance with Section 10.10. 

21.3.3 General Requirements — Land-Based Facilities. 

21.3.3.1* Plans. Plans for construction and protection of heli- 
ports shall be approved by the AHJ. [418:2.1] 

21.3.3.2 Tank Locations. 

21.3.3.2.1 Storage, handling, and use of flammable and com- 
bustible liquids shall be in accordance with Chapter 66. 
[418:2.2.1] 

21.3.3.2.2 Oxygen and other medical gases shall be stored 
and used in accordance with 5.1.3.3.1.6 and Section 9.4 of 
NFPA 99, Standard for Health Care Facilities. [418:2.2.2] 

21.3.3.2.3 Aboveground flammable liquid storage tanks, com- 
pressed gas storage tanks, and liquefied gas storage tanks shall be 
laterally located at least 50 ft (15.2 m) from the edge of the final 
approach and takeoff (FATO) area as defined in FAAA/C 150/ 
5390-2A, Heliport Design Advisory Circular [418:2.2.3] 



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21.3.3.3 Fire-Fighting Access. 

21 .3.3.3. 1 The heliport shall have at least one access point for 
fire-fighting/ rescue personnel. Where practical, a second ac- 
cess point shall be available and located as remotely as possible 
from the other. [418:2.3.1] 

21.3.3.3.2 Fences shall not prevent rapid access by fire- 
fighting/rescue personnel. [418:2.3.2] 

21.3.3.4 Landing Pad Pitch. The heliport shall be pitched or 
sloped so that drainage flows away from access points and pas- 
senger holding areas. [418:2.4] 

21.3.3.5 No Smoking. No smoking shall be permitted within 
50 ft (15.2 m) of the landing pad edge. No smoking signs shall 
be erected at access/egress points to the heliport. [418:2.5] 

21.3.3.6 Fueling System. Fueling systems shall be designed in 
accordance with Section 42.4. [418:2.6] 

21.3.3.6.1 Fixed fueling dispensing equipment shall be lo- 
cated outside of rooftop hangars. Fueling equipment shall not 
hinder or obstruct access to exits or fire-fighting equipment. 

[418:2.6.1] 

21.3.3.6.2 Fuel pump manifolds shall be located 25 ft (7.6 m) 
from rooftop hangars and fixed fire protection equipment. 

[418:2.6.2] 

21.3.4 Rooftop Landing Facilities — Additional Protection. 

21.3.4.1 Structm-al Support. Main structural support mem- 
bers that could be exposed to a fuel spill shall be made fire 
resistant using listed materials and methods to provide a fire- 
resistance rating of not less than 2 hours. [418:3.1] 

21.3.4.2 Landing Pad Pitch. The rooftop landing pad shall be 
pitched to provide drainage at a slope of 0.5 percent to 2 percent. 
The pitch of the pad shall be designed to protect, at a minimum, 
the primary egress path, passenger holding area, rooftop hangar, 
and fire protection activation systems. Flow shall not penetrate 
alternate egress points, stairways, ramps, hatches, and other 
openings not designed for drainage. [418:3.2] 

21.3.4.3 Landing Pad Construction Materials. The rooftop 
landing pad surface shall be constructed of noncombustible, 
nonporous materials that are approved. The contiguous build- 
ing roof covering within 50 ft (15.2m) of the landing pad edge 
shall have a Class A rating. [418:3.3] 

21.3.4.4* Means of Egress. At least two approved means of 
egress from the rooftop landing pad edge shall be provided 
and shall be remotely located from each other to the extent 
practical. [418:3.4] 

21.3.4.4.1 For heliports occupied by 50 or more people, two 
approved means of egress from the roof shall be provided and 
shall be remotely located from each other to the extent practical, 
but shall not be located less than 30 ft (9.1 m) from each other. 
For heliports occupied by fewer than 50 people, one approved 
means of egress from the roof shall be provided. [418:3.4.1] 

21.3.4.4.2 Means of egress from the rooftop landing pad and 
roof shall not obstruct flight operations. [418:3.4.2] 

21.3.5 Fire-Jighting Access. The helicopter rooftop landing 
pad shall have at least two access points for fire-fighting pur- 
poses. Access for fire-fighting personnel through the landing 
pad egress shall be permitted. [418:3.5] 



21.3.6 Fire Protection. A foam fire-extinguishing system shall 
be designed and installed to protect the rooftop landing pad. 

Exception No. 1: A foam fire-extinguishing system shall not be re- 
quired for heliports located on parking garages, unoccupied buildings, 
or other similar unoccupied structures. 

Exception No. 2: ForH-1 heliports, two portable foam extinguishers, 
each having a rating of 20-A: 160-B, shall be permitted to be used to 
satisfy this requirement. [418:3.6] 

21.3.6.1* The foam discharge rate shall be as shown in Table 
21.3.6.1. [418:3.6.1] 



Table 21.3.6.1 Foam Dischaige Rates 






Discharge 


Rate 


Foam 


gpm/ft^ 


(L/min)/m^ 


AFFF 

Fluoroprotein 

Protein 


0.10 
0.16 
0.20 


4.1 
6.5 
8.1 



[418:Table 3.6.1] 



21 .3.6.2 The area of application of foam discharge for fixed 
discharge outlet systems shall be the entire rooftop landing 
pad. The duration shall be 5 minutes. [418:3.6.2] 

21.3.6.3* The area of application of foam discharge for hose line 
systems shall be the practical critical fire area for the category of 
the helicopter landing facility, as shown in Table 21.3.6.3. The 
duration shall be 2 minutes. [418:3.6.3] 



Table 21.3.6.3 Practical Critical Fire Areas 







Practical Critical 




Helicopter Overall Length* 


Fire Area 


Category 


ft^ 


m^ 


HI 


Up to but not including 
50 ft (15.2 m) 


3*75 


34.8 


H-2 


From 50 ft (15.2 m) up to 
but not including 80 ft 
(24.4 m) 


840 


78.0 


H-3 


From 80 ft (24.4 m) up to 
but not including 120 ft 
(36.6 m) 


1440 


133.8 



Helicopter length, including the tail boom and the rotors. 
[418:TabIe 3.6.3] 



21.3.6.4 The water supply for the foam system shall be from a 
reliable source, approved by the AHJ. [418:3.6.4] 

21.3.6.4.1 Fire pumps, if used, shall be installed in accor- 
dance with Section 13.4. [418:3.6.4.1] 

21.3.6.4.2 Standpipes and hose stations, if used, shall be in- 
stalled in accordance with Section 13.2. [418:3.6.4.2] 

21 .3.6.4.3 Where freezing is possible, adequate freeze protec- 
tion shall be provided. [418:3.6.4.3] 



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21.3.6.5 The foam components shall be installed in a readily 
accessible area of the heliport and shall not penetrate the ap- 
proach takeoff surface, transitional surfaces, and safety area as 
defined in FAAA/C 150/5390-2A, Heliport Design Advisory Cir- 
cular. [418:3.6.5] 

21.3.6.6 At facilities where there is more than one rooftop 
landing pad, the supply of foam available shall be sufficient to 
cover an incident on at least one of the pads. [418:3.6.6] 

21.3.6.7 Where fixed foam systems utilizing fixed deck 
nozzles or oscillating foam turrets, or both, are installed, sys- 
tem components shall be listed or approved. [418:3.6.7] 

21.3.6.8 Standpipes. If a building with a rooftop heliport is 
supplied with a standpipe system, a Class II standpipe shall be 
extended to the roof level on which the rooftop heliport is 
located. Such standpipe systems shall be installed in accor- 
dance with Section 13.2. [418:3.7] 

21.3.6.9 Fire Alarm. Where buildings are provided with a fire 
alarm system, a manual pull station shall be provided for each 
designated means of egress from the roof. (See 21.3.4.4.1.) 
[418:3.8] 

21.3.6.10 Portable Fire Extinguishers. 

21.3.6.10.1 Quantity and Rating. At least one portable fire ex- 
tinguisher as specified in Table 21.3.6.10.1 shall be provided 
for each takeoff and landing area, parking area, and fuel stor- 
age area. 

Table 21.3.6.10.1 Minimum Ratings of Portable Fire 
Eb^tinguishers for Heliport Categories 





Helicopter Overall 




Category 


Length* 


Minimum Rating 


H-1 


Up to but not including 
50 ft (15.2 m) 


4-A:80-B 


H-2 


From 50 ft (15.2 m) up to 
but not including 80 ft 
(24.4 m) 


10-A:120-B 


H-3 


From 80 ft (24.4 m) up to 
but not including 120 ft 
(36.6 m) 


30-A:240-B 



* Helicopter length, including the tail boom and the rotors. 
[418:Table 7.1] 



22.4 Welding and Cutting. Welding and cutting operations 
shall be in accordance with Chapter 41. 

22.5 Housekeeping. Housekeeping practices shall be in ac- 
cordance with 10.1.1. 

22.6 Fire Ej^tinguishers. Fire extinguishers shall be placed 
and sized in accordance with Section 13.6. 

22.7 Hre Storage. The storage of tires shall be in accordance 
with Chapters 33 and 34. 

22.8 Burning Operations. Burning operations shall be in ac- 
cordance with Section 10.11. 

22.9 Motor Vehicle Fluids and Hazardous Materials. 

22.9.1 General. The storage, use, and handling of motor ve- 
hicle fluids and hazardous materials shall be in accordance 
with Chapter 60 and Chapter 66. 

22.9.2 Motor Vehicle Fluids. 

22.9.2.1 Motor vehicle fluids shall be drained from salvage 
vehicles when such fluids are leaking. 

22.9.2.2 Storage and handling of motor vehicle fluids shall 
be done in an approved manner. 

22.9.2.3 Flammable and combustible liquids shall be stored 
and handled in accordance with Chapter 66. 

22.9.3 Mitigation for Vehicle Fluid Leaks. 

22.9.3.1 Supplies or equipment capable of mitigating leaks 
from fuel tanks, crankcases, brake systems, and transmissions 
shall be kept available on site. 

22.9.3.2 Single-use plugging, diking, and absorbent mate- 
rials shall be disposed of as hazardous waste and removed 
from the site in a manner approved by federal, state, and 
local requirements. 

22.9.4 Air Bag Systems. Removed air bag systems shall be 
handled and stored in accordance with Chapter 60. 

22.9.5 Lead-Acid Batteries. 

22.9.5.1 Lead-acid batteries shall be removed from salvage 
vehicles when such batteries are leaking. 

22.9.5.2 Lead-acid batteries that have been removed from 
vehicles shall be stored in an approved manner. 



Exception: This requirement shall not apply to unattended ground 
level heliports. [418:7.1] 

21.3.6.10.2 Servicing. Portable fire extinguishers shall comply 
with Section 13.6 and NFPA 10, Chapters 1, 4, 5, and 6. 
[418:7.2] 



Chapter 22 Automobile Wrecking Yards 

22.1 General. Automobile wrecking yards shall be in accor- 
dance with this chapter. 

22.2 Permits. Permits, where required, shall comply with 
Section 1.12. 

22.3 Fire Department Access Roads. Fire department access 
roads shall be in accordance with Section 18.2. 



Chapter 23 Cleanrooms 

23.1 General. All semiconductor facilities containing a clean- 
room or a clean zone, or both, shall comply with NFPA 318, 
Standard for the Protection of Semiconductor Fabrication Facilities, 
and Chapter 23. 

23.2 Applicability. Unless otherwise noted in NFPA 318, tiie 
provisions of NFPA 318 shall not be applied to facilities, equip- 
ment, structures, or installations that were existing or ap- 
proved for construction or installation prior to the effective 
date of this Code, except in those cases where it is determined 
by the AHJ that the existing situation involves a distinct hazard 
to life or adjacent property. 

23.3 Permits. Permits, where required, shall comply with 
Section 1.12. 



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Chapter 24 Drycleaning 



24.1 General. 



24.1.1 Drycleaning plants shall comply with NFPA 32, Stan- 
dard for Drydeaning Plants, and this chapter. 

24.1.2 Diycleaning plants or systems using solvents that have 
a flash point below lOOT (37.8°C) shall be prohibited. 

24.2 Permits. Permits, where required, shall comply with 
Section 1.12. 



Chapter 25 Grandstands and Bleachers, Folding and 
Telescopic Seating, Tents, and Membrane Structnres 

25.1 General. 

25.1.1 The construction, location, protection, and mainte- 
nance of grandstands and bleachers, folding and telescopic 
seating, tents, and membrane structures shall meet the re- 
quirements of this chapter. Seating facilities located in the 
open air or wthin enclosed or semi-enclosed structures, such 
as tents, membrane structures, and stadium complexes, shall 
comply with NFPA 101; NFPA 102, Standard for Grandstands, 
Folding and Telescopic Seating, Tents, and Membrane Structures, 
and Chapter 25. 

25.1.2 Permits. Permits, where required, shall comply with 
Section 1.12. 

25.1.3 Means of Egress. 

25.1.3.1 Means of egress shall comply with the requirements 
of Chapter 14. 

25.1.3.2 No guy wire or guy rope shall cross any means of 
egress at a height of less than 7 ft (2.1 m). Tent stakes adjacent 
to any means of egress from any tent open to the public shall 
be railed off, capped, or covered so as not to present a hazard 
to the public. [102:3.1.2] 

25.1.4 Flammable Liquids and Gases. 

25.1.4.1 Storage and handling of flammable liquids or gases 
shall be in accordance with the applicable standards and chap- 
ters below: 

(1) Chapter 66 

(2) NFPA 54, National Fuel Gas Code 

(3) Chapter 69[102:9.1.1] 

25. 1 .4. 2 No storage or handling of flammable liquids or gases 
shall be permitted at any location where it would jeopardize 
egress from the structure. [102:9.1.2] 

25.1.4.3 Refueling of equipment with liquids having flash 
points below 100°F (SS'C) shall not be permitted within the 
structure. [102:9.1.3] 

25.1.5 Fire Hazards. 

25.1.5.1 The applicable provisions of NFPA 101 that pertain 
to fire hazards shall govern in tents and membrane structures. 
[102:9.2.1] 

25.1.5.2 The ground enclosed by any tent or temporary 
membrane structure and for a reasonable distance, but not 
less than 10 ft (3 m) outside of such structure(s), shall be 
cleared of all flammable or combustible material or vegeta- 
tion. This work shall be accomplished to the satisfaction of the 



AHJ prior to the erection of such structure{s). The premises 
shall be kept free from such flammable or combustible mate- 
rials during the period for which the premises are used by the 
public. 

Exception: Necessary support equipment. [102:9.2.2] 

25.1.5.3 No hay, straw, shavings, or similar combustible mate- 
rials that have not been treated to make them flame retardant 
to a degree acceptable to the AHJ shall be permitted within 
any structure used as an assembly occupancy. 

Exception: Animal bedding and fodders in quantities approved by 
theAHJ. [102:9.2.3] 

25.1.5.4 Where prohibited by the AHJ, smoking shall not be 
allowed in any tent or temporary membrane structure. 
[102:9.2.4] 

25.1.5.5 Fireworks or unauthorized open flames shall be pro- 
hibited in any tent or temporary membrane structure. 

Exception: Where permitted by Section 65. 11. [102:9.2.5] 

25.1.6* Fire-Extinguishing Equipment. 

25.1.6.1 Enclosed stadia, arenas, and similar structures shall 
be protected throughout by an approved, supervised auto- 
matic sprinkler system in accordance with Section 13.3. 

Exception No. 1: Where the ceiling err roof, whichever is lower, of the 
playing (activity) area is more than 55 fi (17 m) above the floor, theAHJ 
shall be permitted to allow the omission of sprinklers above the playing 
(activity) area. 

Exception No. 2: Sprinklers shall not be required above seating areas 
that view the playing (activity) area. [102:9.3. 1] 

25.1.6.2 In other than enclosed stadia, arenas, and similar 
structures, enclosed areas shall be protected by an approved 
sprinkler system in accordance with Section 13.3. 

Exception No. 1: Press boxes less than 1000 fl^ (93 m^) in area. 

Exception No. 2: Storage facilities less than 1000 ff (93 m^) in area 
if enclosed with minimum 1-hour fire resistance— rated construction. 

Exception No. 3: Enclosed areas underneath grandstands or bleach- 
ers that comply with the exceptions to Section 4.8 of NFPA 102. 
[102:9.3.2] 

25.1.6.3 Portable fire-extinguishing equipment of approved 
types shall be furnished and maintained in tents and temporary 
membrane structures by the person operating any assembly oc- 
cupancy in such amount and in such locations as directed by the 
AHJ. 

Exception: Where a functioning garden hose that can reach all por- 
tions of th£ private party tent is provided. [102:9.3.3] 

25.1.6.4 Fire-extinguishing equipment shall be maintained 
in accordance with Secdon 13.6. [102:9.3.4] 

25.1.6.5 Employees shall be trained to operate fire- 
extinguishing equipment and shall be required to exhibit 
their skill when requested by theAHJ. [102:9.3.5] 

25.1.7 Emeigency Communications. One or more methods of 
fire alarm and emergency communications shall be provided 
to the satisfaction of the AHJ. [102:9.4] 

25.1.8* Fire Detail. See 1.7.15 for fire detail requirements. 



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GRANDSTANDS AND BLEACHERS, FOLDING AND TELESCOPIC SEATING, TENTS, AND MEMBRANE STRUCTURES 1-1 49 



25.1.9 Electricallnstallations. 

25.1.9.1 Electrical installations shall conform to the require- 
ments of Section 11.1. 

Exception: As otherwise provided by law, ordinance, or regulation. 
[102:10.1.1] 

25.1.9.2 The electrical system shall be installed, maintained, 
and operated in a safe and professional manner. If portable, it 
shall be inspected daily when in use by a qualified person rep- 
resenting the owner, and any defects found shall be corrected 
before the public is admitted. [102:10.1.2] 

25.1.9.3 The electrical system and equipment shall be iso- 
lated from the public by proper elevation or guarding, and all 
electrical fuses and switches shall be enclosed in approved en- 
closures. Cables on the ground in areas traversed by the public 
shall be placed in trenches or protected by approved covers. 
[102:10.1.3] 

25.1.10 Heating Devices. 

25.1.10.1 Fired Heaters. 

25.1.10.1.1 Only labeled heating devices shall be used. 
[102:10.2.1.1] 

25.1.10.1.2 Fuel-fired heaters and their installation shall be 
approved by the AHJ. [102:10.2.1.2] 

25. 1 . 1 0. 1 .3 Ducts used to convey heated air shall comply with 
NFPA 90A, Standard for the Installation of Air-Conditioning and 
Ventilating Systems. [102:10.2.1.3] 

25.1.10.1.4 Containers for liquefied petroleum gases shall be 
installed not less than 5 ft (1.5 m) from any tent or temporary 
membrane structure and shall be in accordance with the pro- 
visions of Chapter 69. [102:10.2.1.4] 

25.1.10.1.5 Tanks shall be secured in the upright position 
and protected from vehicular traffic. [102:10.2.1.5] 

25.1.10.1.6 Heating devices shall comply with Section 11.2 
and Section 11.5. 

25.1.10.2 Electric Heaters. 

25.1.10.2.1 Electric heaters shall comply with 25.1.10.2 and 
Section 11.5. 

25.1.10.2.2 Only labeled heaters shall be permitted. 
[102:10.2.2.1] 

25.1.10.2.3 Heaters used inside a tent or temporary mem- 
brane structure shall be approved. [102:10.2.2.2] 

25.1.10.2.4 Heaters shall be connected to electricity by elec- 
tric cable suitable for outside use and of sufiicient size to 
handle electrical load. [102:10.2.2.3] 

25.1.11 Cooking. Cooking operations shall comply with 
Chapter 50. 

25.1.12 Generators. 

25.1.12.1 Generators and other internal combustion power 
sources shall be separated from temporary membrane struc- 
tures and tents by a minimum of 5 ft (1.5 m) and shall be 
protected from contact by fencing, enclosure, or other ap- 
proved means. 

25.1.12.2 Fueling. Fuel tanks shall be of adequate capacity to 
permit uninterrupted operation during normal operating 
hours. Refueling shalJ be conducted only when not in use. 



25.1.12.3 Fire Extinguishers. A minimum of one portable fire 
extinguisher with a rating of not less than 2-A:10-B:C shall be 
provided. 

25.2 Tents. 

25.2.1 General. 

25.2.1.1 Tents shall be permitted only on a temporary basis. 
[iW:11.11.1.2] 

25.2.1.2 Tents shall be erected to cover not more than 75 per- 
cent of the premises, unless otherwise approved by the AHJ. 
[/02:11.11.1.3] 

25.2.2 Flame Propagation Performance. 

25.2.2. 1 All tent fabric shall meet the flame propagation perfor- 
mance criteria contained in NFPA 701, Standard Methods of Fire 
Tests for Flame Propagation of Textiles andFilms. [iOi:11.11.2.1] 

25.2.2.2 One of the following shall serve as evidence that 
the tent fabric materials have the required flame propaga- 
tion performance: 

(1) The AHJ shall require a certificate or other evidence of 
acceptance by an organization acceptable to the AHJ. 

(2) The AHJ shall require a report of tests made by other 
inspection authorities or organizations acceptable to the 
AHJ. [/0/:ll. 11.2.2] 

25.2.2.3 Where required by the AHJ, confirmatory field tests 
shall be conducted using test specimens from the original ma- 
terial, which shall have been affixed at the time of manufac- 
ture to the exterior of the tent. [i07:11.11.2.3] 

25.2.3 Location and Spacing. 

25.2.3.1 There shall be a minimum of 10 ft (3050 mm) be- 
tween stake lines. [/0/:ll. 11.3.1] 

25.2.3.2 Adjacent tents shall be spaced to provide an area to be 
xised as a means of emergency egress. Where 10 ft (3050 mm) 
between stake lines does not meet the requirements for means of 
egress, the distance necessary for means of egress shall govern. 
[iOi:11.11.3.2] 

25.2.3.3 Tents not occupied by the public and not used for 
the storage of combustible material shall be permitted to be 
erected less than 10 ft (3050 mm) from other structures where 
the AHJ deems such close spacing to be safe from hazard to 
the public. [IW:11. 11.3.3] 

25.2.3.4 Tents, each not exceeding 1200 ft^ (112m^) in ground 
area and located in fairgrounds or similar open spaces, shall not 
be required to be separated from each other, provided that safety 
precautions meet the approval of the AHJ. [i0i:11.11.3.4] 

25.2.3.5 The placement of tents relative to other structures 
shall be at the discretion of the AHJ, with consideration given 
to occupancy, use, opening, exposure, and other similar fac- 
tors. [iW:ll. 11.3.5] 

25.2.4 Fire Hazards. 

25.2.4.1 The ground enclosed by any tent, and the ground 
for a reasonable distance but for not less than 10 ft (3050 mm) 
outside of such a tent, shall be cleared of all flammable or 
combustible material or vegetation that is not used for neces- 
sary support equipment. The clearing work shall be accom- 
plished to the satisfaction of the AHJ prior to the erection of 
such a tent. The premises shall be kept free from such flam- 
mable or combustible materials during the period for which 
the premises are used by the public. [IOi:ll. 11.4.1] 



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25.2.4.2 Where prohibited by the AHJ, smoking shall not be 
permitted in any tent. [/02:11.11.4.2] 

25.2.5 Fire-Extinguishing Equipment. Portable fire- 
extinguishing equipment of approved types shall be fur- 
nished and maintained in tents in such quantity and in such 
locations as directed by the AHJ. [lOlill.ll.b] 

25.3 Grandstands. 

25.3.1 General. 

25.3.1.1 Where grandstand seating without backs is used in- 
doors, rows of seats shall be spaced not less than 22 in. 
(560 mm) back-to-back. [iW:12.4.8.2.1] 

25.3.1.2 The depth of footboards and seat boards in grand- 
stands shall be not less than 9 in. (230 mm); where the same 
level is not used for both seat foundations and footrests, foot- 
rests independent of seats shall be provided. [7W:12.4.8.2.2] 

25.3.1.3 Seats and footrests of grandstands shall be sup- 
ported securely and fastened in such a manner that they can- 
not be displaced inadvertently. [iW:12.4.8.2.3] 

25.3.1.4 Individual seats or chairs shall be permitted only if 
secured in rows in an approved manner, unless seats do not 
exceed 16 in number and are located on level floors and 
within railed-in enclosures, such as boxes. [/0/:12.4.8.2.4] 

25.3.1.5 The maximum number of seats permitted between 
the farthest seat in an aisle in grandstands and bleachers shall 
not exceed drat shown in Table 25.3.1.5. [/Oi:12.4.8.2.5] 



Table 25.3.1.5 Maximum Number of Seats Between Farthest 
Seat and an Aisle 



Application 



Outdoors 



Indoors 



Grandstands 11 

Bleachers [See 12.2.5.6.1.2 of 20 

NFPA 101] 



[iOi:Table 12.4.8.2.5] 



25.3.2 Special Requirements — Wood Grandstands. 

25.3.2. 1 An outdoor wood grandstand shall be erected within 
not less than two-thirds of its height and, in no case, within not 
less than 10 ft (3050 mm) of a building, unless otherwise per- 
mitted by the foUovnng: 

(1) The distance requirement shall not apply to buildings of 
not less than 1-hour fire resistance-rated construction 
with openings protected against the fire exposure hazard 
created by the grandstand. 

(2) The distance requirement shall not apply where a wall of not 
less than 1-hour fire resistance-rated construction separates 
the grandstand fi-om the building. [202:12.4.8.3.1] 

25.3.2.2 An outdoor wood grandstand unit shall not exceed 
10,000 ft^ (929 m^) in ground area or 200 ft (61 m) in length, 
and the following requirements also shall apply: 

(1 ) Grandstand units of the maximum size shall be placed not 
less than 20 ft (6100 mm) apart or shall be separated by 
walls of Thour fire resistance rating. 

(2) The number of grandstand units erected in any one 
group shall not exceed three. 



(3) Each group of grandstand units shall be separated from any 
other group by a wall of 2-hour fire resistance-rated con- 
struction extending 24 in. (610 mm) above the seat plat- 
forms or by an open space of not less than 50 ft (15 m). 
[202:12.4.8.3.2] 

25.3.2.3 The ground area or length required by 25.3.2.2 shall 
be permitted to be doubled where one of the following crite- 
ria is met: 

(1) Where the grandstand is constructed entirely of labeled 
fire-retardant-treated wood that has passed the standard 
rain test, ASTM D 2898, Standard Test Methods for Accelerated 
Weathering of Fire-Retardant-Treated Wood for Fire Testing 

(2) Where the grandstand is constructed of members con- 
forming to dimensions for heavy timber construction 
[TypelV(2HH)] [202:12.4.8.3.3] 

25.3.2.4 The highest level of seat platforms above the ground 
or the surface at the front of any wood grandstand shall not 
exceed 20 ft (6100 mm). [202:12.4.8.3.4] 

25.3.2.5 The highest level of seat platforms above the 
ground, or the surface at the front of a portable grandstand 
within a tent or membrane structure, shall not exceed 12 ft 
(3660 mm). [202:12.4.8.3.5] 

25.3.2.6 The height requirements specified in 25.3.2.4 and 
25.3.2.5 shall be permitted to be doubled where constructed 
entirely of labeled fire-retardant-treated wood that has passed 
the standard rain test, ASTM D 2898, or where constructed of 
members conforming to dimensions for heavy timber con- 
struction [TypeIV(2HH)]. [202:12.4.8.3.6] 

25.3.3 Special Requirements — Portable Grandstands. 

25.3.3.1 Portable grandstands shall conform to the require- 
ments of Section 25.3 for grandstands and the requirements 
of 25.3.3.2 through 25.3.3.7. [202:12.4.8.4.1] 

25.3.3.2 Portable grandstands shall be self-contained and 
shall have within them all necessary parts to withstand and 
restrain all forces that might be developed during human oc- 
cupancy [202:12.4.8.4.2] 

25.3.3.3 Portable grandstands shall be designed and manu- 
factured so that, if any structural members essential to the 
strength and stability of the structure have been omitted dur- 
ing erection, the presence of unused connection fittings shall 
make the omissions self-evident. [202:12.4.8.4.3] 

25.3.3.4 Portable grandstand construction shall be skillfully 
accomplished to produce the strength required by the design. 
[202:12.4.8.4.4] 

25.3.3.5 Portable grandstands shall be provided with base 
plates, sills, floor runners, or sleepers of such area that the 
permitted bearing capacity of the supporting material is not 
exceeded. [202:12.4.8.4.5] 

25.3.3.6 Where portable grandstands rest direcdy on a base of 
such character that it is incapable of supporting the load without 
appreciable setdement, mud sills of suitable material, having suf- 
ficient area to prevent undue or dangerous settlement, shall be 
installed under base plates, runners, or sleepers. [202:12.4.8.4.6] 

25.3.3.7 All bearing surfaces of portable grandstands shall be 
in contact with each other. [202:12.4.8.4.7] 



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GRANDSTANDS AND BLEACHERS, FOLDING AND TELESCOPIC SEATING, TENTS, AND MEMBRANE STRUCTURES 1-151 



25.3.4 Spaces Underneath Grandstands. Spaces underneath 
a grandstand shall be kept free of flammable or combustible 
materials, unless protected by an approved, supervised auto- 
matic sprinkler system in accordance with Section 13.3 or un- 
less otherwise permitted by the following: 

(1) This requirement shall not apply to accessory uses of 
300 ft^ (28 m*) or less, such as ticket booths, toilet facili- 
ties, or concession booths where constructed of noncom- 
bustible or fire-resistive construction in otherwise non- 
sprinklered facilities. 

(2) This requirement shall not apply to rooms that are enclosed 
in not less than 1-hour fire resistance-rated construction 
and are less than 1000 ft^ (93 m^) in otherwise nonsprin- 
klered facilities. [/W:12.4.8.5] 

25.3.5 Guards and Railings. 

25.3.5.1 Railings or guards not less than 42 in. (1065 mm) 
above the aisle surface or footrest or not less than 36 in. 
(915 mm) vertically above the center of the seat or seat board 
surface, whichever is adjacent, shall be provided along those 
portions of the backs and ends of all grandstands where the 
seats are more than 48 in. (1220 mm) above the floor or 
ground. [/W:12.4.8.6.1] 

25.3.5.2 The requirement of 25.3.5.1 shall not apply where 
an adjacent wall or fence affords equivalent safeguard. 
[iOi:12.4.8.6.2] 

25.3.5.3 Where the front footrest of any grandstand is more 
than 24 in. (610 mm) above the floor, railings or guards not 
less than 33 in. (825 mm) above such footrests shall be pro- 
vided. [201:12.4.8.6.3] 

25.3.5.4 The railings required by 25.3.5.3 shall be permitted to 
be not less than 26 in. (660 mm) high in grandstands or where 
the front row of seats includes backrests. [707:12.4.8.6.4] 

25.3.5.5 Cross aisles located within the seating area shall be 
provided with rails not less than 26 in. (660 mm) high along 
the front edge of the cross aisle. [707:12.4.8.6.5] 

25.3.5.6 The railings specified by 25.3.5.5 shall not be re- 
quired where the backs of the seats in front of the cross aisle 
project 24 in. (610 mm) or more above the surface of the cross 
aisle. [707:12.4.8.6.6] 

25.3.5.7 Vertical openings between guardrails and foot- 
boards or seat boards shall be provided with intermediate con- 
struction so that a 4 in. ( 1 00 mm) diameter sphere cannot pass 
tiirough tiie opening. [707:12.4.8.6.7] 

25.3.5.8 An opening between the seat board and footboard lo- 
cated more than 30 in. (760 mm) above grade shall be provided 
with intermediate construction so that a 4 in. (100 mm) diameter 
sphere cannot pass through the opening. [707:12.4.8.6.8] 

25.3.6 Maintenance of Outdoor Grandstands. 

25.3.6.1 The owner shall provide for not less than annual 
inspection and required maintenance of each outdoor grand- 
stand to ensure safe conditions. [707:12.7.10.1] 

25.3.6.2 At least biennially, the inspection shall be performed 
by a professional engineer, registered architect, or individual 
certified by the manufacturer. [707:12.7.10.2] 

25.3.6.3 Where required by the AHJ, the owner shall provide a 
copy of the inspection report and certification that the inspec- 
tion required by 25.3.6.2 has been performed. [707:12.7.10.3] 



25.4 Folding and Telescopic Seating. 

25.4.1 Seating. 

25.4.1.1 The horizontal distance of seats, measured back-to- 
back, shall be not less than 22 in. (560 mm) for seats without 
backs, and the following requirements shall also apply: 

(1) There shall be a space of not less than 12 in. (305 mm) 
between the back of each seat and the front of each seat 
immediately behind it. 

(2) If seats are of the chair type, the 12 in. (305 mm) dimen- 
sion shall be measured to the front edge of the rear seat in 
its normal unoccupied position. 

(3) All measurements shall be taken between plumb lines. 
[707:12.4.9.2.1] 

25.4.1.2 The depth of footboards (footrests) and seat boards 
in folding and telescopic seating shall be not less than 9 in. 
(230 mm). [707:12.4.9.2.2] 

25.4.1.3 Where the same level is not used for both seat foun- 
dations and footrests, footrests independent of seats shall be 
provided. [707:12.4.9.2.3] 

25.4. 1 .4 Individual chair-type seats shall be permitted in fold- 
ing and telescopic seating only if firmly secured in groups of 
not less than three. [707:12.4.9.2.4] 

25.4.1.5 The maximum number of seats permitted between 
the farthest seat in an aisle in folding and telescopic seating 
shall not exceed that shown in Table 25.3.1.5. [707:12.4.9.2.5] 

25.4.2 Guards and Railings. 

25.4.2.1 Railings or guards not less than 42 in. (1065 mm) 
above the aisle surface or footrest or not less than 36 in. 
(915 mm) vertically above the center of the seat or seat board 
surface, whichever is adjacent, shall be provided along those 
portions of the backs and ends of all folding and telescopic 
seating where the seats are more than 48 in. (1220 mm) above 
the floor or ground. [707:12.4.9.3.1] 

25.4.2.2 The requirement of 25.4.2.1 shall not apply where 
an adjacent wall or fence affords equivalent safeguard. 
[707:12.4.9.3.2] 

25.4.2.3 Where the front footrest of folding or telescopic 
seating is more than 24 in. (610 mm) above the floor, railings 
or guards not less than 33 in. (825 mm) above such footrests 
shall be provided. [707:12.4.9.3.3] 

25.4.2.4 The railings required by 25.4.2.3 shall be permitted 
to be not less than 26 in. (660 mm) high where the front row 
of seats includes backrests. [707:12.4.9.3.4] 

25.4.2.5 Cross aisles located within the seating area shall be 
provided with rails not less than 26 in. (660 mm) high along 
the front edge of the cross aisle. [707:12.4.9.3.5] 

25.4.2.6 The railings specified by 25.4.2.5 shall not be re- 
quired where the backs of the seats in front of the cross aisle 
project 24 in. (610 mm) or more above the surface of the cross 
aisle. [707:12.4.9.3.6] 

25.4.2.7 Vertical openings between guardrails and foot- 
boards or seat boards shall be provided with intermediate con- 
struction so that a 4 in. (100 mm) diameter sphere cannot pass 
through the opening. [707:12.4.9.3.7] 



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UNIFORM FIRE CODE 



25.4.2.8 An opening between the seat board and footboard lo- 
cated more than 30 in. (760 mm) above grade shall be provided 
with intermediate construction so that a 4 in. (100 mm) diameter 
sphere cannot pass through the opening. [/W:12.4.9.3.8] 

25.4.3 Maintenance and Operation of Folding and Telescopic 
Seating. 

25.4.3.1 Instructions in both maintenance and operation 
shall be transmitted to the owner by the manufacturer of the 
seating or his or her representative. [iW:12. 7.11.1] 

25.4.3.2 Maintenance and operation of folding and telescopic 
seating shall be the responsibility of the owner or his or her duly 
authorized representative and shall include the following: 

(1) During operation of the folding and telescopic seats, the 
opening and closing shall be supervised by responsible 
personnel who shall ensure that the operation is in accor- 
dance with the manufacturer's instructions. 

(2) Only attachments specifically approved by the manufac- 
turer for the specific installation shall be attached to the 
seating. 

(3) An annual inspection and required maintenance of each 
grandstand shall be performed to ensure safe conditions. 

(4) At least biennially, the inspection shall be performed by a 
professional engineer, registered architect, or individual 
certified by the manufacturer. [/Oi:12.7.11.2] 

25.5 Permanent Membrane Structures. 

25.5.1 Application. 

25.5.1.1 Use of Membrane Roofs. Membrane roofs shall be 
used in accordance with the following: 

(1) Membrane materials shall not be used where fire resis- 
tance ratings are required for walls or roofs. 

(2) Where every part of the roof, including the roof membrane, 
is not less than 20 ft (6100 mm) above any floor, balcony, or 
galleiy, a noncombustible or limited-combustible mem- 
brane shall be permitted to be used as the roof in any type of 
construction. 

(3) With approval of the AHJ, membrane materials shall be 
permitted to be used where every part of the roof mem- 
brane is sufficiently above every significant fire potential 
such that the imposed temperature cannot exceed the 
capability of the membrane, including seams, to maintain 
its structural integrity. [707:11.9.1.2] 

25.5.1.2 Testing. Testing of membrane materials for compli- 
ance with the requirements of Section 25.5 for use of the cat- 
egories of noncombustible and limited-combustible materials 
shall be performed on weathered-membrane material as de- 
fined in Section 3.3 of NFPA 101. [707:11.9.1.3] 

25.5.1.3 Flame Spread Index. The flame spread index of all 
membrane materials exposed within the structure shall be 
Class A in accordance with Section 10.2 of NFPA 101. 
[707:11.9.1.4] 

25.5.1.4 Roof Covering Classification. Roof membranes shall 
have a roof covering classification, as required by the applicable 
building codes, when tested in accordance with NFPA 256, Stan- 
dard Methods of Fire Tests of Roof Coverings; ASTM E 108, Standard 
Test Methods for Fire Tests of Roof Coverings; or UL 790, Test Methods 
forFireTestsof Roof Coverings. [707:11.9.1.5] 



25.5.1.5 Flame Propagation Performance. 

25.5.1.5.1 All membrane structure fabric shall meet the flame 
propagation performance criteria contained in NFPA 701, Stan- 
dard Methods of Fire Tests for Flame Propagation of Textiles and Films. 
[707:11.9.1.6.1] 

25.5.1.5.2 One of the following shall serve as evidence that 
the fabric materials have the required flame propagation 
performance: 

(1) The AHJ shall require a certificate or other evidence of 
acceptance by an organization acceptable to the AHJ. 

(2) The AHJ shall require a report of tests made by other 
inspection authorities or organizations acceptable to the 
AHJ. [707:11.9.1.6.2] 

25.5.1.5.3 Where required by the AHJ, confirmatory field 
tests shall be conducted using test specimens from the original 
material, which shall have been affixed at the time of manufac- 
ture to the exterior of the structure. [707:11.9.1.6.3] 

25.5.2 Tensioned-Membrane Structures. 

25.5.2.1 The design, materials, and construction of the build- 
ing shall be based on plans and specifications prepared by a 
licensed architect or engineer knowledgeable in tensioned- 
membrane construction. [707:11.9.2.1] 

25.5.2.2 Material loads and strength shall be based on physi- 
cal properties of the materials verified and certified by an ap- 
proved testing laboratory. [707:11.9.2.2] 

25.5.2.3 The membrane roof for structures in climates subject 
to freezing temperatures and ice buildup shall be composed of 
two layers separated by an air space through which heated air can 
be moved to guard against ice accumulation. As an alternative to 
the two layers, other approved methods that protect against ice 
accumulation shall be permitted. [707:11.9.2.3] 

25.5.2.4 Roof drains shall be equipped with electrical ele- 
ments to protect against ice buildup that can prevent the 
drains from functioning. Such heating elements shall be 
served by on-site standby electrical power in addition to the 
normal public service. As an alternative to such electrical ele- 
ments, other approved methods that protect against ice accu- 
mulation shall be permitted. [707:11.9.2.4] 

25.5.3 Air-Supported and Air-Inflated Structures. 

25.5.3.1 General. In addition to the general provisions of 
25.5.1, the requirements of 25.5.3 shall apply to air-supported 
and air-inflated structures. [707:11.9.3.1] 

25.5.3.2 Pressurization (Inflation) System. The pressurization 
system shall consist of one or more operating blower units. 
The system shall include automatic control of auxiliary blower 
units to maintain the required operating pressure. Such 
equipment shall meet the following requirements: 

(1) Blowers shall be powered by continuous-rated motors at 
the maximum power required. 

(2) Blowers shall have personnel protection, such as inlet 
screens and belt guards. 

(3) Blower systems shall be weather protected. 

(4) Blower systems shall be equipped with backdraft check 
dampers. 

(5) Not less than two blower units shall be provided, each of 
which has capacity to maintain full inflation pressure with 
normal leakage. 



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GRANDSTANDS AND BLEACHERS, FOLDING AND TELESCOPIC SEATING, TENTS, AND MEMBRANE STRUCTURES 1-1 53 



(6) The blowers shall be designed to be incapable of over- 
pressurization. 

(7) The auxiliary blower unit(s) shall operate automatically if 
there is any loss of internal pressure or if an operating 
blower unit becomes inoperative. 

(8) The design inflation pressure and the capacity of each 
blower system shall be certified by a professional engi- 
neer. [/W:11.9.3.2] 

25.5.3.3 Standby Power System. 

25.5.3.3.1* A fully automatic standby power system shall be 
provided. The system shall be either an auxiliary engine gen- 
erator set capable of running the blower system or a supple- 
mentary blower unit that is sized for 1 times the normal oper- 
ating capacity and is powered by an internal combustion 
engine. [i0i:11.9.3.3.1] 

25.5.3.3.2 The standby power system shall be fully automatic 
to ensure continuous inflation in the event of any failure of 
the primary power. The system shall be capable of operating 
continuously for a minimum of 4 hours. [iW:11.9.3.3.2] 

25.5.3.3.3 The sizing and capacity of the standby power system 
shall be certified by a professional engineer. [/W:11.9.3.3.3] 

25.5.4 Maintenance and Operation. 

25.5.4.1 Instructions in both operation and maintenance 
shall be transmitted to the owner by the manufacturer of the 
tensioned-membrane, air-supported, or air-inflated structure. 
[i0i:11.9.4.1] 

25.5.4.2 Annual inspection and required maintenance of 
each structure shall be performed to ensure safety conditions. 
At least biennially, the inspection shall be performed by a pro- 
fessional engineer, registered architect, or individual certified 
by the manufacturer. [iW:11.9.4.2] 

25.6 Temporary Membrane Structures. 

25.6.1 Application. 

25.6.1.1 Required Approval. Membrane structures designed 
to meet all the requirements of Section 25.6 shall be permitted 
to be used as temporary buildings subject to the approval of 
theAHJ. [iOi:ll. 10.1.2] 

25.6.1.2 Alternative Requirements. Temporary tensioned- 
membrane structures shall be permitted to comply with 
Section 25.2 instead of Section 25.6. [/W:11.10.1.3] 

25.6. 1 .3 Roof Covering Classification. Roof membranes shall 
have a roof covering classification, as required by the appli- 
cable building codes, when tested in accordance with 
NFPA256,ASTME108, orUL790. [iOi:ll. 10.1.4] 

25.6.1.4 Flame Propagation Performance. 

25.6.1.4.1 All membrane structure fabric shall meet the 
flame propagation performance criteria contained in 
NFPA701. [iO/:ll. 10.1.5.1] 

25.6.1.4.2 One of the following shall serve as evidence that 
the fabric materials have the required flame propagation 
performance: 

( 1 ) The AHJ shall require a certificate or other evidence of 
acceptance by an organization acceptable to the AHJ. 

(2) The AHJ shall require a report of tests made by other 
inspection authorities or organizations acceptable to the 
AHJ. [707:11.10.1.5,2] 



25.6.1.4.3 Where required by the AHJ, confirmatory field 
tests shall be conducted using test specimens from the original 
material, which shall have been affixed at the time of manufac- 
ture to the exterior of the structure. [107:11.10.1.5.3] 

25.6.2 Fir« Hazards. 

25.6.2.1 The ground enclosed by any temporary membrane 
structure, and the ground for a reasonable distance but for 
not less than 10 ft (3050 mm) outside of such a structure, shall 
be cleared of all flammable or combustible material or vegeta- 
tion that is not used for necessary support equipment. The 
clearing work shall be accomplished to the satisfaction of the 
AHJ prior to the erection of such a structure. The premises 
shall be kept free from such flammable or combustible mate- 
rials during the period for which the premises are used by the 
public. [707:11.10.2.1] 

25.6.2.2 Where prohibited by the AHJ, smoking shall not 
be permitted in any temporary membrane structure. 
[707:11.10.2.2] 

25.6.3 Fire-Extinguishing Equipment. Portable fire- 
extinguishing equipment of approved types shall be furnished 
and maintained in temporary membrane structures in such 
quantity and in such locations as directed by the AHJ. 
[707:11.10.3] 

25.6.4 Tensioned-Membrane Structures. 

25.6.4.1 The design, materials, and construction of the build- 
ing shall be based on plans and specifications prepared by a 
licensed architect or engineer knowledgeable in tensioned- 
membrane construction. [707:11.10.4.1] 

25.6.4.2 Material loads and strength shall be based on physi- 
cal properties of the materials verified and certified by an ap- 
proved testing laboratory. [707:11.10.4.2] 

25.6.4.3 The membrane roof for structures in climates subject 
to freezing temperatures and ice buildup shall be composed of 
two layers separated by an air space through which heated air can 
be moved to guard against ice accumulation. As an alternative to 
the two layers, other approved methods that protect against ice 
accumulation shall be permitted. [707:11.10.4.3] 

25.6.4.4 Roof drains shall be equipped with electrical ele- 
ments to protect against ice buildup that can prevent the 
drains from functioning. Such heating elements shall be 
served by on-site standby electrical power in addition to the 
normal public service. As an alternative to such electrical ele- 
ments, other approved methods that protect against ice accu- 
mulation shall be permitted. [707:11.10.4.4] 

25.6.5 Air-Supported and Air-Inflated Structures. 

25.6.5.1 General. In addition to the general provisions of 
25.6.1, the requirements of 25.6.5 shall apply to air-supported 
and air-inflated structures. [707:11.10.5.1] 

25.6.5.2 Pressurization (Inflation) System. The pressurization 
system shall consist of one or more operating blower units. 
The system shall include automatic control of auxiliary blower 
units to maintain the required operating pressure. Such 
equipment shall meet the following requirements: 

(1) Blowers shall be powered by continuous-rated motors at 
the maximum power required. 

(2) Blowers shall have personnel protection, such as inlet 
screens and belt guards. 

(3) Blower systems shall be weather protected. 



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UNIFORM FIRE CODE 



(4) Blower systems shall be equipped with backdraft check 
dampers. 

(5) Not less than two blower units shall be provided, each of 
which has capacity to maintain full inflation pressure with 
normal leakage. 

(6) The blowers shall be designed to be incapable of over- 
pressurization. 

(7) The auxiliary blower unit(s) shall operate automatically if 
there is any loss of internal pressure or if an operating 
blower unit becomes inoperative. 

(8) The design inflation pressure and the capacity of each 
blower system shall be certified by a professional engi- 
neer. [iW:ll. 10.5.2] 

25.6.5.3 Standby Power System. 

25.6.5.3.1 A fully automatic standby power system shall be 
provided. The system shall be either an auxiliary engine gen- 
erator set capable of running the blower system or a supple- 
mentary blower unit that is sized for 1 times the normal oper- 
ating capacity and is powered by an internal combustion 
engine. [/0/:11.10.5.3.1] 

25.6.5.3.2 The standby power system shall be fully automatic 
to ensure continuous inflation in the event of any failure of 
the primary power. The system shall be capable of operating 
continuously for a minimum of 4 hours. [iOi:ll. 10.5. 3.2] 

25.6.5.3.3 The sizing and capacity of the standby power system 
shall be certified by a professional engineer. [707:11.10.5.3.3] 

25.6.6 Maintenance and Operation. 

25.6.6.1 Instructions in both operation and maintenance 
shall be transmitted to the owner by the manufacturer of the 
tensioned-membrane, air-supported, or air-inflated structure. 
[707:11.10.6.1] 

25.6.6.2 Annual inspection and required maintenance of 
each structure shall be performed to ensure safety conditions. 
At least biennially, the inspection shall be performed by a pro- 
fessional engineer, registered architect, or individual certified 
by the manufacturer. [707:11.10.6.2] 



Chapter 26 Laboratories Using Chemicals 

26.1 General. 

26.1.1 The handling or storage of chemicals in laboratory 
buildings, laboratory units, and laboratory work areas whether 
located above or below grade shall comply with Chapter 26 
and NFPA 45, Standard on Fire Protection for Laboratories Using 
Chemicals. 

26. 1 .2 Chapter 26 shall apply to laboratory buildings, labora- 
tory units, and laboratory work areas whether located above or 
below grade in which chemicals, as defined, are handled or 
stored. [45:1.1.1] 

26.1.3 Chapter 26 shall not apply to the following: 

(l)*If conditions (a) and (b) exist, Chapter 26 shall not apply: 

(a) Laboratory units that contain less than or equal to 1 gal 
(4 L) of flammable or combustible liquid 

(b) Laboratory units that contain less than 75 scf (2.2 stan- 
dard m*) of flammable gas, not including piped-in low- 
pressure utility gas installed in accordance with 
NFPA 54, National Fuel Gas Code 

(2) Laboratories that are pilot plants 



( 3 ) Laboratories that handle only chemicals with a hazard rating 
of zero or one, as defined by NFPA 704, Standard System forthe 
Identification of the Hazards of Materials for Emergency Response, 
for all of the following: health, flammability, and instability 

(4) Laboratories that are primarily manufacturing plants 

(5) Incidental testing facilities 

(6) Physical, electronic, instrument, laser, or similar laborato- 
ries that use chemicals only for incidental purposes, such 
as cleaning 

(7) Laboratories that work only with radioactive materials, as 
covered by NFPA801, Standard for Fire Protection for Facilities 
Handling Radioactive Materials 

(8) Laboratories that work only with explosive material, as 
covered by NFPA 495, Explosive Materials Code [45:1.1.2] 

26.1.4 Chapter 26 contains requirements, but not all- 
inclusive requirements, for handling and storage of chemicals 
where laboratory-scale operations are conducted and shall not 
cover the following: 

(1) The special fire protection required when handling ex- 
plosive materials (See NFPA 495.) 

(2) The special fire protection required when handling radio- 
active materials [45:1.1.3] 

26.2°" Laboratories in Health Care Occupancies. Any building, 
space, room, or group of rooms in a health care facility in- 
tended to serve activities involving procedures for investiga- 
tion, diagnosis, or treatment in which flammable, combus- 
tible, or oxidizing materials are to be used shall comply with 
Section 26.1 of this Corfe and Chapter 11 of NFPA 99, Standard 
for Health Care Facilities. 

26.3 Permits. Permits, where required, shall comply with 
Section 1.12. 



Chapter 27 Manufactured Home and Recreational 
Vehicle Sites 

27.1 Manufactured Home Sites. 

27.1.1 The fire safety requirements for the installation of 
manufactured homes and manufactured home sites, includ- 
ing accessory buildings, structures, and communities, shall 
comply with NFPA 501 A, Standard for Fire Safety Criteria for 
Manufactured Home Installations, Sites, and Communities, and 
Section 27.1. 

27.1.2 Section 27.1 shall not apply to recreational vehicles as 
defined in NFPA 1192, Standard on Recreational Vehicles, or to 
park trailers as defined in RVIA/ANSl A.119.5, Standard for 
Park Trailers. 

27.2 Recreational Vehicle Parks and Campgrounds. 

27.2.1 The construction of recreational vehicle parks and 
campgrounds that offer temporary living sites for use by 
recreational vehicles and camping units shall comply with 
Section 27.2 and NFPA 1194, Standard for Recreational Vehicle 
Parks and Campgrounds. 

27.2.2 Section 27.2 shall not cover the design of recreational 
vehicles or other forms of camping units or the operational 
and maintenance practices of recreational vehicle parks and 
campgrounds. 



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Chapter 28 Marinas, Boatyards, Marine Terminals, 
Piers, and Wharves 

28.1 Marinas, Boatyards, and Other Recreational Marine 
Facilities. 

28.1.1 The construction and operation of marinas, boat- 
yards, yacht clubs, boat condominiums, docking facilities asso- 
ciated with residential condominiums, multiple-docking facili- 
ties at multiple-family residences, and all associated piers, 
docks, and floats shall comply with NFPA 303, Fine Protection 
Standard for Marinas and Boatyards, and Section 28.1. 

28.1.2 Section 28.1 shall not apply to private, non-commercial 
docking facility constructed or occupied for the use of the own- 
ers or residents of the associated single-family dwellings. 

28.1.3 Section 28.1 shall apply to support facilities and struc- 
tures used for construction, repair, storage, hauling and 
launching, or fueling of vessels if fire on a pier would pose an 
immediate threat to these facilities, or if a fire at a referenced 
facility would pose an immediate threat to a docking facility. 
[303:1.1.1] 

28.1.4 Section 28.1 applies to marinas and facilities servicing 
small recreational and commercial craft, yachts, and other 
craft of not more than 300 gross tons. [303:1.1.2] 

28.1.5 No requirement in this chapter shall be construed 
as reducing applicable building, fire, and electrical codes. 
[303:1.1.4] 

28.1.6 Fire Protection. 

28.1.6.1 Portable Fire Extinguishers. 

28.1.6.1.1 Placement. 

28.1.6.1.1.1 Placement of portable fire extinguishers shall be in 
accordance with Chapter 5 of NFPA 10 unless otherwise permit- 
ted by 28.1.6.1.1.1.2(A), 28.1.6.1.1.1.2(B) and 28.1.6.1.1.1.3. 
[303:6.2.1.1] 

28.1.6.1.1.1.1 Placement of portable fire extinguishers on 
piers and along bulkheads where vessels are moored or are 
permitted to be moored shall meet the following criteria: 

(1) Extinguishers listed for Class A, Class B, and Class C fires 
shall be installed at the pier/land intersection on a pier 
that exceeds 25 ft (7.62 m) in length. 

(2) Additional fire extinguishers shall be placed such that the 
maximum travel distance to an extinguisher does not ex- 
ceed 75 ft (22.86 m). [303:6.2.1.1.1] 

28.1.6.1.1.1.2 Fuel-Dispensmg Areas. 

(A) Portable fire extinguishers that meet the minimum re- 
quirements of 13.6.3 of NFPA 10 for extra (high) hazard type 
shall be installed on two sides of a fuel-dispensing area. 
[303:6.2.1.1.2.1] 

(B) On piers or bulkheads where long fueling hoses are 
installed for fueling vessels, additional extinguishers in- 
stalled on piers or bulkheads shall meet the requirements 
of 13.6.3 of NFPA 10 for extra (high) hazard type and 
28.1.6.1.1.1. [303:6.2.1.1.2.2] 

28.1.6.1.1.1.3 All extinguishers installed on piers shall meet 
the rating requirements set forth in 13.6.3 of NFPA 10 for or- 
dinary (moderate) hazard type. [303:6.2.1.1.3] 



28.1.6.1.2 Maintenance. All portable fire extinguishers shall 
be maintained in accordance with 13.6.6.8 of NFPA 10 and 
shall be clearly visible and marked. [303:6.2.2] 

28.1.6.2 Fixed Fire-Extinguishing Systems. 
28.1.6.2.1 Buildings on Piers. 

28.1.6.2.1.1 Buildings in excess of 500 ft^ (46 m^) tiiat are 
constructed on piers shall be protected by an approved auto- 
matic fire-extinguishing system unless otherwise permitted by 

28.1.6.2.1.2 or 28.1.6.2.1.3. [303:6.3.1.1] 

28.1.6.2.1.2 Buildings of Type 1 or Type 11 construction, as 
specified in Section 4.3 of NFPA220, Standard on Types of Build- 
ing Construction, and without combustible contents shall not be 
required to be protected by an automatic fire-extinguishing 
system. [303:6.3.1.2] 

28.1.6.2.1.3* Existing facilities shall not be required to be pro- 
tected by an automatic fire-extinguishing system where accept- 
able to theAHJ. [303:6.3.1.3] 

28.1.6.2.2* Buildings Exceeding 5000 ft^ (465 m^). 

28.1.6.2.2.1 Marina and boatyard buildings in excess of 5000 ft^ 
(465 m^) in total area shall be protected by an approved auto- 
matic fire-extinguishing system unless otherwise permitted by 
28.1.6.2.2.2. [303:6.3.2.1] 

28.1.6.2.2.2* Existing facilities shall not be required to be pro- 
tected by an automatic fire-extinguishing system where accept- 
able to the AHJ. [303:6.3.2.2] 

28.1.6.2.3 Combustible Piers and Substructures. 

28.1.6.2.3.1 Combustible piers and substructures in excess of 
25 ft (7.62 m) in width or in excess of 5000 ft^ (465 m^) in 
area, or within 30 ft (9.14 m) of other structures or superstruc- 
tures required to be so protected, shall be protected in accor- 
dance with Section 4.3 of NFPA 307, Standard for the Construc- 
tion and Fire Protection of Marine Terminals, Piers, and Wharves, 
unless otherwise permitted by 28.1.6.2.3.2, 28.1.6.2.3.3, or 
28.1.6.2.3.4. [303:6.3.3.1] 

28.1.6.2.3.2 Fixed piers shall not be required to be protected 
as specified in 28.1.6.2.3.1 where the vertical distance from the 
surface of mean high water level to the underside of the pier 
surface does not exceed 36 in. (914 mm). [303:6.3.3.2] 

28.1.6.2.3.3 Floating piers shall not be required to be pro- 
tected as specified in 28.1.6.2.3.1 where the vertical distance 
from the surface of the water to the underside of the pier 
surface does not exceed 36 in. (914 mm). [303:6.3.3.3] 

28.1.6.2.3.4* Existing facilities shall not be required to be pro- 
tected by an automatic fire-extinguishing system where accept- 
able to tiieAHJ. [303:6.3.3.4] 

28.1.6.2.4* An approved water supply shall be provided within 
100 ft (30 m) of the pier/land intersection or fire department 
connection serving fire protection systems. [303:6.3.5] 

28.1.6.2.5 Access between water supplies and pier/land inter- 
sections or fire department connections shall be by roadway 
acceptable to theAHJ. [303:6.3.6] 

28.1.6.3 Fire Standpipe Systems. 

28.1.6.3.1 Class I standpipe systems shall be provided for 
piers, bulkheads, and buildings where the hose lay distance 
from the fire apparatus exceeds 150 ft (45 m). [303:6.4.1] 



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28.1.6.3.2 Standpipe systems, where installed, shall be in ac- 
cordance with 13.2, except for the provisions identified in 

28.1.6.3.3 through 28.1.6.3.6. [303:6.4.2] 

28.1.6.3.3 Hose racks, hoses, and standpipe cabinets shall not 
be required on piers and bulkheads. [303:6.4.3] 

28.1.6.3.4 Supply piping for standpipes on piers and bulk- 
heads shall be sized for the minimum flow rate for Class II 
systems. [303:6.4.4] 

28.1.6.3.5 Manual dry standpipes shall be permitted. 
[303:6.4.5] 

28.1.6.3.6 Flexible connections shall be permitted on float- 
ing piers where acceptable to the AHJ. [303:6.4.6] 

28.1.6.4 Hydrants and Water Supplies. Hydrants and water 
supplies for fire protecdon in marinas and boatyards shall be 
provided in accordance with 13.2, 13.3, and 13.5.1. [303:6.6] 

28.1.6.5 Fire Detectors. 

28.1.6.5.1 Fire detection devices and installation shall be in 
accordance widi Section 13.7. [303:6.11.1] 

28.1.6.5.2 Fire detectors shall be installed in the following 
interior or covered locations unless those locations are pro- 
tected by a fixed automatic sprinkler system installed in accor- 
dance with NFPA 13: 

(1) Rooms containing combustible storage or goods 

(2) Rooms containing flammable liquid storage or use 

(3) Rooms containing battery storage or maintenance 

(4) Rooms containing paint and solvent storage or use 

(5) Areas used for enclosed or covered storage of vessels 

(6) Areas used for enclosed or covered maintenance of vessels 

(7) Areas used for public assembly, dining, or lodging 

(8) Kitchens and food preparation areas 

(9) Dust bins and collectors 

(10) Inside trash storage areas 

(11) Rooms used for storingjanitor supplies or linens 

(12) Laundry rooms 

(13) Furnace rooms [303:6.11.2] 

28.1.7 Wet Stor^e and Berthing. 

28.1.7.1 Each berth shall be arranged such that a boat occu- 
pying the berth can be removed in an emergency without the 
necessity of moving other boats. [303:7.1.1] 

28.1.7.2 Access to all piers, floats, and wharves shall be pro- 
vided for municipal fire-fighting equipment. [303:7.1.2] 

28.1.7.3* Electrical lighting shall be provided to ensure ad- 
equate illumination of all exterior areas, piers, and floats. 
[303:7.1.3] 

28. 1 .7.4 Electrical lighting shall not interfere with navigation 
or aids to navigation. [303:7.1.4] 

28.1.7.5 Only listed 120/240 V ac electrical equipment shall 
be operated unattended. [303:7.1.5] 

28.1.8 Dry Storage. 

28.1.8.1 General. 

28.1.8.1.1 Heaters. 

28. 1 .8. 1 . 1 . 1 The use of portable heaters in boat storage areas 
shall be prohibited except where necessary to accomplish re- 
pairs. [303:7.2.1.1.1] 



28.1.8.1.1.2 Portable heaters used in accordance with 
28.1.8.1.1.1 shall be used only when personnel are in atten- 
dance. [303:7.2.1.1.2] 

28.1.8.1.1.3 Open flame heaters shall not be used in boat 
storage areas. [303:7.2.1.1.3] 

28.1.8.1.2 Ladders long enough to reach the deck of any stored 
boat shall be provided and readily available. [303:7.2.1.2] 

28.1.8.1.3 The use of blow torches or flammable paint re- 
mover shall be prohibited unless permitted by 8.6.1 of 
NFPA 303. [303:7.2.1.3]. 

28.1.8.1.4 The use of gasoline or other flammable solvents 
for cleaning purposes shall be prohibited. [303:7.2.1.4] 

28.1.8.1.5 Where a boat is to be dry-stored for the season or 
stored indoors for an extended period of time, such as while 
awaiting repairs, the following precautions shall be taken: 

(1) The vessel shall be inspected for any hazardous materials 
or conditions that could exist, and corrective action shall 
be taken. 

(2) Liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) and compressed natural 
gas (CNG) cylinders, reserve supplies of stove alcohol or 
kerosene, and charcoal shall be removed from the pre- 
mises or stored in a separate, designated safe area. 

(3) All portable fuel tanks shall be removed from the pre- 
mises or emptied and, if emptied, the cap shall be re- 
moved and the tank left open to the atmosphere. 

(4) Permanently installed fuel tanks shall be stored at least 
95 percent full. [303:7.2.1.5] 

28.1.8.1.6 No unattended electrical equipment shall be in 
use aboard boats. [303:7.2.1.6] 

28. 1 .8. 1 .7 All storage areas shall be routinely raked, swept, or 
otherwise policed to prevent the accumulation of rubbish. 
[303:7.2.1.7] 

28.1.8.1.8 Fire Department Access. 

28.1.8.1.8.1 Access to boats stored outside shall be such that 
the hose-lay distance from the fire apparatus to any portion of 
the boat shall not exceed 150 ft (45 m). [303:7.2.1.8.1] 

28.1.8.1.8.2 Access to buildings in which boats are stored 
shall be such that the hose-lay distance from the fire apparatus 
to all exterior portions of the building shall not exceed 150 ft 
(45 m). [303:7.2.1.8.2] 

28.1.8.1.8.3 Wet standpipe systems shall be permitted to be 
used to meet the requirement in 28.1.8.1.1 or 28.1.8.1.2. 
[303:7.2.1.8.3] 

28.1.8.2 Indoors. 

28. 1 .8.2. 1 When work is being carried out onboard a vessel in 
an unsprinklered storage building, management shall require 
an inspection of the vessel at the end of the day to ensure that 
no hazards resulting from the day's work are present. 
[303:7.2.2.1] 

28.1.8.2.2 If a guard is employed, vessels addressed in 28.1.8.2.1 
shall be included in the regular rounds. [303:7.2.2.2] 

28.1.8.2.3 Class I flammable liquids shall not be stored in an 
indoor boat storage area. [303:7.2.2.3] 

28.1.8.2.4 Work performed on boats stored indoors shall be 
performed by qualified personnel. [303:7.2.2.4] 



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28.1.8.2.5 Facility management shall maintain control over 
all personnel access to storage facilities and boats stored in- 
doors. [303:7.2.2.5] 

28.1.8.3 In-Owt Diy Storage amd Rack Storage. 

28.1.8.3.1 Water supply and hose, or portable fire extinguish- 
ers and wheeled cart assemblies equipped with discharge 
nozzles capable of reaching all boats on the highest racks shall 
be provided. [303:6.5] 

28.1.8.3.2 Where boats are stored either inside or outside in 
single- or multiple-level racks, those boats shall have unim- 
peded vehicular access at one end, and equipment shall be 
available to remove any stored boat. [303:7.2.3.1] 

28.1.8.3.3 Where boats are stored in multilevel racks, either 
inside or outside, for seasonal storage or for in-out operation, 
the following precautions shall be taken: 

(1) Drain plugs shall be removed (in sprinklered buildings). 

(2) Batteries shall be disconnected or the master battery 
switch turned off. 

(3) Fuel tank valves shall be closed. 

(4) For seasonal storage, the requirements of 28.1.8.1 shall 
apply. [303:7.2.3.2] 

28.1.8.3.4 Repairs to boats that are on racks or that are inside 
an in-out dry storage building shall be prohibited. [303:7.2.3.3] 

28.1.8.3.5 Portable power lines, such as drop cords, shall be 
prohibited from use on boats in an in-out dry storage building. 
[303:7.2.3.4] 

28.1.8.3.6 The charging of batteries shall be prohibited in 
the in-out dry storage building. [303:7.2.3.5] 

28.1.8.4* Battery Storage. Where the removal of batteries for 
storage or charging due to size and weight is impractical, bat- 
teries shall be permitted to remain onboard, provided the fol- 
lowing conditions are met: 

(1) The battery compartment is arranged to provide adequate 
ventilation. 

(2) A listed battery charger is used to provide a suitable charge. 

(3) The power connection to the charger consists of a three- 
wire cord of not less than No. 14 AWG conductors con- 
nected to a source of 110 V to 125 V single-phase current, 
with a control switch and approved circuit protection de- 
vice designed to trip at not more than 125 percent of the 
rated amperage of the charger. 

(4) There is no connection on the load side of the charger to 
any other device except the battery, and the boat battery 
switch is turned off. 

(5) The battery is properly connected to the charger, and 
the grounding conductor effectively grounds the 
charger enclosure. 

(6) Unattended battery chargers are checked at intervals not 
exceeding 8 hours while in operation. [303:7.2.4] 

28.1.9* Comditiioinis on Individual Boats. 

28.1.9.1 The management shall have an inspection made of 
each boat received for major repair or storage as soon as prac- 
ticable after arrival of a boat and before commencement of 
any work aboard. [303:8.1.1] 

28.1.9.2 The inspecuon required in 28.1.9.1 shall include the 
following determinations: 

(1) Presence of combustible vapors in any compartment 



(2) General maintenance and cleanliness, and location of any 
combustible materials that require removal or protection 
for the safe accomplishment of the particular work involved 

(3) Quantity, type, and apparent condition of fire-extinguishing 
equipment onboard 

(4) Listed appropriate shore power inlet(s) and ship-to-shore 
cable(s), when present [303:8.1.2] 

28.1.9.3 The management shall, as a condition to accepting a 
boat received for major repair or storage, require the owner to 
correct any inadequacies found in 28.1.9.2 or to authorize 
management to do so. [303:8.1.3] 

28.1.9.4 General Pirecautioiis. 

28.1.9.4.1 Smoking in the working area shall be prohibited. 

[303:8.1.4.1] 

28.1.9.4.2 Loose combustibles in the area of any hazardous 
work shall be removed. [303:8.1.4.2] 

28.1.9.4.3 Unprotected battery terminals shall be covered to 
prevent inadvertent shorting from dropped tools or other- 
wise, and the ungrounded battery lead shall be disconnected. 

[303:8.1.4.3] 

28.1.9.4.4 Personnel employed in the removal or installation 
of storage batteries shall be qualified. [303:8.1.4.4] 

28.1.9.4.5 Where electric service is provided to boats in stor- 
age, the receptacle providing the power shall be protected 
vrith a ground-fault circuit-interrupter. [303:8.1.4.5] 

28.1.9.5 The marina or boatyard operator shall post in a 
prominent location, or provide to boat operators using a ma- 
rina or boatyard for mooring, repair, servicing, or storage, a 
list of safe operating procedures containing at least the follow- 
ing information: 

(1) A prohibition against the use of any form of hibachis, 
charcoal, wood, or gas-type portable cooking equipment, 
except in specifically authorized areas that are not on the 
docks, on boats in the berthing area, or near flammables 

(2) Procedures for disposal of trash 

(3) Designation of nonsmoking areas 

(4) Location of fire extinguishers and hoses 

(5) Procedures for turning in a fire alarm 

(6) Fueling procedures [303:8.1.5] 

28.1.9.6 The information on fueling procedures referred to 
in 28.1.9.5(6) shall include at least the following information: 

( 1 ) Procedures before fueling; 

(a) Stop all engines and auxiliaries 

(b) Shut off all electrieity, open flames, and heat sources 

(c) Check bilges for fuel vapors 

(d) Extinguish all smoking materials 

(e) Close access fittings and openings that could allow 
fuel vapors to enter the boat's enclosed spaces 

(f) Remove all personnel from the boat except the per- 
son handling the fueling hose 

(2) Procedures during fuehng: 

(a) Maintain nozzle contact with fill pipe 

(b) Attend fuel-filling nozzle at all times 

(c) Wipe up spills immediately 

(d) Avoid overfiUing 

(3) Procedures after fueling and before starting engine: 

(a) Inspect bilges for leakage or fuel odors 

(b) Ventilate until odors are removed [303-.8.1.6] 



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28.2 Marine Termmals, Piers, and Wharves. 

28.2.1 Section 28.2 shall apply to marine terminals as defined 
herein. Special use piers and wharf structures that are not ma- 
rine terminals, such as public assembly, residential, business, 
or recreational occupancies that differ in design and construc- 
don from cargo handling piers, require special consideration. 
The general principles of NFPA 307 for the construction and 
fire protection of piers and wharves shall be applicable to such 
structures and shall comply with NFPA 307, Standard for the 
Construction and Fire Protection of Marine Terminals, Piers, and 
Wharves, and SecUon 28.2. 

28.2.2* Section 28.2 shall not apply to marinas and boatyards. 
(See Section 28.1.) [307:1.3.2] 

28.2.3 Section 28.2 shall not apply to the handling of the 
following: 

(l)*Flammable or combustible liquids in bulk [See Chapter 66.) 

[307:1.1.3] 
(2)*Liquefied gases in bulk {See Chapter 69.) [307:1.3.3] 

28.2.4 Nothing in Section 28.2 shall supersede any of the regu- 
lations of governmental or other regulatory authority. [307:1.1.2] 

28.3 Construction, Conversion, Repair, and Lay-Up of Vessels. 

28.3.1* The construction, conversion, repair, or lay-up of ves- 
sels shall comply with NFPA 312, Standard for Fire Protection of 
Vessels During Construction, Repair, and Lay-Up, and Section 28.3. 

28.3.2 Nothing in Section 28.3 shall be construed as prohib- 
iting the immediate dry-docking of a vessel whose safety is im- 
periled, as by being in a sinking condition or by being seri- 
ously damaged. [312:1.2.2] 

28.3.3 In such cases, all necessary precautionary measures 
shall be taken as soon as practicable. [312:1.2.3] 

28.3.4 The requirements of Section 28.3 shall not apply to 
situations where it is in conflict with or superseded by require- 
ments of any government regulatory agency. [312:1.1.2] 



Chapter 29 Parking Garages 

29.1 General. 

29.1.1 The construction and protection of new and existing 
parking garages as well as the control of hazards in open park- 
ing structures, enclosed parking structures, and basement and 
underground parking structures shall comply with Section 
42.8 of NFPA 101, NFPA 88A, Standard for Parking Structures; 
and this chapter. 

29.1.2 Chapter 29 shall not apply to parking garages in one- 
and two-family dwellings. 



Chapter 30 Motor Fuel Dispensing Facilities and 
Repair Garages 

30.1 Motor Fuel Dispensing Facilities. 

30.1.1 Application. 

30.1.1.1 Motor fuel dispensing facilities, marine/motor fuel 
dispensing facilities, motor fuel dispensing facilities located 
inside buildings, and fleet vehicle motor fuel dispensing facili- 
ties shall comply with NFPA 30A, Code for Motor Fuel Dispensing 
Facilities and Repair Garages, Section 30.1, and Section 30.3. 



30.1.1.2 This chapter shall not apply to refueling operations. 

(For refueling operations, see Chapter 42.) 

30.1.1.3 Permits. Permits, where required, shall comply with 
Section 1.12. 

30.1.2 Occupancy Classification. The occupancy classifica- 
tion of a motor fuel dispensing facility that is located inside a 
building or structure shall be a low hazard industrial occu- 
pancy as defined in NFPA 101. [30A:7.3.1] 

30.1.3 Means of Egress. In a motor fuel dispensing facility 
that is located inside a building or structure, the required 
number, location, and construction of means of egress shall 
meet all applicable requirements for special purpose indus- 
trial occupancies, as set forth in NFPA 101. [30A:7.3.3] 

30.1.4 Drainage. Where Class I or Class 11 liquids are dis- 
pensed, provisions shall be made to prevent spilled liquids 
from flowing into the interior of buildings. Such provisions 
shall be made by grading driveways, raising door sills, or other 
equally effective means. [30A:7.3.4] 

30.1.5 Fixed Fire Protection. 

30.1.5.1* For an unattended, self-serve, motor fuel dispensing 
facility, additional fire protection shall be provided where re- 
quired by the AHJ. [30A:7.3.5.1] 

30.1.5.2 Where required, an automatic fire suppression sys- 
tem shall be installed in accordance with the appropriate 
NFPA standard, manufacturers' instructions, and the listing 
requirements of the systems. [30A:7.3.5.2] 

30.1.6 Fuel Dispensing Areas Inside Buildings. 

30.1.6.1 The fuel dispensing area shall be separated from all 
other portions of the building by walls, partitions, floors, and 
floor-ceihng assemblies having a fire resistance rating of not 
less than 2 hours. [30A:7.3.6.1] 

30.1.6.2 Interior finish shall be of noncombustible materials 
or of approved limited-combustible materials, as defined in 
this Code and NFPA 220. [30A:7.3.6.2] 

30.1.6.3 Door and window openings in fire-rated interior 
walls shall be provided with listed fire doors having a fire pro- 
tection rating of not less than 1V4 hours. Doors shall be self- 
closing. They shall be permitted to remain open during nor- 
mal operations if they are designed to close automatically in a 
fire emergency by means of listed closure devices. Fire doors 
shall be installed in accordance v\rith NFPA 80. They shall be 
kept unobstructed at all times. [30A:7.3.6.3] 

30.1.6.4 Openings for ducts in fire-rated interior partitions 
and walls shall be protected by listed fire dampers. Openings 
for ducts in fire-rated floor or floor-ceiling assemblies shall be 
protected with enclosed shafts. Enclosure of shafts shall be 
with wall or partition assemblies having a fire resistance rating 
of not less than 2 hours. Openings for ducts into enclosed 
shafts shall be protected with hsted fire dampers. [30A:7.3.6.4] 

30.1.6.5 The fuel dispensing area shall be located at street 
level, with no dispenser located more than 50 ft (15 m) from 
the vehicle exit to, or entrance from, the outside of the build- 
ing. [30A:7.3.6.5] 

30.1.6.6 The fuel dispensing area shall be limited to that re- 
quired to serve not more than four vehicles at one time. 

Exception: At a fleet vehicle motor fuel dispensing facility inside a 
building, where only Class II and Class III liquids are dispensed, the 
number of vehicles serviced at any one time shall be permitted to be 
increased to 12. [30A:7.J.6.6} 



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30.1.6.7* A mechanical exhaust system that serves only the 
fuel dispensing area shall be provided. This system shall meet 
all of the following requirements: 

(1) The system shall be interlocked with the dispensing sys- 
tem so that airflow is established before any dispensing 
device can operate. Failure of airflow shall automatically 
shut down the dispensing system. 

(2) The exhaust system shall be designed to provide air move- 
ment across all portions of the floor of the fuel dispensing 
area and to prevent the flowing of ignitable vapors be- 
yond the dispensing area. 

(3) Exhaust inlet ducts shall not be less than 3 in. (76 mm) or 
more than 12 in. (305 mm) above the floor. Exhaust ducts 
shall not be located in floors or penetrate the floor of the 
dispensing area. Exhaust ducts shall discharge to a safe 
location outside the building. 

(4) The exhaust system shall provide ventilation at a rate of 
not less than 1 cfm/ft^ (0.3 m^/min/m^) of floor area, 
based on the fuel dispensing area. 

(5) The exhaust system shall meet all applicable require- 
ments of NFPA 91 . 

Exception: The provisions of 30.1.6.7 shall not apply to a fuel dis- 
pensing area located inside a building if two or more sides of the 
dispensing area are open to the building exterior. [30A: 7.3. 6. 7] 

30.1.6.8 The floor of the dispensing area shall be liquidtight. 
Where Class I liquids are dispensed, provisions shall be made 
to prevent spilled liquids from flowing out of the fuel dispens- 
ing area and into other areas of the building by means of 
curbs, scuppers, special drainage systems, or other means ac- 
ceptable to the AH] . [30A:7.3.6,8] 

30.1.6.9* Oil drainage systems shall be equipped with ap- 
proved oil/water traps or separators, if they connect to public 
sewers or they discharge into public waterways. [30A:7. 3.6.9] 

30.2 Repair Garages. 

30.2.1 Application. The construction and protection of, as well 
as the control of hazards in, garages used for major repair and 
maintenance of motorized vehicles and any sales and servicing 
facilities associated therewith shall comply with NFPA 30A, Sec- 
tion 30.2, and Section 30.3. 

30.2.1.1 Permits. Permits, where required, shall comply with 
Section 1.12. 

30.2.2 Occupancy ClassilBcation. The occupancy classifica- 
tion of a repair garage shall be a special purpose industrial 
occupancy as defined in NFPA 101. [30A:7.4.1] 

30.2.3 General Constniction Requirements. In major repair 
garages, where CNG-fueled vehicles, LNG-fueled vehicles, or 
LP-Gas-fueled vehicles are repaired, all applicable require- 
ments of NFPA52 or NFPA58, whichever is applicable, shall be 
met. [30A:7.4.2] 



30.2.4 Means of Egiress. In a repair garage, the required num- 
ber, location, and construction of means of egress shall meet 
all applicable requirements for special purpose industrial oc- 
cupancies, as set forth in NFPA 101. [30A:7.4.3] 

30.2.5 Drainage. In areas of repair garages used for repair or 
servicing of vehicles, floor assemblies shall be constructed of 
noncombustible materials or, if combustible materials are 
used in the assembly, they shall be surfaced with approved, 
nonabsorbent, noncombustible material. 



Exception: Slip-resistant, nonabsorbent, interior floor finishes having 
a critical radiant flux not more than 0.45 W/crn^, as determined by 
NFPA 253, shall be permitted. [30A:7.4.4] 

30.2.5.1 Floors shall be liquidtight to prevent the leakage or 
seepage of liquids and shall be sloped to facilitate the movement 
of water, fliel, or other liquids to floor drains. [30A:7.4.4.1] 

30.2.5.2 In areas of repair garages where vehicles are ser- 
viced, any floor drains shall be properly trapped and shall dis- 
charge through an oil/water separator to the sewer or to an 
outside vented sump. [30A:7.4.4.2] 

30.2.6 Pits, Belowgrade Work Areas, and Subfloor Work Areas. 

30.2.6. 1 Pits, belowgrade work areas, and subfloor work areas 
used for lubrication, inspection, and minor automotive main- 
tenance work shall comply with the provisions of Section 30.2, 
in addition to other applicable requirements of NFPA 30A. 
.:7.4.5.1] 



30.2.6.2 Walls, floors, and structural supports shall be con- 
structed of masonry, concrete, steel, or other approved non- 
combustible materials. [30A:7.4.5.2] 

30.2.6.3 In pits, belowgrade work areas, and subfloor work ar- 
eas, the required number, location, and construction of means of 
egress shall meet the requirements for special purpose industrial 
occupancies in Chapter 40 of NFPA 101. [30A:7.4.5.3] 

30.2.6.4 Pits, belowgrade work areas, and subfloor work areas 
shall be provided with exhaust ventilation at a rate of not less 
than 1 cfm/ft^ (0.3 m^/min/m^) of floor area at all times that 
the building is occupied or when vehicles are parked in or 
over these areas. Exhaust air shall be taken from a point within 
12 in. (0.3 m) of the floor. [30A:7.4.5.4] 

30.2.7 Fixed Fire Protection, Automatic sprinkler protection 
installed in accordance with the requirements of NFPA 13 
shall be provided in major repair garages, as herein defined, 
when any of the following conditions exist: 

(1) The major repair garage is two or more stories in height, 
including basements, and any one of the floors exceeds 
10,000 ft^ (930 m^). 

(2) The major repair garage is one story and exceeds 12,000 ft^ 
(1115 m^). 

(3) The major repair garage is servicing vehicles parked in 
the basement of the building. [30A:7.4.6] 

30.2.8* Heating, Vemtilatiiiig, and Air-Conditioeing. 

30.2.8.1* Forced air heating, air-conditioning, and ventilating 
systems serving a fuel dispensing area inside a building or a 
repair garage shall not be interconnected with any such sys- 
tems serving other occupancies in the building. Such systems 
shall be installed in accordance with NFPA90A. [30A:7.5.1] 

30.2.8.2 Return air openings in areas of repair garages used 
for the repair or servicing of vehicles or in a fuel dispensing 
area shall be not less than 18 in. (455 mm) above floor level 
measured to the bottom of the openings. [30A:7.5.2] 

30.2.8.3 Combined ventilation and heating systems shall not 
recirculate air from areas that are below grade level. [30A:7.5.3] 

30.2.8.4 Exhaust duct openings shall be located so that they 
effectively remove vapor accumulations at floor level from all 
parts of the floor area. [30A:7.5.4] 



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30.2.9 Heat-Producing Appliances. 

30.2.9.1 Heat-producing appliances shall be installed in ac- 
cordance with the requirements of 30.2.9. They shall be per- 
mitted to be installed in the conventional manner except as 
provided in 30.2.9. [30A:7.6.1] 

30.2.9.2 Heat-producing appliances shall be of an approved 
type. Solid fuel stoves, improvised furnaces, salamanders, or 
space heaters shall not be permitted in areas of repair garages 
used for repairing or servicing of vehicles or in a fuel dispens- 
ing area. 

Exception No. 1: Unit heaters, when installed in accordance with 
Chapter 7 ofNFPA BOA, need not meet this requirement. 

Exception No. 2: Heat-Producing equipment for any lubrication room 
or service room where there is no dispensing or transferring of Class I or 
Class II liquids orLP-Gas, when installed in accordance with Chapter 
7 ofNFPA 30A, need not meet this requirement. [30A:7.6.2] 

30.2.9.3 Heat-producing appliances shall be permitted to be 
installed in a special room that is separated from areas that are 
classified as Division 1 or Division 2, in accordance with Chap- 
ter 8 of NFPA 30A, by walls that are constructed to prevent the 
transmission of vapors, that have a fire resistance rating of at 
least 1 hour, and that have no openings in the walls that lead 
to a classified area within 8 ft (2.4 m) of the floor. Specific 
small openings through the wall, such as for piping and elec- 
trical conduit, shall be permitted, provided the gaps and voids 
are filled with a fire-resistant material to resist transmission of 
vapors. All air for combustion purposes shall be taken from 
outside the building. This room shall not be used for storage 
of combustible materials, except for fuel storage as permitted 
by the standards referenced in 30.2.9.9. [30A:7.6.3] 

30.2.9.4 Heat-producing appliances using gas or oil fuel shall 
be permitted to be installed in a lubrication or service room 
where there is no dispensing or transferring of Class 1 liquids, 
including the open draining of automotive gasoline tanks, 
provided the bottom of the combustion chamber is at least 
18 in. (455 mm) above the floor and the appliances are pro- 
tected from physical damage. [30A:7.6.4] 

30.2.9.5 Heat-producing appliances using gas or oil fuel listed 
for use in garages shall be permitted to be installed in lubrication 
rooms, service rooms, or fuel dispensing areas where Class I liq- 
uids are dispensed or transferred, provided the equipment is in- 
stalled at least 8 ft (2.4 m) above the floor. [30A:7.6.5] 

30.2.9.6* Where major repairs are conducted on CNG-fueled 
vehicles or LNG-fueled vehicles, open flame heaters or heat- 
ing equipment with exposed surfaces having a temperature in 
excess of 750°F (399°C) shall not be permitted in areas subject 
to ignitable concentrations of gas. [30A:7.6.6] 

30.2.9.7 Electrical heat-producing appliances shall meet the 
requirements of Chapter 8 ofNFPA 30A. [30A:7.6.7] 

30.2.9.8 Fuels used shall be of the type and quality specified 
by the manufacturer of the heating appliance. Crankcase 
drainings shall not be used in oil-fired appliances, unless the 
appliances are specifically approved for such use. [30A:7.6.8] 

30.2.9.9 Heat-producing appliances shall be installed to meet 
the requirements of NFPA90A; NFPA31, Standard for the Instal- 
lation of OilrBuming Equipment, NFPA 54, National Fuel Gas Code, 
NFPA 211, Standard for Chimneys, Fireplaces, Vents, and Solid Fuel- 
Burning Appliances; and NFPA 82, Standard on Incinerators and 



Waste and Linen Handling Systems and Equipment, as applicable, 
except as hereinafter specifically provided. [30A:7.6.9] 

30.3 Operational Requirements. 

30.3.1 Dispensing from a Tank that Does Not Exceed 120 Gal 
(454 L) and from Containers Inside Buildings. Dispensing of 
flammable and combustible liquids from a tank not exceeding 
120 gal (454 L) capacity and from containers in a motor fuel 
dispensing facility or in a repair garage building shall meet the 
requirements of 30.3.1.1 and of 30.3.1.2. (See 4.3.9 ofNFPA 30A 
for storage quantity limitations.) [30A:9.2.4] 

30.3.1.1 Not more than one container of Class I liquid shall be 
permitted to be provided with a dispensing pump inside a build- 
ing at any one time. The number of tanks or containers of Class II 
or Class IIIAliquids fitted for dispensing at any one time shall not 
be limited, except as provided for in 4.3.9.2 of NFPA 30A. The 
number of tanks or containers of Class IlIB liquids fitted for dis- 
pensing at any one time shall not be limited. [30A:9.2.4.1] 

30.3.1.2 Class I, Class II, and Class IIIA liquids shall not be 
dispensed by applying pressure to tanks or containers. Listed 
pumps that take suction through the top of the tank or con- 
tainer or listed self-closing faucets shall be used. [30A:9.2.4.2] 

30.3.2 Basic Fire Control. 

30.3.2.1 Sources of Ignition. Smoking materials, including 
matches and lighters, shall not be used within 20 ft (6 m) of 
areas used for fueling, semcing fuel systems of internal com- 
bustion engines, or receiving or dispensing of Class I and Class 
II liquids. The motors of all equipment being fueled shall be 
shut off during the fueling operation except for emergency 
generators, pumps, and so forth, where continuing operation 
is essential. [30A:9.2.5.1] 

30.3.2.2 Fire Extinguishers. Each motor fuel dispensing facil- 
ity or repair garage shall be provided with fire extinguishers 
installed, inspected, and maintained as required by Section 
13.6. Extinguishers for outside motor fuel dispensing areas 
shall be provided according to the extra (high) hazard re- 
quirements for Class B hazards, except that the maximum 
travel distance to a 80 B:C extinguisher shall be permitted to 
be 100 feet. [30A:9.2.5.2] 

30.3.2.3 Fire Suppression Systems. Where required, automatic 
fire suppression systems shall be installed in accordance with the 
appropriate NFPA standard, manufacturers' instructions, and the 
listing requirements of the systems. [30A:9.2.5.3] 

30.3.2.4 Waste Handling. 

30.3.2.4.1 Crankcase drainings and waste liquids shall not be 
dumped into sewers, into streams, or on the ground. They 
shall be stored in approved tanks or containers outside any 
building, or in tanks installed in accordance vnxh Chapter 4 
and Chapter 5 of NFPA30A, until removed from the premises. 

Exception: As provided for in 4.3. 9.3 ofNFPA 30A. [30A:9. 2. 6. 1] 

30.3.2.4.2 The contents of oil separators and traps of floor 
drainage systems shall be collected at sufEciendy frequent inter- 
vals to prevent oil from being carried into sewers. [30A:9.2.6.2] 

30.3.2.5 Housekeeping. The dispensing area and the area 
within any dike shall be kept free of vegetation, debris, and 
any other material that is not necessary to the proper opera- 
tion of the motor fuel dispensing facility. [30A:9.2.7] 

30.3.2.6 Fire Doors. Fire doors shall be kept unobstructed at all 
times. Appropriate signs and markings shall be used. [30A:9.2.8] 



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FOREST PRODUCTS 



-161 



Clhapter 31 Forest Prodmcts 

31.1* General. The storage, manufacturing, and processing of 
timber, lumber, plywood, veneers, and by-products shall be in 
accordance with this chapter and NFPA 664, Standard for the 
Prevention of Fires and Explosions in Wood Processing and Wood- 
working Facilities. 

31.2 Penmits. Permits, where required, shall comply with Sec- 
tion 1.12. 

31.3 Protection of Storage of Forest Products. 

31.3.1 Application. 

31.3.1.1 The requirements of this chapter shall apply to the 
outside storage of the following: 

(1) Lumber and wood panel products at retail and wholesale 
lumber storage yards 

(2) Lumber and wood panel products at other than retail and 
wholesale storage yards 

(3) Ties, poles, piles, posts, and other similar forest products 
at pressure-treadng plant yards 

(4) Outside storage of wood chips, hogged material, and wood 
by-products 

(5) Logs 

31.3.1.2 The requirements of this chapter shall not apply to 
forest products stored on piers and wharves as addressed in 
NFPA 307, Standard fen' the Construction and Fire Protection of Ma- 
rine Terminals, Piers, and Wharves. 

31.3.2 General Fire Protection. The requirements in this sub- 
section shall apply to all facilities regulated by 31.3.3 through 
31.3.7 except as modified by those subsections. 

31.3.2.1 Operational Fire Prevention. 

31.3.2.1.1* Combustible waste materials such as bark, sawdust, 
chips, and other debris shall not be permitted to accumulate 
in a quantity or location that constitutes an undue fire hazard. 

31.3.2.1.2 Smoking shall be prohibited except in specified 
safe locations approved by the AHJ. 

31.3.2.1.2.1 Signs that read "No Smoking" shall be posted in 
those areas where smoking is prohibited. 

31.3.2.1.2.2 Signs indicating areas designated as safe for 
smoking shall be posted in those locations where smoking is 
permitted. 

31.3.2.1.2.3 Smoking areas shall be provided with approved, 
noncombustible ash receptacles. 

31.3.2.1.2.4 Smoking shall be specifically prohibited in and 
around railroad cars. 

31.3.2.1.3 Access into yard areas by unauthorized persons shall 
be prohibited. 

31.3.2.1.4 Storage areas shall be enclosed with a fence 
equipped with effective gates located as necessary to allow 
the entry of fire department apparatus. 

31.3.2.1.5 Miscellaneous occupancy hazards such as vehicle 
storage and repair shops, cutting and welding operations, 
flammable liquid storage, liquefied petroleum gas storage, 
and similar operations shall be safeguarded in accordance 
with recognized good practice and this Code. 



31.3.2.1.6 Vehicles and other power devices shall be of an 
approved type and shall be safely maintained and operated. 

31.3.2.1.6.1* Vehicle fuehng operations shall be conducted in 
specified safe locations, isolated from storage areas and prin- 
cipal operating buildings. 

31.3.2.1.6.2 Diesel- or gasoline-fueled vehicles that operate 
on hogged material or chip piles, in log storage areas, or in 
lumber storage areas shall be equipped with fixed fire- 
extinguishing systems of a type approved for off-road vehicles. 

31.3.2.1.7 All electrical equipment and installations shall 
conform to the provisions of Section 11.1. 

31.3.2.1.8 Salamanders, braziers, open fires, and similar dan- 
gerous heating arrangements shall be prohibited. 

31.3.2.1.9 Heating devices shall be limited to approved-type 
equipment installed in an approved manner. 

31.3.2.1.10 Suitable safeguards shall be provided to minimize 
the hazard of sparks caused by equipment such as refuse burn- 
ers, boiler stacks, vehicle exhausts, and locomotives. 

31.3.2.1.10.1* Burning of shavings, sawdust, and refuse mate- 
rials shall be conducted only in an approved, enclosed refuse 
burner equipped with an approved spark arrester and located 
at a safe distance from the nearest point of any yard. (See Section 
10.11.) 

31.3.2.1.10.2 The design and location of large burners pre- 
sents special problems, and the AHJ shall be consulted. 

31.3.2.1.11 Stacks from solid fuel-burning furnaces and boil- 
ers shall be equipped with spark-arresting equipment to pre- 
vent hot sparks from reaching the ground, and consideration 
shall be given to spark hazard in determining the height of 
such stacks. 

31.3.2.1.12 Cutting, weldirig, or other use of open flames or 
spark-producing equipment shall not be permitted in the stor- 
age area unless by an approved permit system. 

31.3.2.2 Exposure Protection. Exposure to the yard shall be 
protected in accordance with the requirements of 31.3.2.2.1 
through 31.3.2.2.2. 

31.3.2.2.1* Yard areas shall be separated from plant opera- 
tions and other structures so that fire exposure into the yard is 
minimized. 

31.3.2.2.1.1 Minimum separation shall be by means of a clear 
space permanently available for fire-fighung operations. 

31.3.2.2.1.2 The width of the clear space shall be based on die 
severity of exposure, which varies with the area, height, occu- 
pancy, construction, and protecdon of the exposing structure 
and the type of stacking and height of adjacent stacks. 

31.3.2.2.2* Forest, brush, and grass fire exposure shall be 
minimized by providing adequate clear space that is carefully 
kept free of combustible vegetation. 

31.3.2.2.2.1 Clear space of a width at least equivalent to the 
fire department access road shall be provided for grass expo- 
sures, and clear space of a width not less than 100 ft (30 m) 
shall be provided for light brush exposures. 

31.3.2.2.2.2 In forested areas, a wider clear space than in 
31.3.2.2.2.1 shall be provided. 



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31.3.2.3* Fire Detection and Extinguishment. A reliable means 
for prompt transmission of fire alarms to public fire departments 
and plant emergency organizations shall be provided. 

31.3.3 Outside Storage of Lumber and Wood Panel Products 
at Retail and Wholesale Storage Yards. 

31.3.3.1 Application. 

31.3.3.1.1 The requirements of 31.3.3 shall apply to the fol- 
lowing areas: 

(1) Retail lumberyards handling forest products and other 
building materials 

(2) Wholesale lumber storage yards, including distribution, 
holding, and transshipment areas 

31.3.3.1.2* The requirements of 31.3.4 shall apply to other 
than large outside wholesale and retail distribution yards. 

31.3.3.2 General. 

31.3.3.2.1* The fire hazard potential inherent in lumber stor- 
age operations with large quantities of combustible materials 
shall be controlled by a positive fire prevention program un- 
der the direct supervision of upper level management that 
shall include the following: 

(1) Selection, design, and arrangement of storage yard areas 
and materials-handling equipment based upon proven 
fire prevention and protection principles 

(2) Means for early fire detection, transmission of alarm, and 
fire extinguishment 

(3) Fire department access roads to separate large stacks and 
provide access for effective fire-fighting operations 

(4) Separation of yard storage from yard buildings and other 
exposing properties 

(5) Effective fire prevention maintenance program, includ- 
ing regular yard inspections by trained personnel 

31.3.3.2.2* Water supplies shall be provided in accordance 
with this Code. 

31.3.3.3 Open Yaid Storage. 

31.3.3.3.1* Lumber stacks shall be on stable ground, and 
paved or surfaced v\dth materials such as cinders, fine gravel, 
or stone. 

31.3.3.3.2 The method of stacking shall be stable and in an 
orderly and reg[ular manner. 

31.3.3.3.3* The height of stacks shall not exceed 20 ft (6 m) 
with consideration for stability. 

31.3.3.3.4 Where stacks are supported clear of the ground, 
6 in. (150 mm) of clearance shall be provided for cleaning 
operations under the stacks. 

31.3.3.3.5 Fire department access roads shall be spaced so 
that a grid system of not more than 50 ft x 150 ft (15 m x 46 m) 
is produced. 

31.3.3.3.6 Fire department access roads shall comply with 
Section 18.2. 

3 1 .3.3.3.7 Stacking limits shall be designated to indicate yard 
area and alleyway limits in accordance vvith 31.3.3.3.7.1 or 
31.3.3.3.7.2. 

31.3.3.3.7.1 The stacking hmits shall be designated with 
boundary posts having signs that indicate stacking limits un- 
less otherwise permitted by 31.3.3.3.7.2. 



31.3.3.3.7.2 Where yards have paved areas, painted boundary 
limits shall be permitted to be used to designate stacking limits. 

31.3.3.4 Exposure Protection. 

31.3.3.4.1 Exposure to the Yard. 

31.3.3.4.1.1 Open yard stacking shall be located with not less 
than 15 ft (4.6 m) clear space to buildings. 

31.3.3.4.1.2 Boundary posts with signs designating stacking 
limits shall be provided to designate the clear space to un- 
sprinklered buildings in which hazardous manufacturing or 
other operations take place. 

31.3.3.4.2* Exposure from the Yard. 

31.3.3.4.2.1 Open yard stacking shall be located with not less 
than 15 ft (4.6 m) clear space to adjacent property fines. 

31.3.3.4.2.2 Alternative forms of exposure protection shall 
be permitted where approved by the AHJ. 

31.3.4 Outside Storage of Lumber and Wood Panel Products 
at Other than Retail and Wholesale Storage Yards. 

31.3.4.1* Application. The requirements of 31.3.4 shall apply 
to large yard storage areas containing lumber, wood panels, 
and other similar wood products not intended for retail or 
wholesale distribution at the site. 

31.3.4.2* General. The fire hazard potential inherent in forest 
product storage operations with large quantities of combus- 
tible materials shall be controlled by a positive fire prevention 
program under the direct supervision of upper level manage- 
ment that shall include the following: 

(1) Selection, design, and arrangement of storage yard areas 
and materials-handling equipment based on sound fire 
prevention and protection principles 

(2) Means for early fire detection, transmission of alarm, and 
fire extinguishment 

(3) Fire department access roads to separate large stacks and 
provide access for effective fire-fighting operations 

(4) Separation of yard storage from mill or other plant opera- 
tions and other exposing properties 

(5) Effective fire prevention maintenance program, includ- 
ing regular yard inspections by trained personnel 

31.3.4.3* Open Yard Storage. 

31.3.4.3.1* Water supplies shall be provided in accordance 
with this Code. 

31.3.4.3.2 Access to the plant and yard from public highways 
shall be provided by all-weather roadways capable of support- 
ing fire department apparatus. 

31.3.4.3.3 The storage site shall be reasonably level, on solid 
ground, and paved or surfaced with materials such as cinders, 
fine gravel, or stone. 

31.3.4.3.4 Stack height shall be limited to 20 ft (6 m). 

31.3.5 Outside Storage of Ties, Poles, Piles, Posts, and Other 
Similar Forest Products at Pressure-Treating Plant Yards. 

31.3.5.1 Application. 

31.3.5.1.1* The requirements of 31.3.5 shall apply to yard stor- 
age areas containing treated and untreated ties, poles, piles, 
posts, and other similar forest products in yards connected 
with pressure-treating plants. 



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31.3.5.1.2 The requirements of 31.3.5 shall not apply to 
pressure-treating buildings, processes, or storage of treating 
materials. 

31.3.5.2* General. The fire hazard potential inherent in tie 
storage operations with large quantities of combustible mate- 
rials shall be controlled by a positive fire prevention program 
under the direct supervision of upper level management that 
shall include the following: 

(1) Selection, design, and arrangement of storage yard areas 
and materials-handling equipment based upon sound fire 
prevention and protection principles 

(2) Means for early fire detection, transmission of alarm, and 
fire extinguishment 

(3) Fire department access roads to separate large stacks and 
provide access for effective fire-fighting operations 

(4) Separation of yard storage from mill buildings and other 
exposing properties 

(5) Effective fire prevention maintenance program, includ- 
ing regular yard inspections by trained personnel 

31.3.5.3* Tie Yaid Protection. 

31.3.5.3.1* Unobstructed alleyways of sufficient width for hand 
or cart fire hose laying operations shall be provided between 
piles. 

31.3.5.3.1.1 Alleyways shall not be less than 2 ft (0.6 m) in 
width. 

31.3.5.3.1.2 Where a minimum alleyway width of 4 ft (1.2 m) 
is provided, the length of the rows shall be not more than 
100 ft (30 m). 

31.3.5.3.1.3 Where an alleyway width less than 4 ft (1.2 m) is 
provided, the length of the rows shall be not more than 75 ft 
(23 m). 

31.3.5.3.2* Water supplies shall be provided in accordance 
with this Code. 

31.3.5.3.3 Access to the plant and yard from public highways 
shall be provided by all-weather roadways capable of support- 
ing fire department apparatus. 

31.3.5.3.4 The storage site shall be reasonably level, on solid 
ground, and paved or surfaced with materials such as cinders, 
fine gravel, or stone. 

31.3.5.3.5* Stack heights shall be limited to 20 ft (6 m). 

31.3.6 Outside Storage of Wood Chips aed Hogged Material. 

31.3.6.1* Application. The requirements of 31.3.6 shall apply to 
yard storage areas containing wood chips and hogged material. 

31.3.6.2 General. 

31.3.6.2.1* The fire hazard potential inherent in storage piles 
shall be controlled by a positive fire prevention program un- 
der the direct supervision of upper level management that 
shall include the following: 

(1) Selection, design, and arrangement of storage yard areas 
and materials-handling equipment based upon sound fire 
prevention and protection principles 

(2) Establishment of control over the various factors that lead 
to spontaneous heating, including provisions for monitor- 
ing the internal condition of the pile 

(3) Means for early fire detection and extinguishment 



(4) Fire department access roads around the piles and access 
roads to the top of the piles for effective fire-fighting 
operations 

(5) Facilities for calling the public fire department and facilities 
needed by the fire department for fire extinguishment 

(6) Effective fire prevention maintenance program, includ- 
ing regular yard inspections by trained personnel 

31.3.6.2.2* The following items shall be addressed when estab- 
lishing operating procedures: 

( 1 ) The storage site shall be; reasonably level, sohd ground, or 
shall be paved with blacktop, concrete, or other hard- 
surface material. 

(2) Sites shall be cleaned before transferring wood ]3roducts 
to the site. 

(3) Operating plans for the buildup and reclaiming of the 
pile shall be based on a turnover time of not more than 
1 year under ideal conditions. 

(4)*Piles containing other than screened chips made from 

cleaned and barked logs shall be minimized. 
(5)*The pile size shall be limited. 

(6) Pile heights shall be kept low, particularly piles that inher- 
ently carry a larger percentage of fines and are subject to 
greater compaction. 

(7) Thermocouples shall be installed during pile buildup, or 
other means for measuring temperatures within the pile 
shall be provided with regular (normally weekly) reports 
to management. 

(8)*The pile shall be wetted regularly to help keep fines from 
drying out and help maintain the moisture content of the 
surface layer of the pile. 

31.3.6.3* Pile Protection. 

31.3.6.3.1* Piles shall be constructed with an access roadway 
to the top of the pile in order to reach any part of the pile. 

31.3.6.3.2* Piles shall not exceed 60 ft (18 m) in height, 300 ft 
(90 m) in width, and 500 ft (150 m) in length. 

31.3.6.3.2.1 Where pile height and width are such that all 
portions of the pile cannot be reached by direct hose streams 
from the ground, arrangements shall be made to provide fire- 
fighting service in these areas, and small fire stream supplies 
shall be available on the top of the pile for handling small 
surface fires and for wetting the pile in diy weather. 

31.3.6.3.2.2 When piles exceed 500 ft (150 m) in length, they 
shall be subdivided by fire department access roads having not 
less than 30 ft (9 m) of clear space at the base of the piles. 

31.3.6.3.2.3 Low barrier walls around piles shall be provided 
to clearly define pile perimeters, prevent creeping, and facili- 
tate cleanup of fire department access roads. 

31.3.6.3.3 Where suitable, a small, motorized vehicle amply 
equipped with portable extinguishing equipment or a water 
tank and pump shall be provided. 

31.3.6.3.3.1 Lightweight ladders that can be placed agsdnst the 
side of the pile shall be placed at convenient locations through- 
out the yard for use by the plant emergency organization. 

31.3.6.3.3.2 Training of the plant emergency organization also 
shall include procedures and precautions to be observed by yard 
crews employing power equipment in fighting internal fires. 



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31.3.6.3.4* Portable fire extinguishers for Class Afires shall be 
provided in accordance with Section 13.6 on all vehicles oper- 
ating on the pile in addition to the normal Class B units for the 
vehicle. 

31.3.6.3.5* Water supplies shall be provided in accordance 
with this Code. 

31.3.6.3.6 All motor and switchgear enclosures shall be pro- 
vided with approved, portable fire extinguishers suitable for 
the hazard involved in accordance with Section 13.6. 

31.3.6.3.7* Power-operated, shovel-type or scoop-type vehicles, 
dozers, or similar equipment shall be available for use in moving 
stored material for fire fighting. 

31.3.6.3.8 Temporary conveyors and motors on the surface 
or adjacent to the piles shall not be permitted. 

31.3.6.3.9 Physical protection shall be provided to prevent 
heat sources such as steam lines, air lines, electrical motors, 
and mechanical drive equipment from becoming buried or 
heavily coated with combustible material. 

31.3.6.3.10 Tramp metal collectors or detectors shall be re- 
quired on all conveyor and blower systems. 

31.3.6.4 Exposure Protection. 

31.3.6.4.1* Incinerators or open refuse burning shall not be 
permitted in any area where sparks could reach the storage 
piles. 

31.3.6.4.2* A clear space of not less than 15 ft (4.6 m) shall be 
maintained between piles and exposing structures, yard 
equipment, or stock, depending on the degree of exposure 
hazard. 

31.3.6.4.3* Pile-to-pile clearance of not less than 30 ft (9 m) at 
the base of the pile shall be provided. 

31.3.6.5 Emei^ency Plan. The facility shall have an emer- 
gency plan for monitoring, controlling, and extinguishing 
spot fires. 

31.3.7* Storage and Processing of Wood Chips, Hogged Mate- 
rial, Fines, Compost, and Raw Products at Yard Waste Recy- 
cling Facilities. 

31.3.7.1 The storage and processing of wood chips, hogged ma- 
terial, fines, compost, and raw products produced from yard 
waste recycling facilities shall comply with 31.3.6 and 31.3.7. 

31.3.7.2 When not protected by a fixed fire-extinguishing sys- 
tem in accordance with Chapter 1 3, piles shall not exceed 25 ft 
(7.6 m) in height, 150 ft (45 m) in width, and 250 ft (76.2 m) 
in length. 

31.3.7.3 Static Pile Protectioii. 

31.3.7.3.1 Static piles shall be monitored by an approved 
means to measure temperatures within the piles. 

31.3.7.3.2 Internal pile temperatures shall be recorded weekly 

31.3.7.3.3 Records shall be kept on file at the facihty and 
made available for inspection. 

31.3.7.3.4 The facility shall have an operational plan indicating 
procedures and schedules for the inspection, monitoring, and 
restricting of excessive internal temperatures in static piles. 



31.3.7.4 Fire Protection. 

31.3.7.4.1 Conveyor tunnels and combustible enclosures that 
pass under a pile shall be protected with automatic sprinklers 
complying with Section 13.3. 

31.3.7.4.2 Combustible or enclosed conveyor systems shall be 
protected with automatic sprinklers complying with Chaph 
ter 13. 

31.3,8 Outside Storage of Logs. 

31.3.8.1 Application. 

31.3.8.1.1* The requirements of 31.3.8 shall apply to log yard 
storage areas containing saw, plywood veneer, or pulpwood logs 
stored in ranked piles commonly referred to as cold decks. 

31.3.8.1.2 The requirements of 31.3.8 shall not apply to cord- 
wood. 

31.3.8.2* General. The fire hazard potential inherent in log 
storage operations with large quantities of combustible mate- 
rials shall be controlled by a positive fire prevention program 
under the direct supervision of upper level management that 
shall include the following: 

(1) Selection, design, and arrangement of storage yard areas 
and materials-handling equipment based on sound fire 
prevention and protection principles 

(2) Means for early fire detection, transmission of alarm, and 
fire extinguishment 

(3) Fire department access roads to separate large piles and 
provide access for effective fire-fighting operations 

(4) Separation of yard storage from mill operations and other 
exposing properties 

(5) Effective fire prevention maintenance program, includ- 
ing regular yard inspections by trained personnel 

31.3.8.3* Log Yard Protection. 

31.3.8.3.1 The storage site shall be reasonably level, on solid 
ground, and paved or surfaced with materials such as cinders, 
fine gravel, or stone. 

31.3.8.3.2 Access to the plant and yard from public highways 
shall be provided by all-weather roadways capable of support- 
ing fire department apparatus. 

31.3.8.3.3* All sides of each cold deck shall be accessible by 
means of fire department access roads. 

31.3.8.3.3.1 A fire department access road width of 1V4 times 
the pile height but not less than 20 ft (6 m) shall be provided, 
with fire department access roads between alternate rows of two 
pile groups providing a clear space of at least 100 ft (30 m) . 

31.3.8.3.3.2* Each cold deck shall not exceed 500 ft (150 m) 
in length, 300 ft (90 m) in width, and 20 ft (6 m) in height. 

31.3.8.3.3.3* Fire department access roads for access across each 
end, with a clear space of not less than 100 ft (30 m) to adjacent 
pile rows or other exposed property, shall be provided. 

31.3.8.3.3.4* The size of cold decks shall be permitted to be 
increased where additional fire flow and fixed fire protection 
equipment is provided and the approval of the AHJ is obtained. 

31.3.8.3.4 Water supplies shall be provided in accordance 
vrith this Code. 

31.3.8.3.5 Dynamite shall never be used as a means to reclaim 
frozen log piles. 



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1-165 



31.3.8.3.6* During dry weather, piles shall be wet down. 

31.3.9 Wood Processing and WoodworEdmg Facilities. Dust 
control shall be in accordance with NFPA 664 for combustible 
dust-producing operations that occupy areas of more than 
5000 ft^ (464 m^), or to areas where dust-producing equip- 
ment requires an aggregate dust collection flow rate of more 
than 1500 ftVmin (2549 mVhr). 



Chapter 32 Motion Picture amd Televisiom 
Productiioini Studio Soumdstages and Approved 
Productioini Facil 



32.1 General. The design, construction, operation, and main- 
tenance of soundstages and approved production facilities 
used in motion picture and television industry productions 
shall comply with NFPA 140, Standard on Motion Picture and 
Television Production Studio Soundstages and Approved Production 
Facilities, and Chapter 32. 

32.2 Peinnnits. Permits, where required, shall comply with Sec- 
tion 1.12. 

32.3 Housekeeping. Soundstages and approved production 
facilities shall maintain houselceeping in accordance with 
Chapters 10 and 19 where applicable. 

32.4 Firs Protection Features. 
32.4.1 SprinHer Systems. 

32.4.1.1 Existing soundstages and existing approved produc- 
tion facilities equipped with automatic sprinkler systems shall 
maintain those systems in accordance with NFPA 25, Standard 
for the Inspection, Testing, and Maintenance of Water-Based Fire Pro- 
tection Systems. [140:5.2.1] 

32.4.1.2 Anew soundstage or new approved production facil- 
ity shall be equipped with an approved, supervised automatic 
sprinkler system. [140:5.2.2] 

32.4.1.3 The automatic sprinkler system required by 32.4.1.2 
shall be installed in accordance with NFPA 13 unless otherwise 
provided in 32.4.1.3.1 or 32.4.1.3.2. [140:5.2.3] 

32.4.1.3.1* The requirements of NFPA 13 prohibiting obstruc- 
tions to sprinkler discharge shall not be applicable if approved 
mitigation techniques are employed. [140:5.2.3.1] 

32.4.1.3.2* The requirements of NFPA 13 prohibiting obstruc- 
tions to sprinkler discharge shall not be applicable if the build- 
ing sprinkler system meets the design criteria for Extra Haz- 
ard, Group 2. [140:5.2.3.2] 



32.4.1.4 The automatic sprinkler system required by 32.4.1.2 
shall be maintained in accordance with NFPA 25. [140:5.2.4] 

32.4.2 Fiine Alarm System. Fire alarm system notification ap- 
pliances within soundstages, and approved production facili- 
ties shall be permitted to be deactivated during videotaping, 
filming, or broadcasting of programs provided the following 
conditions exist: 

(1) In the event of alarm system activation, notification appli- 
ances shall activate within a location that is constantly at- 
tended during the videotaping, filming, or broadcasting 
of programs. 

(2) The attendants of the location identified in 32.4.2(1) are 
provided with a means of communicating with the fire 
command center for the building, where one is provided, 
and with the occupants of the soundstage to initiate emer- 
gency action. 

(3) Deactivation of notification appliances shall cause activa- 
tion of a visual signal at an approved location, which shall 
remain illuminated while notification appliances on the 
soundstage are deactivated. 

(4) The visual signal shall be identified by a sign that shall 
read "When Illuminated, Soundstage Fire Alarm System 
Notification Appliances Are Deactivated." [140:5.3] 



Chapter 33 Outside Storage off Hires 

33.1* General. 

33.1.1 Facihties storing more than 500 tires outside shall be 
in accordance with Chapter 33. 

33.1.2 Permits. Permits, where required, shall comply with 
Section 1.12. 

33.1.3 Fire department access roads to separate tire piles and 
for effective fire-fighting operations shall be in accordance 
with Table 33.1.3. 

33.1.4 Separation of yard storage from buildings, vehicles, 
flammable materials, and other exposures shall be in accor- 
dance with Table 33.1.3. 

33.1.5 Trees, plants, and vegetation within the separation ar- 
eas shall be managed in accordance with Section 10.14. 

33.1.6 Ignition Sources. 

33.1.6.1 Smoking shall be prohibited vrithin the tire storage 



Table 33.1.3 Representative Minimnum Exposeipe Separation Distances in Feet (Meters) for Tire Storage 



Exposed Face 




























Dimensnon 














Pile Height 














ft m 


8 ft 


2.4 m 


10 ft 


Sam 


12 ft 


3.7 m 


14 ft 4.3 m 


16 ft 


4.9 m 


18 ft 


5.5 m 


20 ft 


6.1 m 


25 7.6 


56 


17 


62 


19 


67 


20 


73 22 


77 


23 


82 


25 


85 


26 


50 15.2 


75 


23 


84 


26 


93 


28 


100 30 


107 


33 


113 


34 


118 


36 


100 30 


100 


30 


116 


35 


128 


39 


137 42 


146 


44 


155 


47 


164 


50 


150 45 


100 


30 


116 


35 


128 


39 


137 42 


146 


44 


155 


47 


164 


50 


200 61 


100 


30 


116 


35 


128 


39 


137 42 


146 


44 


155 


47 


164 


50 


250 75 


100 


30 


116 


35 


128 


39 


137 42 


146 


44 


155 


47 


164 


50 



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UNIFORM FIRE CODE 



33.1.6.2 Sources of ignition such as cutting and welding, heat- 
ing devices, and open fires shall be prohibited within the tire 
storage area. 

33.1.6.3 Safeguards shall be provided to minimize the hazard 
of sparks from equipment such as refuse burners, boiler 
stacks, and vehicle exhaust when such hazards are located 
near the tire storage area. 

33.1.7 Piles of tires or altered tire material shall not be lo- 
cated beneath power lines or structures. 

33.1.8 Piles of tires or altered tire material shall be at least 
50 ft (15 m) from the perimeter fence. 

33.1.9 Provisions for surface water drainage and measures to 
provide protection of pyrolitic oil runoff shall be directed 
around and away from the outdoor tire storage site to an ap- 
proved location. 

33.1.10 Tires shall be removed from rims immediately upon 
arrival at the storage site. 

33.1.11 Tires shall not be stored on wedands, flood plains, 
ravines, canyons, or steeply graded surfaces. 

33.2 Individual Piles. 

33.2.1 New Outside Tire Storage Sites and Piles. 

33.2.1.1 New individual outside tire storage piles containing 
more than 500 tires shall be limited in volume to 125,000 ft 
(3540 m^). 

33.2.1.2 The dimensions of new tire storage piles shall not 
exceed 10 ft (3 m) in height, 50 ft (15 m) in width, and 250 ft 
(75 m) in length. 

33.2.1.3 Individual piles shall be separated in accordance 
with Table 33.1.3. 

33.2.2 Existing Individual Piles. 

33.2.2.1 Existing outside tire storage piles shall be in accor- 
dance with the provisions of 33.2.1 within 5 years of the adop- 
tion of this Code. 

33.2.2.2 Exisdng individual outside tire storage piles containing 
more than 500 tires shall be limited in volume to 250,000 ft 
(7080 m^). 

33.2.2.3 Existing pile dimensions shall not exceed 20 ft (6 m) 
in height, 50 ft (15 m) in width, and 250 ft (75 m) in length. 

33.2.2.4 Individual piles shall be separated in accordance 
with Table 33.1.3. 

33.3 Emei^ency Response Flan. 

33.3.1 The operator of the outside tire storage facility shall 
develop an emergency response plan and submit it for ap- 
proval by the AHJ. 

33.3.2 The AHJ shall retain a copy of the approved emer- 
gency response plan. 

33.3.3 The operator of the outside tire storage facility shall 
keep a copy of the approved emergency response plan at the 
facility. 

33.3.4 The AHJ shall be immediately notified of and approve 
any proposed changes to the emergency response plan. 

33.4 Fire Control Measures. Measures to aid in the control of 
fire shall be in accordance with Section 33.4. 



33.4.1 Manual Fire-Fighting Equipment. 

33.4.1.1 At a minimum, the following items shall be main- 
tained on site and in working order: 

(1) One 2A:10BC fire extinguisher 

(2) One 2.5 gal (10 L) water extinguisher 

(3) One 10 ft (3 m) long pike pole 

(4) One rigid rake 

(5) One round point shovel 

(6) One square point shovel 

33.4.1.2 One Avy chemical fire extinguisher with a minimum 
rating of 4A;40BC shall be carried on each piece of fuel- 
powered equipment used to handle scrap tires. 

33.4.1.3 On-site personnel shall be trained in the use and 
function of this equipment to mitigate tire pile ignition. 

33.4.2 An approved water supply capable of supplying the 
required fire flow to protect exposures and perform fire sup- 
pression and overhaul operations shall be provided. 

33.4.3* The AHJ shall be permitted to require additional tools 
and equipment for fire control and the protection of life and 
property. 

33.5 Site Access. 

33.5.1 Access to the site and each tire storage yard and pile 
shall be in accordance with Section 18.2 and this section. 

33.5.2 Accesses shall be maintained clear of combustible 
waste or vegetation and shall remain accessible to the fire de- 
partment at all times. 

33.6 Signs and Security. Access by unauthorized persons and 
security of the site shall be in accordance with Section 33.6. 

33.6.1 Signs bearing the name of the operator, the operating 
hours, emergency telephone numbers, and site rules shall be 
posted at site entrances. 

33.6.2 The facility shall have noncombustible fencing at least 
10 ft (3 m) high with intruder controls on top, in accordance 
with local laws, around the entire perimeter of the property. 

33.6.3 Access. 

33.6.3.1 Access to the facility shall be in accordance with Sec- 
tion 18.2. 

33.6.3.2 An attendant shall be on site at all times when the 
site is open. 

33.7 Outdoor Storage of Altered Tire Material. Outdoor stor- 
age of altered tire material in the form of chunks, chips, or 
crumbs shall be protected in accordance with 33.7.1 through 
33.7.5. 

33.7.1 A 10 ft (3 m) fence shall be maintained around the 
altered tire material storage area. 

33.7.2 Altered tire material piles shall be kept 50 ft (15 m) 
from perimeter fencing. 

33.7.3 Potential ignition sources such as welding, smoking, 
or other open flame uses shall not be allowed vdthin 20 ft 
(6 m) of the altered tire pile. 

33.7.4 Individual altered tire material piles shall not be lo- 
cated on site in excess of 90 days. 

33.7.5* Individual altered tire material piles shall be kept shel- 
tered from precipitation. 



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GENERAL STORAGE 



1-167 



Chapter 34 General Storage 

34.1 General. 

34.1.1 Application. This chapter shall apply to the indoor and 
outdoor storage of materials representing the broad range of 
combustibles, including plastics, rubber tires, and roll paper. 

34.1.1.1 Storage configurations shall include palletized stor- 
age, solid-piled storage, and storage in bin boxes, on shelves, 
or on racks. 

34.1.1.2 This chapter shall not apply to the following: 

(1) Unsprinklered buildings, except certain rack storage ar- 
rangements protected by high-expansion foam systems in 
accordance with this chapter 

(2) Storage of commodities that, with their packaging and 
storage aids, would be classified as noncombustible 

(3) Unpackaged bulk materials such as grain, coal, or similar 
commodities but excluding wood chips and sawdust, 
which are addressed in Chapter 31 

(4) Inside or outside storage of commodities covered by this 
Code, except where specifically mentioned herein (e.g., 
pyroxylin plastics) 

(5) Storage of high-hazard materials covered by this Code, ex- 
cept where specifically mentioned herein 

(6) Storage on plastic shelves on racks 
(7)*Miscellaneous tire storage 

(8) Combustible fiber storage, which is covered in Chapter 45 

34.1.2 Perniiti 
Section 1.12. 



Permits, where required, shall comply with 



34.2 Classifiicatioini of Conunodlities. 

34.2. 1 Commodity classification and the corresponding protec- 
tion requirements shall be determined based on the makeup of 
individual storage units (i.e., unit load, pallet load). 

34.2.2 When specific test data of commodity classification by 
a nationally recognized testing agency are available, the data 
shall be permitted to be used in determining classification of 
commodities. 

34.2.3 Mixed Commodlities. 

34.2.3.1 Protection requirements shall not be based on the 
overall commodity mix in a fire area. 

34.2.3.2 Unless the requirements of 34.2.3.3 or 34.2.3.4 are 
met, mixed commodity storage shall be protected by the re- 
quirements for the highest classified commodity and storage 
arrangement. 

34.2.3.3 The protection requirements for the lower com- 
modity class shall be permitted to be utilized where all of the 
following are met: 

(1) Up to 10 pallet loads of a higher hazard commodity, as 
described in 34.2.5 and 34.2.6, shall be permitted to be 
present in an area not exceeding 40,000 ft^ (3716 m^). 

(2) The higher hazard commodity shall be randomly dis- 
persed with no adjacent loads in any direction, including 
diagonally. 

(3) Where the ceiling protection is based on Class 1 or Class II 
commodities, the allowable number of pallet loads for 
Class IV or Group A plastics shall be reduced to five. 

34.2.3.4 The protection requirements for the lower commodity 
class shall be permitted to be utilized in the area of lower com- 



modity class, where the higher hazard material is confined to a 
designated area and the area is protected to the higher hazard in 
accordance with the requirenients of this Code. 

34.2.4 Pallet TVpes. • 

34.2.4.1 When loads are palletized, the use of wooden or metal 
pallets shall be assumed in the classification of commodities. 

34.2.4.2 For Class I through Class IV, when unreinforced 
polypropylene or high-density polyethylene plastic pallets are 
used, the classification of the commodity unit shall be in- 
creased one class (e.g.. Class III becomes Class IV and Class IV 
becomes cartoned unexpanded Group A plastics) . 

34.2.4.3 For Class I through Class IV, when reinforced 
polypropylene or high-density polyethylene plastic pallets are 
used, the classification of the commodity unit shall be in- 
creased two classes (e.g., Class II becomes Class IV and Class 
III becomes cartoned unexpanded Group A plastics) . 

34.2.4.3.1 Reinforced polypropylene or reinforced high- 
density polyethylene plastic pallets shall be marked with a 
molded symbol to indicate that the pallet is reinforced. 

34.2.4.4 For Class I through Class IV, when other than 
polypropylene or high-density polyethylene plastic pallets are 
used, the classification of the commodity unit shall be deter- 
mined by specific testing conducted by a national testing labo- 
ratory or shall be increased two classes. 

34.2.4.5 No increase in the commodity classification shall be 
required for Group A plastic commodities stored on plastic 
pallets. 

34.2.4.6 For ceiling-only sprinkler protection, the require- 
ments of 34.2.4.2 and 34.2.4.3 shall not apply where plastic 
pallets are used and where the sprinkler system uses spray 
sprinklers v^fith a K-factor of 16.8. 

34.2.4.7 The requirements of 34.2.4.2 through 34.2.4.4 shall 
not apply to nonwood pallets that have demonstrated a fire 
hazard that is equal to or less than wood pallets and are listed 
as such. 

34.2.5 Commodiity Classes. 

34.2.5. 1 Class I. A noncombustible product that meets one of 
the following criteria shall be classified as a Class I commodity: 

(1 ) Placed directly on wooden pallets 

(2) Placed in single-layer corrugated cartons, with or without 
single-thickness cardboard dividers, with or without pallets 

(3) Shrink-wrapped or paper-wrapped as a unit load with or 
without pallets 

34.2.5.2 Class n. A noncombustible product that is in slatted 
wooden crates, solid wood boxes, multiple-layered corrugated 
cartons, or equivalent combustible packaging material, with 
or without pallets shall be classified as a Class II commodity. 

34.2.5.3 Class m. 

34.2.5.3.1 A product fashioned from wood, paper, natural 
fibers, or Group C plastics vrith or without cartons, boxes, or 
crates and with or vvithout pallets shall be classified as a Class 
III commodity. 

34.2.5.3.2 A Class III commodity shall be permitted to con- 
tain a limited amount (5 percent by weight or volume or less) 
of Group A or Group B plastics. 



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UNIFORM FIRE CODE 



34.2.5.4 Class IV. 

34.2.5.4.1 A product, with or without pallets, that meets one 
of the following criteria shall be classified as a Class IV com- 
modity: 

(1 ) Constructed partially or totally of Group B plastics 

(2) Consists of free-flowing Group A plastic materials 

(3) Contains within itself or its packaging an appreciable 
amount (5 percent to 15 percent by weight or 5 percent to 
25 percent by volume) of Group A plastics 

34.2.5.4.2 The remaining materials shall be permitted to be 
metal, wood, paper, natural or synthetic fibers, or Group B or 
Group C plastics. 

34.2.6 ClassiiBcation of Plastics, Elastomers, and Rubber. Plas- 
tics, elastomers, and rubber shall be classified as Group A, 
Group B, or Group C plastics. 

34.2.6.1 Group A. The following materials shall be classified 
as Group A: 

( 1 ) ABS (acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene copolymer) 

(2) Acetal (polyformaldehyde) 

(3) Acrylic (polymethyl methacrylate) 

(4) Butyl rubber 

(5) EPDM (ethylene-propylene rubber) 

(6) RP (fiberglass-reinforced polyester) 

(7) Natural rubber (if expanded) 

(8) Nitrile-rubber (acrylonitrile-butadiene rubber) 

(9) PET (thermoplastic polyester) 

(10) Polybutadiene 

(11) Polycarbonate 

(12) Polyester elastomer 

(13) Polyethylene 

(14) Polypropylene 

(15) Polystyrene 

(16) Polyurethane 

(17) PVC (polyvinyl chloride — highly plasticized, with plas- 
ticizer content greater than 20 percent) (rarely found) 

(18) SAN (styrene acrylonitrile) 

(19) SBR (styrene-butadiene rubber) 



The following materials shall be classified 



34.2.6.2 Group : 
as Group B: 

(1) Cellulosics (cellulose acetate, cellulose acetate butyrate, 
ethyl cellulose) 

(2) Chloroprene rubber 

(3) Fluoroplastics (ECTFE — ethylene-chlorotrifluoro-ethylene 
copolymer; ETFE — ethylene-tetrafluoroethylene copoly- 
mer; FEP — fluorinated ethylene-propylene copolymer) 

(4) Natural rubber (not expanded) 

(5) Nylon (nylon 6, nylon 6/6) 

(6) Silicone rubber 

34.2.6.3 Group C. The following materials shall be classified 
as Group C: 

(1) Fluoroplastics (PCTFE — polychlorotrifluoroethylene; 
PTFE — polytetrafluoroethylene) 

(2) Melamine (melamine formaldehyde) 

(3) Phenolic 

(4) PVC (polyvinyl chloride — flexible, PVCs with plasticizer 
content up to 20 percent) 

(5) PVDC (polyvinylidene chloride) 

(6) PVDF (polyvinylidene fluoride) 

(7) PVF (polyvinyl fluoride) 

(8) Urea (urea formaldehyde) 



34.2.7* Classification of Rolled Paper Storage. For the pur- 
poses of this Code, the classifications of paper described in 
34.2.7.1 through 34.2.7.4 shall apply and be used to determine 
the fire protection design criteria. 

34.2.7.1 Heavyweight Class. Paperboard and paper stock hav- 
ing a basis weight [weight per 1000 ft^ (92.9 m^)] of 20 lb 
(9.1 kg) or greater shall be classified as heavyweight. 

34.2.7.2 Mediumweight Class. All the broad range of papers 
having a basis weight [weight per 1000 ft^ (92.9 m^)] of 10 lb 
to 20 lb (4.5 kg to 9.1 kg) shall be classified as mediumweight. 

34.2.7.3 Lightweight Class. All papers having a basis weight 
[weight per 1000 ft^ (92.9 m^)] of less than 10 lb (4.5 kg) shall 
be classified as lightweight. 

34.2.7.4 Tissue. 

34.2.7.4.1 The broad range of papers of characteristic gauzy 
texture, which, in some cases, are fairly transparent, shall be 
classified as tissue. 

34.2.7.4.2 For the purposes of this Code, tissue shall include 
the soft, absorbent type, regardless of basis weight; specifically, 
crepe wadding and the sanitary class including facial tissue, 
paper napkins, bathroom tissue, and toweling. 

34.3 Building Construction. 

34.3.1* Construction Type. Buildings used for storage of ma- 
terials that are stored and protected in accordance with this 
chapter shall be permitted to be of any of the types described 
in NFPA 220, Standard on Types of Building Construction. 

34.3.2 Fire-Fighting Access. Access shall be provided to all 
portions of the premises for fire-fighting purposes. 

34.3.3* Emergency Smoke and Heat Venting. 

34.3.3.1 Protection outlined in this chapter shall apply to 
buildings v\rith or without smoke and heat vents. 

34.3.3.2 Protection outlined in this chapter shall apply to 
buildings with or without draft curtains. 

34.3.3.3 Where local codes require smoke and heat vents in 
buildings protected by early suppression fast response (ESFR) 
sprinklers, the vents shall be manually operated or have an 
operating mechanism v^dth a standard response fusible ele- 
ment rated not less than 360°F (182^). 

34.4 Storage Arrangement. 

34.4.1* Piling Procedures and Precautions. 

34.4. 1 . 1 Any commodities that are hazardous in combination 
with each other shall be stored so they cannot come into con- 
tact with each other. 

34.4.1.2 Safe floor loads shall not be exceeded. 

34.4.1.3 Where storing water-absorbent commodities, nor- 
mal floor loads shall be reduced to take into account the 
added weight of water that can be absorbed during fire- 
fighting operations. 

34.4.2 Commodity Clearance. 

34.4.2.1 The clearance between top of storage and sprinkler 
deflectors shall conform to NFPA 13. 

34.4.2.2* If the commodity is stored above the lower chord of 
roof trusses, not less than 1 ft (0.3 m) of clear space shall be 



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maintained to allow wetting of the truss, unless the truss is 
protected with 1-hour fireproofing. 

34.4.2.3 Storage clearance from ducts shall be maintained in 
accordance with NFPA91, Standard for Exhaust Systems for Air 
Conveying of Vapors, Gases, Mists, and Noncombustible Particulate 
Solids. 

34.4.2.4 The clearance between stored materials and unit 
heaters, radiant space heaters, duct furnaces, and flues shall 
not be less than 3 ft (0.9 m) in all directions or shall be in 
accordance with the clearances shown on the approval agency 
label. 

34.4.2.5* Clearance shall be maintained to lights or light fix- 
tures to prevent ignition. 

34.4.2.6 Clearance shall be maintained around the path of 
fire door travel to ensure the door's proper operation and 
inspection. 

34.4.2.7 Operation and inspection clearance shall be main- 
tained around fire-extinguishing and fire protection equipment. 

34.4.3 Aisles. 

34.4.3.1 For the storage of commodities that expand with the 
absorption of water, such as roll paper, wall aisles not less than 
24 in. (0.6 m) wide shall be provided. 

34.4.3.2 Aisles shall be maintained to retard the transfer of 
fire from one pile to another and to allow convenient access 
for fire fighting, salvage, and removal of storage. 

34.4.4 Flammable and (Combustible liquids. 

34.4.4.1 Flammable or combustible liquids shall be kept in 
flammable liquid storage cabinets, in cutoff rooms, or in de- 
tached buildings. 

34.4.4.2 Protection shall be in accordance with Chapter 66. 

34.5 Geeeral Fire Protection. 

34.5.1* SprinHer Systems. Sprinkler systems installed in build- 
ings used for storage shall be in accordance with NFFA 13. 

34.5.2 High-Expansion Foam. 

34.5.2.1 High-expansion foam systems installed in addition 
to automatic sprinklers shall be installed in accordance with 
NFFA 11, Standard for Low-, Medium-, and High-Expansion Foam, 
except where modified by other requirements in this chapter. 

34.5.2.2 High-expansion foam used to protect idle pallets 
shall have a fill time of not more than 4 minutes. 

34.5.2.3 High-expansion foam systems shall be automatic in 
operation. 

34.5.2.4 Detectors for high-expansion foam systems shall be 
listed and shall be installed at the ceiling at not more than 
one-half the listed spacing in accordance with NFPA 72. 

34.5.2.5 Detection systems, concentrate pumps, generators, 
and other system components essential to the operation of the 
system shall have an approved standby power source. 

34.5.3 Manual Protection. 

34.5.3.1 Portable Fire Extinguishers. 

34.5.3.1.1 Portable fire extinguishers shall be provided in ac- 
cordance with Section 13.6, unless 34.5.3.1.2 applies. 



34.5.3.1.2 Where IV2 in. (33 mm) hose lines are available to 
reach all portions of areas with Class A fire loads, up to one- 
half of the portable fire extinguishers required by Section 13.6 
shall be permitted to be omitted. 

34.5.3.2 Hydrants. At locations without public hydrants, or 
where hydrants are not within 250 ft (75 m), private hydrants 
shall be installed in accordance with NFPA 24. 

34.5.4 Fire Oiganizatiom. 

34.5.4.1 Arrangements shall be made to allow rapid entry 
into the premises by the municipal fire department, police 
department, or other authorized personnel in case of fire or 
other emergency. 

34.5.4.2* Due to the unique nature of storage fires and the 
hazards associated with fighting such fires, facility emergency 
personnel shall be trained to have knowledge of the following: 

(1) Pile and building collapse potential during fire-fighting 
and mop-up operations due to sprinkler water absorp- 
tion, use of hose streams, and the undermining of piles by 
fire that is likely to cause material or piles to fall (espe- 
cially roll tissue paper), resulting in injury 

( 2 ) Operation of sprinkler systems and water supply equipment 

(3) Location of the controlling sprinkler valves so that the cor- 
rect sprinkler system can be turned on or off as necessary 

(4) Correct operation of emergency smoke and heat vent sys- 
tems where they have been provided 

(5) Use of material-handling equipment while sprinklers are 
operating to effect final extinguishment 

(6) Procedure for summoning outside aid immediately in an 
emergency 

(7) Maintenance of the security features of the premises 

(8) Operation of foam systems, evacuation procedures, and 
safety precautions during all foam operations 

34.5.4.3 Afire watch shall be maintained when the sprinkler 
system is not in service. 

34.5.5 Alarm Service. 

34.5.5.1 Automatic sprinkler systems and foam systems, where 
provided, shall have approved central station, auxiliary, remote 
station, or proprietary waterflow alarm service unless otherwise 
permitted by 34.5.5.1.1 or 34.5.5.1.2. 

34.5.5.1.1 Local waterflow alarm service shall be permitted 
when recorded guard service also is provided. 

34.5.5.1.2 Local waterflow alarm service shall be permitted 
where the storage facilities, are occupied on a 24-hour basis. 

34.5.5.2 Alarm service shall comply with NFPA 72. 

34.5.6 Security Service. Security service, where provided, shall 
comply with NFPA 601, Standard for Security Seroices in Fire Loss 
Pmiention. 

34.6 Buildinig Equipment, Maintenance, and Operations. 

34.6.1 Industrial Trucks. 

34.6.1.1 Power-operated industrial trucks and their use shall 
comply with NFPA 505, Fire Safety Standard for Powered Industrial 
Trucks Including Type Designations, Areas of Use, Conversions, 
Maintenance, and Operations. 

34.6.1.2 Industrial trucks using liquefied petroleum gas (LP- 
Gas) or liquid fuel shall be refueled outside of the storage 
building at a location designated for the purpose. 



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34.6.2 Building Service Equipment Electrical equipment shall 
be installed in accordance with the provisions of Section 11.1. 

34.6.3 Cutting and Welding Operations. 

34.6.3.1 Where welding or cutting operations are necessary, 
the requirements of Chapter 41 shall apply. 

34.6.3.2* Welding, soldering, brazing, and cutting shall be 
permitted to be performed on building components or con- 
tents that cannot be removed, provided that no storage is lo- 
cated below and within 25 ft (7.6 m) of the working area and 
flameproof tarpaulins enclose the area. 

34.6.3.3 During any of the operations identified in 34.6.3.2, 
all of the following shall apply: 

(1) The sprinkler system shall be in service. 

(2) Extinguishers suitable for Class A fires with a minimum 
rating of 2A shall be located in the working area. 

(3) Where inside hose lines are available, charged and at- 
tended inside hose lines shall be located in the working 
area. 

(4) A fire watch shall be maintained during the operations 
specified in 34.6.3.2 and for not less than 30 minutes fol- 
lowing completion of open-flame operation. 

34.6.4 Waste Disposal. 

34.6.4.1 Approved containers for rubbish and other trash 
materials shall be provided. 

34.6.4.2 Rubbish, trash, and other waste material shall be 
disposed of at regular intervals. 

34.6.5 Smoking. 

34.6.5.1 Smoking shall be prohibited except in locations des- 
ignated as smoking areas. 

34.6.5.2 Signs that read "No Smoking" shall be posted in pro- 
hibited areas. 

34.6.6* Maintenance and Inspection. 

34.6.6.1 Fire walls, fire doors, and floors shall be maintained 
in functional condition at all times. 

34.6.6.2* All water-based fire protection systems and the water 
supplies shall be inspected, tested, and maintained in accor- 
dance vwth NFPA 25. 

34.6.7 Refrigeration Systems. Refrigeration systems, if used, 
shall be in accordance with ASHRAE 15, Safety Code for Me- 
chanical Refrigeration. 

34.6.8 Lighting. Where metal halide lighting is installed, it 
shall be selected, installed, and maintained such that cata- 
strophic failure of the bulb shall not ignite materials below. 

34.7 Protection of Rack Storage. 

34.7.1* Application. Section 34.7 shall apply to the indoor 
storage of normal combustibles (Class I through Class IV) and 
plastics that are stored on racks. 

34.7.2 Building Construction. 

34.7.2.1 Fire protection of roof steel shall not be required when 
sprinkler systems are installed in accordance with NFPA 13. 

34.7.2.2 Fire protection of steel building columns and verti- 
cal rack members that support the building shall not be re- 
quired when ceiling sprinklers and in-rack sprinklers are in- 
stalled in accordance vrith NFPA 13. 



34.7.2.3 For sprinklered buildings with rack storage of over 
15 ft (4.6 m) in height and only ceiling sprinklers installed, 
steel building columns within the rack structure and vertical 
rack members that support the building shall have a fire resis- 
tance rating not less than 1 hour, unless the installation meets 
the requirements of 12.3.1.7 in NFPA 13. 

34.7.3 Storage Arrangement. 

34.7.3.1 * Rack Structure. Rack configurations shall be approved. 

34.7.3.2* Rack Loading. Racks shall not be loaded beyond 
their design capacity. 

34.7.3.3* Aisle Widths. 

34.7.3.3.1 Aisle widths and depth of racks shall be deter- 
mined by material-handling methods. 

34.7.3.3.2 The width of aisles shall be considered in the de- 
sign of the protection system. 

34.7.3.3.3* Aisle widths shall be maintained by either fixed 
rack structures or control in placement of portable racks. 

34.7.3.3.4 Any decrease in aisle width shall require a review of 
the adequacy of the protection system. 

34.7.3.4 General Fire Protection. 

34.7.3.4.1 High-Expansion Foam. 

34.7.3.4.1.1* Where high-expansion foam systems are in- 
stalled, they shall be automatic in operation and shall be in 
accordance with NFPA 11, except when modified by 34.7.3.4. 

34.7.3.4.1.2 When high-expansion foam systems are used in 
combination with ceiling sprinklers, in-rack sprinklers shall 
not be required. 

34.7.3.4.1.3 Detectors shall be listed and shall be installed in 
one of the following configurations: 

(1) At one-half listed linear spacing [e.g., 15 ft x 15 ft (4.6 m 
x4.6m) rather than 30 ft X 30 ft (9.1m X 9.1 m)] when the 
following conditions exist: 

(a) Detectors are installed at the ceiling only. 

(b) The clearance from the top of storage does not ex- 
ceed 10 ft (3m). 

(c) The height of storage does not exceed 25 ft (7.6 m) . 

(2) At the ceiling at listed spacing and on racks at alternate 
levels 

(3) Where listed for rack storage installation and installed in 
accordance with ceiling detector listing to provide response 
within 1 minute after ignition using an ignition source 
equivalent to that used in a rack storage testing program 

34.7.3.4.2 High-Expansion Foam Submergence. 

34.7.3.4.2.1 The following requirements shall apply to storage 
of Class I, Class 11, Class 111, and Class IV commodities, as classi- 
fied in Section 34.2, up to and including 25 ft (7.6 m) in height: 

( 1 ) *When high-expansion foam systems are used without sprin- 

klers, the submergence time shall be not more than 5 min- 
utes for Class 1, Class II, or Class III commodities. 

(2) When high-expansion foam systems are used without 
sprinklers, the submergence time shall be not more than 
4 minutes for Class IV commodities. 



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(3) When high-expansion foam systems are used in combina- 
tion with ceiling sprinklers, the submergence time shall 
be not more than 7 minutes for Class I, Class II, or Class 
III commodities. 

(4) When high-expansion foam systems are used in combina- 
tion with ceihng sprinklers, the submergence time shall 
be not more than 5 minutes for Class IV commodities. 

34.7.3.4.2.2 The following requirements shall apply to storage 
of Class I, Class II, Class III, and Class IV commodities stored over 
25 ft (7.6 m) high up to and including 35 ft (10.7 m) in height: 

(1) Ceiling sprinklers shall be used in combination with the 
high-expansion foam system. 

(2) The submergence Ume for the high-expansion foam shall 
be not more than 5 minutes for Class I, Class II, or Class 
III commodities. 

(3) The submergence dme for the high-expansion foam shall 
be not more than 4 minutes for Class IV commodities. 

34.8 Protection of Rubber THres. 

34.8.1* Application. 

34.8.1.1 Section 34.8 shah apply to new facihties with indoor 
storage of usable tires and to existing facilities being con- 
verted to the indoor storage of usable tires. 

34.8.1.2 Existing buildings storing rubber tires shall be ex- 
empted from complying with Section 34.8. 

34.8.1.3 This section shall not apply to scrap tire storage. 

34.8.2 Building Arrangement. 

34.8.2.1 Steel Columns. Steel columns shall be protected as fol- 
lows unless protected in accordance with 12.3.1.7 of NFPA 13: 

(1) For storage exceeding 15 ft to 20 ft (4.6 m to 6 m) in 
height, columns shall have 1-hour fireproofing. 

(2) For storage exceeding 20 ft (6 m) in height, columns shall 
have 2-hour fireproofing for the entire length of the col- 
umn, including connections with other structural members. 

34.8.2.2 Fire Walls. 

34.8.2.2.1 Four-hour fire walls shall be provided between the 
tire warehouse and tire manufacturing areas. 

34.8.2.2.2 Fire walls shall be designed in accordance with 
NFPA 221 , Standard for Fire Walls and Fire Barrier Walls. 

34.8.2.3* Travel Distance to Exits. Travel distance to exits shall 
be in accordance with NFPA 101. 

34.8.3 Storage Arrangement. 

34.8.3.1 Piling Procedures. 

34.8.3.1.1* Piles that are not adjacent to or located along a 
wall shall be not more than 50 ft (15 m) in width. 

34.8.3.1.2 Tires stored adjacent to or along one wall shall not 
extend more than 25 ft (7.6 m) from the wall. 

34.8.3.1.3 Where tires are stored on-tread, the dimension of 
the pile in the direction of the wheel hole shall be not more 
than 50 ft (15 m). 

34.8.3.1.4 The width of the main aisles between piles shall be 
not less than 8 ft (2.4 m). 



34.8.3.2 Clearances. : 

34.8.3.2.1 Storage clearance from roof structures shall be not 
less than 18 in. (470 mm) in all directions. 

34.8.3.2.2 A clearance of hot less than 24 in. (610 mm) shall 
be maintained around the path of fire door travel unless a 
barricade is provided. 

34.8.3.2.3 Where protection in accordance with this chapter 
is provided, stored tires shall be segregated from other com- 
bustible storage by aisles not less than 8 ft (2.4 m) wide. 

34.9 Protection of Roll Paper. 

34.9.1 Application. Section 34.9 shall apply to new facilities 
v^th indoor storage of roll paper, and to existing facilities be- 
ing converted to the indoor storage of roll paper, except for 
the following types of roll paper: 

(1) Waxed paper 

(2) Synthetic paper 

(3) Palletized roll paper storage other than that stored on a 
single floor pallet or raised floor platform 

34.9.2* Building Construction. The protection outiined in Sec- 
tion 34.9 shall apply to buildings with or without fireproofing or 
other modes of steel protection, unless modified by the require- 
ments of 34.4.2.2. 

34.9.3 Storage Arrangement. The floor load design shall take 
into account the added weight of water that could be absorbed 
by the commodity during fire-fighting operations. 

34.10 Storage of Idle Pallets. 

34.10.1* General. Idle pallets shall be stored outside or in a 
separate building designated for pallet storage, unless permit- 
ted by 34.10.2. 

34.10.2 Indoor Storage. Idle pallets shall be permitted to be 
stored in a building used for other storage or other purpose if 
the building is sprinklered in accordance with NFPA 13. 

34.10.3* Outdoor Storage. Idle pallets stored outside shall be 
stored in accordance with Table 34.10.3(a) and Table 34.10.3(b). 



Table 34.10.3(a) Required Clearance Between Outside Idle 
Pallet Storage and Other Yard Storage 



Minimum Distance 


Pile Size 


ft m 


Under 50 pallets 
50-200 pallets 
Over 200 pallets 


20 6 
30 9 
50 15 



34.10.4 Idle pallet stacks shall not exceed 15 ft (4.6 m) in 
height nor shall cover an area of greater than 400 ft^ (37 m^) . 
Pallet stacks shall be arranged to form stable piles. A distance 
of not less than 8 ft (2.4 m) shall separate stacks. Piles shall be 
no closer than 8 ft (2.4 m) to any property line. 



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Table 34.10.3(b) Required Clearance Between Outside Idle Pallet Storage and Building 

Minimum Distance of WaD from Storage 





Under 50 PaUets 


50 to 200 Pallets 


Over 200 Pallets 


Wall Construction 


ft 


m 


ft 


m 


ft 


m 


Masonry with no 














15 


4.6 


openings 
Masonry with wired 








10 


3 


20 


6 


glass in openings, 
outside sprinklers, 
and 1-hour doors 














Masonry with wired or 
plain glass, outside 


10 


3 


20 


6 


30 


9 


sprinklers, and 
•y4-hour doors 














Wood or metal with 


10 


3 


20 


6 


30 


9 


outside sprinklers 
Wood, metal, or other 


20 


6 


30 


9 


50 


15 



Chapter 35 Reserved 

Chapter 36 Reserved 

Chapter 37 Reserved 

Chapter 38 Reserved 

Chapter 39 Reserved 

Chapter 40 Dust Explosion Prevention 

40.1 General. Equipment, processes, and operations that in- 
volve the manufacture, processing, blending, repackaging, or 
handling of combustible particulate solids or combustible 
dusts regardless of concentration or particle size shall be in- 
stalled and maintained in accordance with the following stan- 
dards as applicable: 

( 1 ) NFPA 61 , Standard for the Prevention of Fires and Dust Explo- 
sions in Agricultural and Food Processing Facilities 

(2) NFPA 69, Standard on Explosion Prevention Systems 

(3) NFPA 85, Boiler and Combustion Systems Hazards Code 

(4) NFPA 120, Standard for Fire Prevention and Control in Coal 
Mines 

(5) NFPA 484, Standard for Combustible Metals 

(6) NFPA 654, Standard for the Prevention of Fire and Dust Explo- 
sions from the Manufacturing, Processing, and Handling of 
Combustible Particulate Solids 

(7) NFPA 655, Standard for Prevention of Sulfur Fires and Explosions 

(8) NFPA 664, Standard for the Prevention of Fires and Explosions 
in Wood Processing and Woodworking Facilities 

40.2 Permits. Permits, where required, shall comply with Sec- 
tion 1.12. 



Chapter 41 Hot Work Operations 

41.1 General. 

41.1.1 Hot work shall comply with NFPA51B, Standard for Fire 
Prevention During Welding Cutting, and Other Hot Work, and this 
chapter. 

41.1.2 Chapter 41 shall apply to the following hot work pro- 
cesses: 

(1) Welding and allied processes 

(2) Heattreadng 

(3) Grinding 

(4) Thawing pipe 

(5) Powder-driven fasteners 

(6) Hot riveting 

(7)*Torch-applied roofing in conjunction with the require- 
ments of Section 16.6 

(8) Similar applications producing or using a spark, flame, or 
heat [518:1.3.1] 

41.1.3 Chapter 41 shall not apply to the following: 

(1) Candles 

(2) Pyrotechnics or special effects 

(3) Cooking operations 

(4) Electric soldering irons 

(5) Design and installation of gas cutting equipment and 
welding equipment covered in NFPA 51, Standard for the 
Design and Installation of Oxygen-Fuel Gas Systems for Weld- 
ing, Cutting, and Allied Processes 

(6) Additional requirements for hot work operations in con- 
fined spaces 

(7) Lockout/ tagout procedures during hot work [518:1.3.2] 

41.1.4 Acetylene cylinder charging plants shall comply with 
NFPA51A, Standard for Acetylene Cylinder Charging Plants. 

41.1.5 Permits. 

41.1.5.1 Permits, where required, shall comply with Section 
1.12. 

41.1.5.2 Where an approved facility hot work permit pro- 
gram exists that meets the requirements of Chapter 41, the 
permit shall be permitted to be issued for an entire facility. 



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41.2 Responsibiliity for Hot Work. 

41.2.1* Management. Management or a designated agent 
shall be responsible for the safe operations of hot work activity. 

[51B:4.1] 

41.2.1.1 Management shall establish permissible areas for 
hot work. [51B:4.1.1] 

41.2.1.2 Management shall designate a permit authorizing 
individual (PAI). [51B:4.1.2] 

41.2.1.3 All equipment shall be examined to ensure it is in a 
safe operating condition. [51B:4.1.3] 

41.2.1.4 When found to be incapable of reliable safe opera- 
tion, the equipment shall be repaired by qualified personnel 
prior to its next use or be withdrawn from service. [51B:4.1.4] 

41.2.1.5 Management shall ensure that only approved appara- 
tus, such as torches, manifolds, regulators or pressure-reducing 
valves, and acetylene generators, are used. [51B:4.1.5] 

41.2.1.6 Management shall ensure that all individuals in- 
volved in the hot work operations, including contractors, are 
familiar with the provisions of Chapter 41. [51B:4.1.6] 

41.2.1.6.1 Individuals involved in hot work operations shall 
be trained in the safe operation of their equipment and in the 
safe use of the process. [518:4.1.6.1] 

41.2.1.6.2 Individuals involved in hot work operations shall 
have an awareness of the inherent risks involved and understand 
the emergency procedures in the event of a fire. [51B:4.1.6.2] 

41.2.1.7 Management shall advise all contractors about site- 
specific flammable materials, hazardous processes or condi- 
tions, or other potential fire hazards. [51B:4.1.7] 



41.2.2 Permit Authorizing Individual (PAI). In conjunction 
with management, the PAI shall be responsible for the safe 
operation of hot work activities. [51B:4.2] 

41.2.2.1 The PAI shall determine site-specific flammable ma- 
terials, hazardous processes, or other potential fire hazards 
that are present or likely to be present in the work location. 

[51B:4.2.1] 

41.2.2.2 The PAI shall ensure the protection of combustibles 
from ignition by the following means: 

(1) Moving the work to a location that is free from combus- 
tibles 

(2) If the work cannot be moved, moving the combustibles to a 
safe distance or having the combustibles properly shielded 
against ignition 

(3) Scheduling hot work so that operations that could expose 
combustibles to ignition are not begun during hot work 
operations [51B:4.2.2] 

41.2.2.3* If the criteria of 41.2.2.2(1), (2), or (3) cannot be 
met, hot work shall not be performed. [51B:4.2.3] 

41 .2.2.4 The PAI shall determine that fire protection and extin- 
guishing equipment are properly located at the site. [51B:4.2.4] 

41.2.2.5 Where a fire watch is required (see 41.3.4), the PAI 
shall be responsible for ensuring that a fire watch is at the site. 

[5iB:4.2.5] 



41.2.2.6* Where a fire watch is not required, the PAI shall make a 
final check V2 hour after the completion of hot work operations 
to detect and extinguish smoldering fires. [51B:4.2.6] 

41.2.3 Hot Work Operator. The hot work operator shall handle 
equipment safely and use it as follows so as not to endanger lives 
and property: 

( 1 ) The operator shall have the PAI's approval before starting 
hot work operations. 

(2) All equipment shall be examined to ensure it is in a safe 
operating condition, and, if found to be incapable of reli- 
able safe operation, the equipment shall be repaired by 
qualified personnel prior to its next use or be withdrawn 
from service. 

(3) The operator shall cease hot work operations if unsafe 
conditions develop and shall notify management, the 
area supervisor, or the PAI for reassessment of the situa- 
tion. [51B:4.3] 

41.2.4 Fire 



41.2.4.1* The fire watch shall be trained to understand the in- 
herent hazards of the work site and of the hot work. [51B:4.4.1] 

41.2.4.2 The fire watch shall ensure that safe conditions are 
maintained during hot work operations. [511:4.4.2] 

41.2.4.3 The fire watch shall have the authority to stop the 
hot work operations if unsafe conditions develop. [51B:4.4.3] 

41.2.4.4* The fire watch shall have fire-extinguishing equipment 
readily available and shall be trained in its use. [51B:4.4.4] 

41.2.4.5 The fire watch shall be familiar with the facilities 
and procedures for sounding an alarm in the event of a fire. 

[51B:4.4.5] 

41.2.4.6 The fire watch shall watch for fires in all exposed 
areas and try to extinguish them only when the fires are obvi- 
ously within the capacity of the equipment available. If the fire 
watch determines that the fire is not within the capacity of the 
equipment, the fire watch shall sound the alarm immediately. 
[51B:4.4.6] 

41.2.4.7* The fire watch shall be permitted to perform addi- 
tional tasks, but those tasks shall not distract him or her from 
his or her fire watch responsibilities, except as outlined in Sec- 
tion 41.4. [51B:4.4.7] 

41.2.5 Mutual Responsibility. Management, contractors, the 
PAI, the fire watch, and the operators shall recognize their mu- 
tual responsibility for safety in hot work operations. [51B:4.5] 

41.3 Fire Preventioiii Precautions. 

41.3.1 PermissiMe Areas. ; 

I 

41.3.1.1 General. Hot work shall be permitted only in areas 

that are or have been made fire safe. [51B:5.1.1] 

41.3.1.2 Designated or Permit-Required Areas. Hot work shall 
be performed in either designated areas or permit-required 
areas. [51B:5.1.2] ' 

41.3.1.2.1 Designated Areas. A designated area shall be a spe- 
cific area designed or approved for hot work, such as a main- 
tenance shop or a detached outside location that is of non- 
combustible or fire-resistive construction, essentially free of 
combustible and flammable contents, and suitably segregated 
from adjacent areas. [51B:5. 1.2.1] 



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41.3.1.2.2 Permit-Required Areas. 

41.3.1.2.2.1 A permit-required area sliall be an area that is 
made fire safe by removing or protecting combustibles from 
ignition sources. [51B:5.1.2.2.1] 

41.3.1.2.2.2 Signs shall be posted designating hot work areas 
as deemed necessary by the PAI. [518:5.1.2.2.2] 

41.3.2* Nonpermissible Areas. Hot work shall not be permit- 
ted in the following areas: 

(1) In areas not authorized by management 

(2) In sprinklered buildings where sprinklers are impaired, 
unless the requirements of NFPA 25 are met 

(3) In the presence of explosive atmospheres (i.e., where 
mixtures of flammable gases, vapors, liquids, or dusts with 
air exist) 

(4) In the presence of uncleaned or improperly prepared 
drums, tanks, or other containers and equipment that 
have previously contained materials that could develop 
explosive atmospheres 

(5) In areas with an accumulation of combustible dusts that 
could develop explosive atmospheres [51B:5.2] 

41.3.3* Hot Work Penmit. 

41.3.3.1* Before hot work operations begin in a nondesig- 
nated locadon, a written hot work permit by the permit autho- 
rizing individual (PAI) shall be required. [518:5.3.1] 

41.3.3.2 Before a hot work permit is issued, the following 
conditions shall be verified by the PAI: 

(1) The hot work equipment to be used shall be in satisfac- 
tory operating condition and in good repair. 

(2) Where combustible materials, such as paper clippings, 
wood shavings, or textile fibers, are on the floor, the 
floor shall be swept clean for a radius of 35 ft (11 m) and 
the following criteria also shall be met: 

(a) Combustible floors (except wood on concrete) shall 
be kept wet, covered with damp sand, or protected 
by noncombustible or fi re-re tardant shields. 

(b) Where floors have been wet down, personnel oper- 
ating arc welding equipment or cutting equipment 
shall be protected from possible shock. 

(3)*A11 combustibles shall be relocated at least 35 ft (11 m) in 
all directions from the work site and the following crite- 
ria also shall be met: 

(a) If relocation is impractical, combustibles shall be pro- 
tected with fire-retardant covers or otherwise shielded 
with metal or fire-retardant guards or curtains. 

(b) The edges of covers at the floor shall be tight to pre- 
vent the entrance of sparks, including at the point at 
which several covers overlap where a large pile is being 
protected. 

(4) Openings or cracks in walls, floors, or ducts within 35 ft 
(11 m) of the site shall be tightly covered with fire- 
retardant or noncombustible material to prevent the 
passage of sparks to adjacent areas. 

(5) Ducts and conveyor systems that might carry sparks to 
distant combustibles shall be shielded, or shut down, or 
both. 

(6) If hot work is done near walls, partitions, ceilings, or 
roofs of combustible construction, fire-retardant shields 
or guards shall be provided to prevent ignition. 



(7) If hot work is done on one side of a wall, partition, ceil- 
ing, or roof, one of the foUovyfing criteria shall be met: 

(a) Precautions shall be taken to prevent ignition of 
combustibles on the other side by relocating the 
combustibles. 

(b) If it is impractical to relocate combustibles, a fire 
watch shall be provided on the side opposite from 
where the work is being performed. 

(8) Hot work shall not be attempted on a partition, wall, 
ceiling, or roof that has a combustible covering or insu- 
lation, or on walls or partitions of combustible sandwich- 
type panel construction. 

(9) Hot work that is performed on pipes or other metal that is 
in contact with combustible walls, partitions, ceilings, roofs, 
or other combustibles, shall not be undertaken if the work 
is close enough to cause ignition by conduction. 

(10) Fully charged and operable fire extinguishers that are 
appropriate for the type of possible fire shall be available 
immediately at the work area. 

(11) If existing hose lines are located within the hot work area 
defined by the permit, they shall be connected and ready 
for service but shall not be required to be unrolled or 
charged. 

(12) The following shall apply to hot work done in close prox- 
imity to a sprinkler head: 

(a) A wet rag shall be laid over the sprinkler head and 
then removed at the conclusion of the welding or 
cutting operation. 

(b) During hot work, special precautions shall be taken 
to avoid accidental operation of automatic fire de- 
tection or suppression systems (e.g., special extin- 
guishing systems or sprinklers) . 

(13) Nearby personnel shall be suitably protected against 
dangers such as heat, sparks, and slag. [518:5.3.2] 

41.3.3.3* Based on local conditions, the PAI shall determine 
the length of the period for which the hotwork permit is valid. 

[518:5.3.3] 

41.3.3.4* The area shall be inspected by the PAI at least once 
per day while the hot work permit is in effect to ensure that it is 
a fire-safe area. [518:5.3.4] 

41.3.4 Fire Watch. 

41.3.4.1* A fire watch shall be required by the PAI when hot 
work is performed in a location where other than a minor fire 
might develop or where the following conditions exist: 

(l)*Combustible materials in building construction or contents 
are closer than 35 ft (11 m) to the point of operation. 

(2) Combustible materials are more than 35 ft (11 m) avrayfrom 
the point of operation but are easily ignited by sparks. 

(3) Wall or floor openings within an 35-ft (ll-m) radius ex- 
pose combustible materials in adjacent areas, including 
concealed spaces in walls or floors. 

(4) Combustible materials are adjacent to the opposite side of 
partitions, walls, ceilings, or roofs and are likely to be ig- 
nited. [518:5.4.1] 

41.3.4.2* A fire watch shall be maintained for at least V2 hour 
after completion of hot work operations in order to detect and 
extinguish smoldering fires. [518:5.4.2] 

41.3.4.3* More than one fire watch shall be required if combus- 
tible materials that could be ignited by the hot work operation 
cannot be direcdy observed by the initial fire watch. [518:5.4.3] 



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41.3.5* Hot Tapping. Hot tapping or other cutting and weld- 
ing on a flammable gas or liquid transmission or distribution 
utility pipeline shall be performed by a crew that is qualified to 
make hot taps. [51B:5.5] 

41.3.6 Cylinders. Cylinder use and storage shall be in accor- 
dance with Chapter 63. [51B:5.6] 

41.3.7* Personal Protective Clothing. Clothing shall be se- 
lected to minimize the potential for ignition, burning, trap- 
ping hot sparks, or electric shock. [51B:5.7] 

41.4 Sole Proprietors and Individual Operators. 

41.4.1* Assignumient of PAI and Fire Watch. In a site where hot 
work operations are not under the control of another author- 
ity, the individual hot work operator shall be permitted to 
serve as PAI and fire watch, provided that the operator is 
trained and follows the provisions of Chapter 41. [51B:6.1] 

41.4.2 Written Hot Work Penmit. A checklist shall be permit- 
ted to serve as the written hot work permit. [51B:6.2] 

41.5 Public Exhibitions and Demonstrations. 

41.5.1 Application. The provisions of Section 41.5 shall apply 
to oxy-fuel gas welding and cutting operations at public exhi- 
bitions, demonstrations, displays, and trade shows, referred to 
hereinafter as the "site," in order to promote the safe use of 
compressed gases in public gatherings. [51B:7.1] 

41.5.2 Supervision. Installation and operation of welding, 
cutting, and related equipment shall be done by, or under the 
supervision of, a competent operator, to ensure the personal 
protection of viewers and demonstrators as well as the protec- 
tion from fire of materials in and around the site and the 
building itself. [51B:7.2] 

41.5.3 Site. 

41.5.3.1 Location. Sites involving the use and storage of com- 
pressed gases shall be located so as not to interfere with egress 
during an emergency. [51B:7.3.1] 

41.5.3.2 Design. The site shall be constructed, equipped, and 
operated in such a manner that the demonstration minimizes 
the possibility of injury to viewers. [51B:7.3.2] 

41.5.4 Fire Protection, 

41.5.4.1 Fire Extinguishers. Each site shall be provided with a 
portable fire extinguisher of appropriate size and type and 
with a pail of water. [51B:7.4.1] 

41.5.4.2 Shielding. The public, combustible materials, and com- 
pressed gas cylinders at the site shall be protected from flames, 
sparks, and molten metal. [51B:7.4.2] 

41.5.4.3 Fire Department Notification. The fire department 
shall be notified in advance of the use of a site for public 
exhibitions, demonstrations, and trade shows. [51B:7.4.3] 

41.5.5 CyEnders. 

41,5.5.1 Gas Capacity Limitatiom. 

41.5.5.1.1 Cylinders containing compressed gases for use at 
the site shall not be charged in excess of one-half their maxi- 
mum permissible content. [51B:7.5.1.1] 

41 .5.5. 1 .2 Cylinders of nonliquefied gases and acetylene shall 
be charged to not more than one-half their maximum permis- 
sible charged gauge pressure (psi or kPa). [51B;7.5.1.2] 



41.5.5.1.3 Cylinders of liquefied gases shall be charged to not 
more than one-half the maximum permissible capacity in 
pounds (kilograms). [51B:7f5.1.3] 

41.5.5.2 Storage. 

41.5.5.2.1 Cylinders located at the site shall be connected for 
use. [518:7.5.2.1] 

41.6.5.2.2 Asufllcient number of additional cylinders shall be 
permitted to be stored at the site to furnish approximately one 
day's consumption of each gas used. [51B:7.5.2.2] 



41.5.5.2.3* Other cylinders 
storage area, but not near a 



shall be stored in an approved 
building exit. [51B:7.5.2.3] 



41.5.5.3 Transporting Cylinders. Cylinders in excess of 40 lb 
(18 kg) total weight being transported to or from the site shall 
be carried on a hand truck or motorized truck. [51B:7.5.3] 

41.5.5.4 Process Hose. Process hose shall be located and pro- 
tected so that they will not be physically damaged. [51B:7.5.4] 

41.5.5.5 Cylinder Valves. Cylinder valves shall be closed when 
equipment is unattended. [51B:7.5.5] 

41.5.5.6 Valve Caps. If cyliriders are designed to be equipped 
with valve protection caps, such caps shall be in place, except 
when the cylinders are in service or are connected and ready 
for service. [51B:7.5.6] 

41.5.5.7 CyBnder Protection. Cylinders shall be secured so 
that they cannot be knocked over. [51B:7.5.7] 

41.6 Arc Welding Equipment. 

41.6.1 Installation. Electrical equipment shall be of an approved 
type and shall be installed and used in accordance with Section 
11.1 and manufacturers' requirements. 

41.6.2 Damaged cables sball be removed from service until 
repaired or replaced. 



Chiapter; 42 ReftaeliBg 

42.1 General. Chapter 42 shall apply to refueling of automo- 
tive vehicles, marine vessels, and aircraft. 

42.2 Automotive Fuel Servicing. 

42.2.1 Applicability. I 

42.2.1.1 New and existing automotive service stations, service 
stations located inside buildings, and fleet vehicle service stations 
as well as the refueling processes at these facilities shall comply 
with NFPA 30A, Code for Motor Fuel Dispensing Facilities and Repair 
Garages, and Section 42.2. (For repair garages, see Chapter 30.) 

42.2.1.2 If approved by the AHJ, mobile fleet fueling at com- 
mercial, industrial, and governmental sites shall be conducted 
in accordance vrith 42.2.7.6. 

42.2.1.3* Section 42.2 shall not apply to those motor fuel dis- 
pensing facilities where only liquefied petroleum gas (LP- 
Gas) , liquefied natural gas (LNG) , or compressed natural gas 
(CNG) is dispensed as motor fuel. [30A:1.1.2] 

42.2.2 General Requirements. 

42.2.2.1 Permits. Permits; where required, shall comply with 
Section 1.12. 



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42.2.2.2 Plans and Specifications. Plans and specifications 
shall be submitted for review and approval prior to the instal- 
lation or construction of a motor vehicle fuel dispensing sta- 
tion. 

42.2.2.2.1 A site plan shall be submitted that illustrates the 
location of flammable and combustible liquid, LPG or CNG 
storage vessels, and their spatial relation to each other, prop- 
erty lines, and building openings. 

42.2.2.2.2 Aboveground and underground storage vessels 
shall be shown on plans. 

42.2.2.2.3 For each type of fuel dispensing facility, plans and 
specifications shall also include, but not be limited to, the fol- 
lowing: 

(1) Type and design of underground and aboveground liq- 
uid storage tanks 

(2) Quantity and types of liquids to be stored 

(3) Location and design of the fuel dispensers and dis- 
penser nozzles 

(4) Distances from dispensers to tanks, property lines, and 
buildings 

(5) Vehicle access 

(6) Fire appliances 

(7) Vehicle impact protection 

(8) Method of storage and dispensing 

(9) Overfill prevention 

(10) Spill containment 

(11) Vents 

(12) Vapor recovery 

(13) Other equipment and accessories 

(14) Seismic design in accordance with the building code 

(15) Secondary containment 

(16) Design and specifications for related piping, valves, and 
fittings 

(17) Location and classification of electrical equipment, in- 
cluding emergency fuel shutdown devices 

(18) Specifications for fuel storage and venting components 

(19) Other information as required by the AHJ 

42.2.3 Storage of Liquids. 

42.2.3.1 Scope. Subsection 42.2.3 shall apply to the storage of 
liquid fuels and to the storage of related materials, such as 
lubricating oils and greases, cleaning solvents, and windshield 
washer solvents. [30A:4.1] 

42.2.3.2 General Requirements. 

42.2.3.2.1 Liquids shall be stored in the foUovvfing: 

(1) Approved closed containers that do not exceed 60 gal 
(227 L) capacity and are located outside buildings 

(2) Tanks or approved closed containers located inside motor 
fuel dispensing facilities or repair garages 

(3) Aboveground tanks, underground tanks, and containers 
in accordance with the requirements of 42.2.3.3 

(4) Tanks supplying marine service stations in accordance 
with 42.3.2 [30A:4.2.1] 

42.2.3.2.2 A motor fuel dispensing facility located at a bulk 
plant shall be separated from areas in which bulk plant opera- 
tions are conducted by a fence or other approved barrier. Dis- 
pensing devices at the motor fuel dispensing facility shall not 
be supplied by aboveground tanks located in the bulk plant. 
Storage tanks at motor fuel dispensing facilities shall not be 
connected by piping to aboveground tanks located in the bulk 
plant. [30A:4.2.2] 



42.2.3.2.3 Class I liquids shall not be stored or handled in a 
building that has a basement or pit into which ignitable vapors 
can travel, unless the basement or pit is provided with ventila- 
tion that will prevent the accumulation of vapors. The ventila- 
tion system shall be capable of providing at least 1 cfm of ex- 
haust per ft^ of floor area (0.3 mVmin/m^), but not less than 
150 cfm (4mVmin). [30A:4.2.3] 

42.2.3.2.4 Where tanks are at an elevation that produces a 
gravity head on the dispensing device, the tank outlet shall be 
equipped with a device, such as a normally closed solenoid 
valve, positioned adjacent to and downstream from the valve 
specified in 4.3.2.5.1 of NFPA30 that is installed and adjusted 
so that liquid cannot flow by gravity from the tank if the piping 
or hose fails when the dispenser is not in use. [30A:4.2.4] 

42.2.3.3 Storage of Liquids. 

42.2.3.3.1 Underground Tanks. Underground storage tanks 
shall meet all applicable requirements of Chapter 4 and Chap- 
ter 5 of NFPA 30. [30A:4.3.1] 

42.2.3.3.2* Aboveground Storage Tanks. Except as modified 
by the provisions of this paragraph, aboveground storage 
tanks shall meet all applicable requirements of Chapter 4 and 
Chapter 5 of NFPA 30. [30A:4.3.2] 

42.2.3.3.2.1 The use of aboveground storage tanks at motor 
fuel dispensing facilities, fleet vehicle motor fuel dispensing 
facilities, and marine motor fuel dispensing facilities shall be 
permitted when installed in accordance with the require- 
ments of this subsection and with all applicable requirements 
of Chapter 4 and Chapter 5 of NFPA 30 and, for tanks other 
than tanks in vaults, when the specific installation has been 
approved by the AHJ. [30A:4.3.2.1] 

42.2.3.3.2.2 Tanks designed and built for underground use 
shall not be installed for aboveground use. [30A:4.3.2.2] 

42.2.3.3.2.3 Tanks storing Class I and Class II liquids at an 
individual site shall be limited to a maximum individual 
capacity of 12,000 gal (45,400 L) and aggregate capacity of 
48,000 gal (181,700 L) unless such tanks are installed in 
vaults complying with 42.2.3.4, in which case the maximum 
individual capacity shall be permitted to be 15,000 gal 
(57,000 L). [30A:4.3.2.3] 

42.2.3.3.2.4 Tanks shall be located in accordance with Table 
42.2.3.3.2.4. [30A:4.3.2.4] 

42.2.3.3.2.5 The maximum individual tank capacity of 
12,000 gal (45,400 L), where indicated in Table 42.2.3.3.2.4, 
shall be permitted to be increased to 20,000 gal (75,700 L) for 
Class II and Class III liquids at a fleet vehicle motor fuel dis- 
pensing facility and an aggregate capacity of 80,000 gal 
(304,000 L). [30A:4.3.2.5] 

42.2.3.3.2.6 At fleet vehicle motor fuel dispensing facilities, 
no minimum separation shall be required between the dis- 
pensing device and a tank in a vault, a protected tank, or a 
fire-resistant tank. [30A:4.3.2.6] 

42.2.3.3.2.7 The provisions of this paragraph shall not pro- 
hibit the dispensing of Class I and Class II liquids in the open 
from a fuel dispensing system supplied by an existing above- 
ground tank, not to exceed 6000 gal (22,710 L), located at 
commercial, industrial, government, or manufacturing estab- 
lishments, and intended for fueling vehicles used in connec- 
tion with their business. Such dispensing shall be permitted 
provided the following: 



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Table 42.2.3.3.2.4 Minimuim Separationi Requmremeiiiits for Abovegnonuind Tanks 



Minimnniinn Distance (ft) 







From the 




From Lot line 










Nearest 


From 


That Is or Cam 


Distance from 


Minimum 




Individeal 


Important 


Nearest 


Be Built Upon, 


the Nearest 


Distance 




Tank 


Biulding on 


Fuel 


Indiiding the 


Side of Any 


Between 




Capacity 


the Same 


Dispensing 


Opposite Side 


Public Way 


Tanks 


Tank Type 


(gal)" 


Properly 


Device** 


of a PuMc Way 


(ft) 


(ft) 


Tanks in vaults" 


0-15,000 














Separate 
compartments 
required for 
each tank 


Protected aboveground 


Less than or 


5 





15 


5 


3 


tanks 


equal to 6,000 














6,001-12,000 


15 





25 


15 


3 


Fire-resistant 


0-12,000 


25 


25 


50 


25 


3 


tanks 














Other tanks 


0-12,000 


50 


50 


100 


50 


3 


meedng the 














requirements 














ofNFPASO 















Note: For SI units, I ft = 0.30 m; 1 gal = 3.8 L. 

"See 42.2.3.3.2.3 and 42.2.3.3.2.5. 

•"See 42.2.3.3.2.6. 

"^The separation distances given for vaults are measured from the outer perimeter of the vault. 

[30A:Table 4.3.2.4] 



(1) An inspection of the premises and operations has been 
made and approval has been granted by the AHJ. 

(2) The tank is safeguarded against collision, spillage, and 
overfill to the satisfaction of the AHJ. 

(3) The tank system is listed or approved for such above- 
ground use. 

(4) The tank complies writh requirements for emergency re- 
lief venting, the tank and dispensing system meet the elec- 
trical classification requirements of NFPA 30A, and the 
tank complies with the provisions of 42.2.3.2.4. 

(5) The tank storage comphes with Chapter 2 of NFPA 30. 
[30A:4.3.2.7] 

42.2.3.3.2.8 Aboveground tanks shall be provided with spill 
control that meets the requirements of 42.2.3.3.2.3. Tank fill 
connections shall be provided with a noncombustible spill 
containment device. 

Exception: Tanks installed in vaults that meet the requirements of 
42.2.3.4 need not meet this requirement. [30A:4.3.2.8] 

42.2.3.4 Vaults. 

42.2.3.4.1 General. Aboveground tanks shall be permitted to 
be installed in vaults that meet the requirements of this sub- 
section. Except as modified by the provisions of this subsec- 
tion, aboveground storage tanks in vaults shall meet all appli- 
cable requirements of Chapter 4 and Chapter 5 of NFPA 30. 
Vaults shall be constructed and listed in accordance with UL 
2245, Standard for Below-Grade Vaults for Flammable Liquid Storage 
Tanks. [30A:4.3.3.1] 

42.2.3.4.1.1 Vaults shall be permitted to be either above or 
below grade. [30A:4.3.3.1.1J 



42.2.3.5 Fire-Resistant Tanks. 

42.2.3.5.1 Fire-resistant tanks shall be listed for the use in- 
tended and shall meet 42.2.3.5.2. [30A:4.3.4.1] 

42.2.3.5.2 Subparagraph 4.2.5.2.5 of NFPA 30 shall not be 
used to reduce the size of the emergency vent. [30A:4.3.4.2] 



42.2.3.S Protected Aboveground Tanks. Protected above- 
ground tanks shall be listed and shall be tested in accordance 
with UL 2085, Standard for Protected Aboveground Tanks for Flam- 
mable and Combustible Liquids. Protected aboveground tanks 
shall also meet the requirements of 42.2.3.6.1 and 42.2.3.6.2. 
[30A:4.3.5] 

42.2.3.6.1 The construction that provides the required fire- 
resistive protection shall prevent release of liquid, failure of 
the primary tank, failure of the supporting structure, and im- 
pairment of venting for a period of not less than 2 hours and 
shall limit the increase in temperature of the liquid inside the 
tank when tested using the fire exposure specified in UL 2085. 
[30A:4.3.5.1] 

42.2.3.6.2 Subparagraph 4.2.5.2.5 of NFPA 30 shall not be 
used to reduce the size of the emergency vent. [30A:4.3.5.2] 



42.2.3.7 AdditioDal Requinements for AD Aboveground Tanks. 

42.2.3.7.1 All openings shall be located above the maximum 
liquid level. [30A:4.3.6.1] 

42.2.3.7.2 Means shall be provided for determining the liq- 
uid level in each tank, and this means shall be accessible to the 
delivery operator. [30A:4.3.6.2] 

42.2.3.7.3 Means shall be provided to sound an audible alarm 
when die liquid level in the tank reaches 90 percent of capacity. 
Means shall also be provided either to automatically stop the flow 



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UNIFORM FIRE CODE 



of liquid into the tank when the liquid level in the tank reaches 
98 percent capacity or to restrict the flow of liquid into the tank to 
a maximum flow rate of 2.5 gpm (9.5 L/min) when the liquid in 
the tank reaches 95 percent capacity. These provisions shall not 
restrict or interfere with the operation of either the normal vent 
or the emergency vent. [30A:4.3.6.3] 

42.2.3.7.4 Means shall be provided to prevent the release of 
liquid by siphon flow. [30A:4. 3.6.4] 

42.2.3.7.5 Shutoff and check valves shall be equipped with a 
pressure-relieving device that will relieve the pressure gener- 
ated by thermal expansion back to the tank. [30A:4.3.6.5] 

42.2.3.7.6 Fuel shall not be dispensed from the tank by either 
gravity flow or pressurization of the tank. [30A:4.3.6.6] 

42.2.3.8 Physical Protection for All Outside Aboveground 
Tanks. 

42.2.3.8.1 Tanks that are not enclosed in vaults shall be en- 
closed with a chain link fence at least 6 ft (1.8 m) high. The fence 
shall be separated from the tanks by at least 10 ft (3 m) and shall 
have a gate that is secured against unauthorized entry. 

Exception: Tanks are not required to be enclosed with a fence if the 
property on ruhich the tanks are located has a perimeter security fence. 
[30A:4.3.7.1] 

42.2.3.8.2* Guard posts or other approved means shall be pro- 
vided to protect tanks that are subject to vehicular damage. 
When guard posts are installed, the following design shall be 
acceptable: 

(1) They shall be constructed of steel not less than 4 in. 
(100 mm) in diameter and shall be filled with concrete. 

(2) They shall be spaced not more than 4 ft (1.2 m) on center. 

(3) They shall be set not less than 3 ft (0.9 m) deep in a 
concrete footing of not less than 15 in. (380 mm) diam- 
eter. [30A:4.3.7.2] 

42.2.3.9* Corrosion Control. Any portion of a tank or its pip- 
ing that is in contact with the soil shall have properly engi- 
neered, installed, and maintained corrosion protection that 
meets the requirements of 4.2.6.1 of NFPA30. [30A:4.3.8] 

42.2.3.10 Storage of Liquids Inside Buildings. Storage of flam- 
mable and combustible liquids in motor fuel dispensing facility 
buildings and in repair garage buildings shall meet the require- 
ments of this subsection. [30A;4.3.9] 

42.2.3.10.1 Class I, II, and IIIA Liquids m Tanks Not Exceed- 
ing 120 Gal (454 L) Capacity and in Containers. 

42.2.3.10.1.1 The aggregate quantity of Class I liquids stored 
in a tank that does not exceed 120 gal (454 L) capacity and in 
containers shall not exceed 120 gal (454 L). Liquids in storage 
shall be maintained in tanks or in approved containers that 
are closed or are fitted with an approved dispensing device 
that meets the requirements of 42.2.7.2.4.1. [30A:4.3.9.1.1] 

42.2.3.10.1.2 The aggregate quantity of Class II and Class IIIA 
liquids stored in a tank that does not exceed 120 gal (454 L) 
capacity and in containers shall not exceed 240 gal (908 L). The 
quantity for each class shall not exceed 120 gal (454 L) . Liquids 
in storage shall be maintained in tanks or in approved containers 
that are closed or are fitted with an approved dispensing device 
that meets die requirements of 42.2.7.2.4.1. [30A:4.3.9.1.2] 



42.2.3.10.2 Class I, n, and IIIA Liquids in Tanks Exceeding 

120 Gal (454 L) Capacity. Where installation of a tank that 
exceeds 120 gal (454 L) capacity in accordance vrith 4.3.2 of 
NFPA 30A is not practical because of building or property limi- 
tations, the tank shall be permitted to be installed in a build- 
ing if it is enclosed as described in 42.2.3.4 and if the installa- 
tion is specifically approved by the AHJ. [30A:4.3.9.2] 

42.2.3.10.3 Class IIIB Liquids. The quantity of Class IlIB liq- 
uids in storage shall not be limited. Class IIIB liquids shall be 
permitted to be stored in and dispensed from tanks and con- 
tainers that meet the requirements of 42.2.3.2 and 42.2.5.2 as 
applicable. Tanks storing Class IIIB liquids inside buildings 
shall be permitted to be located at, below, or above grade. 
Adequate drainage shall be provided. Tanks and containers 
that contain only crankcase drainings shall be considered as 
containing Class IIIB liquids. [30A:4.3.9.3] 

42.2.3.11 Temporary Storage of Liquid Fuels. Aboveground 
tanks used for dispensing of motor fuels shall not be required 
to be permanently installed when located on premises not 
normally accessible to the public provided that all of the fol- 
lowing requirements are met: 

(1) Approval of the AHJ shall be required prior to bringing 
the tank to a site in the jurisdiction. In reviewing a pro- 
posed installation, the condition of the tank, the site 
where the tank will be located, installation and testing 
procedures, and operational procedures shall be evalu- 
ated prior to approval. 

(2) The approval shall include a definite time limit after 
which the tank shall be removed from the site and relo- 
cated to an approved location. 

(3) The tank shall comply with 42.2.3.3 and all other appli- 
cable provisions of NFPA 30A and NFPA 30. 

(4) A tank containing liquid shall not be moved unless it has 
been specifically investigated and approved for move- 
ment while full or partially full. [30A:4.3.10] 

42.2.4 Piping for Liquids. 

42.2.4.1 Scope. Subsection 42.2.4 shall apply to piping systems 
consisting of pipe, tubing, flanges, bolting, gaskets, valves, fit- 
tings, flexible connectors, the pressure-containing parts of other 
components such as expansion joints and strainers, and devices 
that serve such purposes as mixing, separating, snubbing, distrib- 
uting, metering, controlling flow, or secondary containment of 
liquids and associated vapors. [30A:5.1] 

42.2.4.2 General Requirements for All Piping Systems. 

42.2.4.2.1 The design, fabrication, assembly, test, and inspec- 
tion of the piping system shall meet the requirements of Chap- 
ter 5 of NFPA 30. 

Exception No. 1 : Where dispensing is from a floating structure or 
pier, approved oil-resistant flexible hose shall be permitted to be used 
between shore piping and the piping on the floating structure or pier 
and between separate sections of the floating structure to accommodate 
changes in water level or shoreline, provided that the hose is either 
resistant to or shielded from damage by fire. 

Exception No. 2: Low melting point rigid piping shall be permitted to 
be used between underground shore piping and a floating structure or 
pier and on the floating structure or pier itself, provided that the piping 
is protected from physical damage and stresses arising from impact, 
settlement, vibration, expansion, contraction, orr tidal action and pro- 
vided that the hose is either resistant to or shielded from damage by fire 
exposure. [30A:5.2.1] 



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42.2.4.2.2 Piping shall be located so that it is protected from 
physical damage. Piping that passes through a dike wall shall 
be designed to prevent excessive stresses that could result 
from settlement or fire exposure. [30A:5.2.2] 

42.2.4.2.3 Any portion of a piping system that is in contact 
with the soil shall be protected from corrosion in accordance 
with good engineering practice. [3fflA:5.2.3] 

42.2.4.2.4 All piping inside buildings but outside the motor fiiel 
dispensing area shall be enclosed within a horizontal chase or a 
vertical shaft used only for this piping. Vertical shafts and hori- 
zontal chases shall be constructed of materials having a fire resis- 
tance rating of not less than 2 hours. [30A:5.2.4] 

42.2.4.2.5 Each fill pipe shall be identified by color code or 
other marking to identify the product for which it is used. The 
color code or marking shall be maintained in legible condi- 
tion throughout the life of the installation. [30A:5.2.5] 

42.2.4.2.6 Shutoff and check valves shall be equipped with a 
pressure-relieving device that will relieve any pressure gener- 
ated by thermal expansion of the contained liquid back to the 
storage tank. [30A:5.2.6] 

42.2.4.2.7 Piping components made of low melting point ma- 
terials shall be permitted to be used without backfill with the 
following sumps: 

( 1 ) Belowgrade underground tank sumps that are fitted with 
a cover 

(2) Belowgrade piping connection sumps that are fitted with 
a cover 

(3) Containment sumps, under the following conditions: 

(a) The sump is monitored to detect any leaks. 

(b) Any leaks can be controlled, 

(c) The components are either resistant to or shielded 
from damage by fire exposure. 

(4) Containment sumps, provided the piping components 
can successfully pass the test procedures described in API 
607, Fire Test for Soft-Seated Quarter-Turn Valves [30A:5.2.7] 

42.2.5 Fiael Bispemsing Systems. 

42.2.5.1 Scope. Subsection 42.2.5 shall apply to the system 
and components that dispense fuel into the tanks of motor 
vehicles and marine craft. [30A:6.1] 

42.2.5.2 General JRequirennieinite. 

42.2.5.2.1 Dispensing devices installed outside at motor fuel 
dispensing stations shall be located as follows: 

(1) Ten feet or more from property lines 

(2) Ten feet or more from buildings, other than canopies, 
having combustible exterior wall surfaces or buildings 
having noncombustible exterior wall surfaces that are not 
a part of a one-hour fire-resistive assembly 

(3) Such that all parts of the vehicle being served will be on 
the premises of the service station 

(4) Such that the nozzle, when the hose is fully extended, 
will not reach within 5 ft (1.5 m) of building openings 
[30Ai6.2.1] 

42.2.5.2.2 Liquids shall not be dispensed by applying pres- 
sure to drums, barrels, and similar containers. Listed pumps 
taking suction through the top of the container or listed self- 
closing faucets shall be used. t30A:6.2.2] 



42.2.5.3 RequiunEinents for Dispensing Devices. 

42.2.5.3.1 Class I and Class II liquids shall be transferred 
from tanks by means of fixed pumps designed and equipped 
to allow control of the flow and prevent leakage or accidental 
discharge. [30A:6.3.I] 

42.2.5.3.2 Dispensing devices for Class I and II liquids shall 
be listed. [30A:6.3.2] 

42.2.5.3.2. 1 Existing listed or labeled dispensing devices shall 
be permitted to be modified provided that the modifications 
made are "Listed by Report" by an approved testing laboratory 
or as otherwise approved by the AHJ. Modification proposals 
shall contain a description of the component parts used in the 
modification and the recommended methods of installation 
on specific dispensing devices. Modification proposals shall be 
made available to the AHJ upon request. [30A:6. 3.2.1] 

42.2.5.3.3 A control shall be provided that will permit the 
pump to operate only when a dispensing nozzle is removed 
from its bracket or normal position with respect to the dis- 
pensing device and the switch on this dispensing device is 
manually actuated. This control shall also stop the pump when 
all nozzles have been returned to their brackets or to their 
normal nondispensing position. [30A:6.3.3] 

42.2.5.3.4 Dispensing devices shall be mounted on a con- 
crete island or shall otherwise be protected against collision 
damage by means acceptable to the AHJ. Dispensing devices 
shall be securely bolted in place. If located indoors, dispens- 
ing devices shall also be located in a position where they can- 
not be struck by a vehicle that is out of control descending a 
ramp or other slope. Dispensing devices shall be installed in 
accordance with the manufacturers' instructions. [30A:6.3.4] 

42.2.5.3.5 Dispensing devices used to fill portable containers 
with home heating fuels shall be located at least 20 ft (6 m) 
from any dispensing devices for motor fuels. [30A:6.3.5] 

42.2.5.3.6 When maintenance to dispensing devices is neces- 
sary and such maintenance is capable of causing accidental 
release or ignition of liquid, the following precautions shall be 
taken before such maintenance is begun: 

(1) Only persons knowledgeable in performing the required 
maintenance shall perform the work. 

(2) All electrical power to the dispensing devices, to the 
pump serving the dispensing devices, and to all associated 
control circuits shall be shut off at the main electrical dis- 
connect panel. 

(3) The emergency shutoff valve at the dispenser, if installed, 
shall be closed. 

(4) All vehicular traffic and unauthorized persons shall be 
prevented from coming within 20 ft (6 m) of the dispens- 
ing device. [30A:6.3.6] 

42.2.5.3.7 Motor vehicle traffic patterns at motor fuel dis- 
pensing facilities shall be designed to inhibit movement of 
vehicles that are not being fueled from passing through the 
dispensing area. [30A:6.3.7] 

42.2.5.3.8 At unattended self-serve motor fuel dispensing fa- 
cilities, coin- and currency-type devices shall only be permitted 
with the approval of the AHJ. [30A:6.3.8] 

42.2.5.3.9 Where hquid is supplied to the dispensing device 
under pressure, a listed, rigidly anchored emergency shutoff 
valve, incorporating a fusible link or other thermally actuated 



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device, designed to close automatically in event of severe im- 
pact or fire exposure shall be installed in the supply line at the 
base of each individual island-type dispenser or at the inlet of 
each overhead dispensing device. The emergency shutofF 
valve shall be installed in accordance with the manufacturers' 
instructions. The emergency shutoif valve shall not incorpo- 
rate a slip-joint feature. 

Exception: As provided fur in 42.2.5.3.10. [30A:6.3. 9] 

42.2.5.3.9.1 The automatic-closing feature of this valve shall be 
tested at the time of installation and at least once a year thereafter 
by manually tripping the hold-open linkage. Records of such 
tests shall be kept at the premises or shall be made available for 
inspection by the AHJ within 24 hours of a verbal or written re- 
quest. [30A:6.3.9.1] 

42.2.5.3.10 Where a suction-type dispensing system includes 
a booster pump or where a suction-type dispensing system is 
supplied by a tank in a manner that produces a gravity head on 
the dispensing device, a listed, vacuum-actuated shutoff valve 
with a shear section or equivalent-type valve shall be installed 
directly under the dispensing device. [30A:6.3.10] 

42.2.5.4 Requirements for Remote/Submersible Pumps. Para- 
graph 42.2.5.4 shall apply to systems for dispensing Class I and 
Class II liquids where the liquids are transferred from storage 
to individual or multiple dispensing devices by pumps located 
odier than at the dispensing devices. [30A:6.4] 

42.2.5.4.1 Pumps shall be listed and shall be designed or 
equipped so that no part of the system will be subjected to 
pressures above its allowable working pressure. [30A:6.4.1] 

42.2.5.4.2 Each pump shall have installed on the discharge 
side a listed leak detection device that will provide an audible 
or visible indication if the piping or a dispenser is leaking. 
Each leak-detecdng device shall be checked and tested at least 
annually according to the manufacturers' specifications to en- 
sure proper installation and operation. 

Exception: A leak detection device shall not be required if all piping is 
visible. [30A:6.4.2] 

42.2.5.4.3 Pumps installed above grade outside of buildings 
shall be located not less than 10 ft (3 m) from lines of adjoin- 
ing property that can be built upon and not less than 5 ft 
(1.5 m) from any building opening. Where an outside pump 
location is impracdcal, pumps shall be permitted to be in- 
stalled inside buildings as provided for dispensers in 42.2.5.3.4 
or in sumps as provided in 42.2.5.4.4. Pumps shall be an- 
chored and protected against physical damage. [30A:6.4.3] 

42.2.5.4.4 Sumps for subsurface pumps or piping manifolds 
of submersible pumps shall withstand the external forces to 
which they can be subjected without damage to the pump, 
tank, or piping. The sump shall be no larger than necessary for 
inspection and maintenance and shall be provided with a fit- 
ted cover. [30A:6.4.4] 

42.2.5.5 Requirements for Dispensing Hose. 

42.2.5.5.1 Listed hose assemblies shall be used to dispense fuel. 
Hose length at automotive motor fuel dispensing facilities shall 
not exceed 18 ft (5.5 m). Where hose length at marine motor 
fuel dispensing facilities exceeds 18 ft (5.5 m), the hose shall be 
secured so as to protect it from damage. [30A:6.5.1] 

42.2.5.5.2 A listed emergency breakaway device designed to 
retain liquid on both sides of the breakaway point shall be 



installed on each hose dispensing Class I and II liquids. Such 
devices shall be installed and maintained in accordance with 
the manufacturers' instructions. [30A:6.5.2] 

42.2.5.5.3 Where hose are attached to a hose-retrieving 
mechanism, the listed emergency breakaway device shall be 
installed between the point of attachment of the hose- 
retrieving mechanism to the hose and the hose nozzle valve. 

Exception: Such devices shall not be required at marine motor fuel 
dispensing facilities. [30A: 6.5.3] 

42.2.5.6 Requirements for Fuel Delivery Nozzles. 

42.2.5.6.1 A listed, automatic-closing-type hose nozzle 
valve, with or without latch-open device, shall be provided 
on island-type dispensing devices used to dispense Class I 
liquids. [30A:6.6.1] 

42.2.5.6.2 If a hose nozzle valve is provided with a latch-open 
device other than the one recommended by the valve manu- 
facturer, the latch-open device shall be an integral part of the 
valve assembly and such valve/latch-open device combination 
shall meet all applicable requirements of Section 19Aof UL 
842, Standard for Valves for Flammable Fluids. [30A:6.6.2] 

42.2.5.6.3* At any installation where the normal flow of prod- 
uct may be stopped other than by the hose nozzle valve, the 
system shall include listed equipment with a feature that 
causes or requires the closing of the hose nozzle valve before 
product flow can be resumed or before the hose nozzle valve 
can be replaced in its normal position in the dispenser; or the 
hose nozzle valve shall not be equipped with a latch-open de- 
vice. [30A:6.6.3] 

42.2.5.6.4 Overhead-type dispensing devices shall be pro- 
vided with a listed, automatic-closing-type hose nozzle valve 
without a latch-open device. 

Exception: A listed, automatic-closing-type hose nozzle valve with 
latch-open device shall be permitted to be used if the hose nozzle valve 
will close automatically in the event the valve is released from a fill 
opening or upon impact. [30A:6.6.4] 

42.2.5.6.5 Dispensing nozzles used at marine motor fuel dis- 
pensing facilities shall be of the automatic-closing type with- 
out a latch-open device. [30A:6.6.5] 

42.2.5.7 Emergency Electrical Disconnects. Fuel dispensing 
systems shall be provided with one or more clearly identified 
emergency shutoff devices or electrical disconnects. Such de- 
vices or disconnects shall be installed in approved locations 
but not less than 20 ft (6 m) or more than 100 ft (30 m) from 
the fuel dispensing devices that they serve. Emergency shutoff 
devices or electrical disconnects shall disconnect power to all 
dispensing devices; to all remote pumps serving the dispens- 
ing devices; to all associated power, control, and signal cir- 
cuits; and to all other electrical equipment in the hazardous 
(classified) locations surrounding the fuel dispensing devices. 
When more than one emergency shutoff device or electrical 
disconnect is provided, all devices shall be interconnected. 
Resetting from an emergency shutofF condition shall require 
manual intervention and the manner of resetting shall be ap- 
proved by the AHJ. 

Exception: Intrinsically safe electrical equipment need not meet this 
requirement. [30A:6. 7] 

42.2.5.7.1 At attended motor fuel dispensing facilities, the 
devices or disconnects shall be readily accessible to the atten- 
dant. [30A:6.7.1] 



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42.2.5.7.2 At unattended motor fuel dispensing facilities, the 
devices or disconnects shall be readily accessible to patrons 
and at least one device or disconnect shall be readily accessible 
to each group of dispensing devices on an individual island. 

[30A:6.7.2] 

42.2.5.8 Vapor Recovery Systems. 

42.2.5.8.1 Dispensing devices that incorporate vapor recov- 
ery shall be listed. [30A:6.8.1] 

42.2.5.8.2 Hose nozzle valves used on vapor recovery systems 
shall be listed for the purpose. [30A:6.8.2] 

42.2.5.8.3 Means shall be provided in the vapor return path 
from each dispensing outiet to prevent the discharge of vapors 
when the hose nozzle valve is in its normal nondispensing po- 
sition. [30A:6.8.3] ] 

42.2.6 Buildimg Construction RequiiinemeiDiils. 

42.2.6.1 Motor Fuel Dispemsing Faciilities. 

42.2.6.1.1 Occupancy ClassiEcadoJi. The occupancy classifi- 
cation of a motor fuel dispensing facility that is located inside 
a building or structure shall be a low hazard industrial occu- 
pancy as defined in NFPA 101. [30A:7.3.1] 

42.2.6.1.2 Means of Egress. In a motor fuel dispensing facility 
that is located inside a building or structure, the required 
number, location, and construction of means of egress shall 
meet all applicable requirements for special purpose indus- 
trial occupancies, as set forth in NFPA 101. [30A:7.3.3] 

42.2.6.1.3 Brainage. Where Class I or Class II liquids are dis- 
pensed, provisions shall be made to prevent spilled liquids 
from flowing into the interior of buildings. Such provisions 
shall be made by grading driveways, raising door sills, or other 
equally effective means. [30A:7.3.4] 

42.2.6.1.4 Fixed Fire Protection. 

42.2.6.1.4.1* For an unattended, self-serve, motor fuel dis- 
pensing facility, additional fire protection shall be provided 
where required by the AHJ. [30A:7.3.5.1] 

42.2.6.1.4.2 Where required, an automatic fire suppression 
system shall be installed in accordance with the appropriate 
NFPA standard, manufacturers' instructions, and the listing 
requirements of the systems. [30A:7.3.5.2] 

42.2.6.1.5 Fuel Dispensing Areas Inside Buildings. 

42.2.6.1.5.1 The fuel dispensing area shall be separated from 
all other portions of the building by walls, partitions, floors, 
and floor-ceiling assemblies having a fire resistance rating of 
not less than 2 hours. [30A:7.3.6.1] 

42.2.6.1.5.2 Interior finish shall be of noncombustible mate- 
rials or of approved limited-combustible materials, as defined 
in NFPA 220. [30A:7.3.6.2] 

42.2.6.1.5.3 Door and window openings in fire-rated interior 
walls shall be provided with listed fire doors having a fire pro- 
tection rating of not less than IV2 hours. Doors shall be self- 
closing. They shall be permitted to remain open during nor- 
mal operations if they are designed to close automatically in a 
fire emergency by means of listed closure devices. Fire doors 
shall be installed in accordance with NFPA 80. They shall be 
kept unobstructed at all times. [30A:7.3.6.3] 

42.2.6.1.5.4 Openings for ducts in fire-rated interior parti- 
tions and walls shall be protected by listed fire dampers. Open- 



ings for ducts in fire-rated 'floor or floor-ceiling assemblies 
shall be protected with enclosed shafts. Enclosure of shafts 
shall be with wall or partition assemblies having a fire resis- 
tance rating of not less than 2 hours. Openings for ducts into 
enclosed shafts shall be protected with listed fire dampers. 
[30A:7.3.6.4] 

42.2.6.1.5.5 The fuel dispensing area shall be located at 
street level, with no dispenser located more than 50 ft (15 m) 
from the vehicle exit to, or entrance from, the outside of the 
building. [30A:7.3.6.5] 

42.2.6.1.5.6 The fuel dispensing area shall be limited to that 
required to serve not more than four vehicles at one time. 

Exception: At a fleet vehicle motor fuel dispensing facility inside a 
building, where only Class II and Class III liquids are dispensed, the 
number of vehicles serviced at any one time shall be permitted to be 
increased to 12. [30A:7.3.6.6] 

42.2.6.1.5.7* A mechanical exhaust system that serves only the 
fuel dispensing area shall be provided. This system shall meet 
all of the following requirements: 

(1) The system shall be interlocked with the dispensing sys- 
tem so that airflow is established before any dispensing 
device can operate. Failure of airflow shall automatically 
shut down the dispensing system. 

(2) The exhaust system shall be designed to provide air move- 
ment across all portions of the floor of the fuel dispensing 
area and to prevent the flowing of ignitable vapors be- 
yond the dispensing area. 

(3) Exhaust inlet ducts shall not be less than 3 in. (76 mm) or 
more than 12 in. (305 mm) above the floor. Exhaust ducts 
shall not be located in floors or penetrate the floor of the 
dispensing area. Exhaust ducts shall discharge to a safe 
location outside the building. 

(4) The exhaust system shall provide ventilation at a rate of 
not less than 1 cfm/ft^ (0.3 m^/min/m^) of floor area, 
based on the fuel dispensing area. 

(5) The exhaust system shall meet all applicable require- 
ments of NFPA 91. 

Exception: The provisions of 42. 2.6.1.5.7 shall not apply to a fuel 
dispensing area located inside a building if two or more sides of the 
dispensing area are open to the building exterior. [30 A: 7.3. 6. 7] 

42.2.6.1.5.8 The floor of the dispensing area shall be liq- 
uidtight. Where Class I liquids are dispensed, provisions shall 
be made to prevent spilled liquids from flowing out of the fuel 
dispensing area and into other areas of the building by means 
of curbs, scuppers, special drainage systems, or other means 
acceptable to the AHJ. [30A:7.3.6.8] 

42.2.6.1.5.9* Oil drainage systems shall be equipped with ap- 
proved oil/water traps or separators, if they connect to public 
sewers or they discharge into public waterways. [30A:7.3.6.9] 

42.2.6.2* Heating, Ventilatimg, and Air-Conditioning. 

42.2.6.2.1* Forced air heating, air-conditioning, and ventilat- 
ing systems serving a fuel dispensing area inside a building or 
a repair garage shall not be interconnected with any such sys- 
tems serving other occupancies in the building. Such systems 
shall be installed in accordance with NFPA90A. [30A:7.5.1] 

42.2.6.2.2 Return air openings in areas of repair garages used 
for the repair or servicing of vehicles or in a fuel dispensing 
area shall be not less than 18 in. (455 mm) above floor level 
measured to the bottom of the openings. [30A:7.5.2] 



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42.2.6.2.3 Combined ventilation and heating systems shall 
not recirculate air from areas that are below grade level. 

[30A:7.5.3] 

42.2.6.2.4 Exhaust duct openings shall be located so that they 
effectively remove vapor accumulations at floor level from all 
parts of the floor area. [30A:7.5.4] 

42.2.6.3 Heat-Producing Appliances. 

42.2.6.3.1 Heat-producing appliances shall be installed in ac- 
cordance with the requirements of 42.2.6.3. They shall be per- 
mitted to be installed in the conventional manner except as 
provided in 42.2.6.3. [30A:7.6.1] 

42.2.6.3.2 Heat-producing appliances shall be of an ap- 
proved type. Solid fuel stoves, improvised furnaces, sala- 
manders, or space heaters shall not be permitted in areas of 
repair garages used for repairing or servicing of vehicles or 
in a fuel dispensing area. 

Exception No. 1: Unit heaters, when installed in accordance with 
Chapter 7 ofNFPA 30A, need not meet this requirement. 

Exception No. 2: Heat-froducing equipment for any lubrication mom 
or service room where there is no dispensing or transferring of Class I or 
Class II liquids orLP-Gas, when installed in accordance with Chapter 

7 ofNFPA BOA, need not meet this requirement. [30A:7.6.2] 

42.2.6.3.3 Heat-producing appliances shall be permitted to be 
installed in a special room that is separated from areas that are 
classified as Division 1 or Division 2, in accordance with Chapter 

8 ofNFPA 30A, by walls that are constructed to prevent the trans- 
mission of vapors, that have a fire resistance rating of at least 
1 hour, and that have no openings in the walls that lead to a 
classified area within 8 ft (2.4 m) of the floor. Specific small open- 
ings through the wall, such as for piping and electrical conduit, 
shall be permitted, provided the gaps and voids are filled with a 
fire-resistant material to resist transmission of vapors. All air for 
combustion purposes shall be taken from outside the building. 
This room shall not be used for storage of combustible materials, 
except for fuel storage as permitted by the standards referenced 
in 42.2.6.3.9. [30A:7.6.3] 

42.2.6.3.4 Heat-producing appliances using gas or oil fuel 
shall be permitted to be installed in a lubrication or service 
room where there is no dispensing or transferring of Class I 
liquids, including the open draining of automotive gasoline 
tanks, provided the bottom of the combustion chamlaer is at 
least 18 in. (455 mm) above the floor and the appliances are 
protected from physical damage. [30A:7.6.4] 

42.2.6.3.5 Heat-producing appliances using gas or oil fuel 
listed for use in garages shall be permitted to be installed in 
lubrication rooms, service rooms, or fuel dispensing areas 
where Class 1 liquids are dispensed or transferred, provided 
the equipment is installed at least 8 ft (2.4 m) above the floor. 
[30A:7.6.5] 

42.2.6.3.6* Where major repairs are conducted on CNG-fueled 
vehicles or LNG-fueled vehicles, open flame heaters or heating 
equipment with exposed surfaces having a temperature in excess 
of 750°F (399°C) shall not be permitted in areas subject to ignit- 
able concentrations of gas. [30A:7.6.6] 

42.2.6.3.7 Electrical heat-producing apphances shall meet 
the requirements of Chapter 8 of NFPA30A. [30A:7.6.7] 

42.2.6.3.8 Fuels used shall be of the type and quality specified 
by the manufacturer of the heating appliance. Crankcase drain- 



ings shall not be used in oil-fired appliances, unless the appli- 
ances are specifically approved for such use. [30A:7.6.8] 

42.2.6.3.9 Heat-producing appliances shall be installed to 
meet the requirements of NFPA 90A, NFPA 31, NFPA 54, 
NFPA211, and NFPA 82 as applicable, except as hereinafter 
specifically provided. [30A:7.6.9] 

42.2.7 Operational Requirements. 

42.2.7.1 Scope. Subsection 42.2.7 shall apply to those require- 
ments that relate to the operation of motor fuel dispensing 
facilities and fuel dispensing systems. [30A:9.1] 

42.2.7.2 Basic Requirements. 

42.2.7.2.1* Inventory Control. Accurate daily inventory records 
shall be maintained and reconciled for all liquid fiiel storage 
tanks for indication of possible leakage from tanks or piping. The 
records shall be kept on the premises or shall be made available 
to the AHJ for inspection within 24 hours of a written or verbal 
request. The records shall include, as a minimum and by prod- 
uct, daily reconciliation between sales, use, receipts, and in- 
ventory on hand. If there is more than one storage system 
serving an individual pump or dispensing device for any prod- 
uct, the reconciliation shall be maintained separately for each 
system. [30A:9.2.1] 

42.2.7.2.2 Tank Filling and Bulk Delivery. 

42.2.7.2.2.1 Delivery operations shall meet all applicable re- 
quirements of NFPA 385 and the requirements of 42.2.7.2.2.2 
through 42.2.7.2.2.4. [30A:9.2.2.1] 

42.2.7.2.2.2 The delivery vehicle shall be separated from any 
aboveground tank by at least 25 ft (7.6 m) . 

Exception No. I: No minimum separation distance shall be required 
for tanks that are filled by gravity. 

Exception No. 2: The required minimum separation distance shall be 
permitted to be reduced to 15 ft (4.6 m) where the fuel being delivered is 
not a Class I liquid. [30A:9.2.2.2] 

42.2.7.2.2.3 The delivery vehicle shall be located so that all 
parts of the vehicle are on the premises when delivery is made. 

Exception: Existing fuel dispensing facilities and fuel dispensing fa- 
cilities inside buildings shall not be required to meet this requirement. 
[30A:9.2.2.3] 

42.2.7.2.2.4 Tank filling shall not begin until the delivery op- 
erator has determined that the tank has sufficient available 
capacity (ullage). [30A:9.2.2.4] 

42.2.7.2.2.5 Tanks shall be filled through a liquidtight con- 
nection. Where an aboveground tank is filled by means of 
fixed piping, either a check valve and shutoff valve with a 
quick-connect coupling or a check valve with a dry-break cou- 
pling shall be installed in the piping at a point where connec- 
tion and disconnection is made between the tank and the de- 
livery vehicle. This device shall be protected from tampering 
and physical damage. [30A:9.2.2.5] 

42.2.7.2.3 Dispensing into Containers. 

42.2.7.2.3.1* Class 1 or Class II hquids shall not be dispensed 
into portable containers unless the container is constructed of 
metal or is approved by the AHJ, has a tight closure, and is 
fitted with a spout or so designed that the contents can be 
poured without spilling. The hose nozzle valve shall be manu- 
ally held open during the dispensing operation. [30A:9.2.3.1] 



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42.2.7.2.3.2 No sale or purchase of any Class I, Class II, or 
Class III liquids shall be made in containers unless such con- 
tainers are clearly marked with the name of the product con- 
tained therein. [30A:9.2.3.2] 

42.2.7.2.3.3 Portable containers of 12 gal (45 L) capacity or 
less shall not be filled while they are in or on a motor vehicle 
or marine craft. [30A:9.2.3.3] 

42.2.7.2.4 Dispensing from a Tank That Does Not Exceed 
120 Gal (454 L) and from Containers Inside Buildings. Dis- 
pensing of flammable and combusdble liquids from a tank not 
exceeding 120 gal (454 L) capacity and from containers in a 
motor fuel dispensing facility or in a repair garage building 
shall meet the requirements of 42.2.7.2.4.1 and 42.2.7.2.4.2. 
(See 42.2.3. 10 for storage quantity limitations.) [30A:9.2.4] 

42.2.7.2.4.1 Not more than one container of Class I liquid shall 
be permitted to be provided with a dispensing pump inside a 
building at any one time. The number of tanks or containers of 
Class II or Class IlIA liquids fitted for dispensing at any one time 
shall not be limited, except as provided for in 42.2.3.10.2. The 
number of tanks or containers of Class IllB liquids fitted for dis- 
pensing at any one time shall not be limited. [30A:9.2.4.1] 

42.2.7.2.4.2 Class I, Class II, and Class IIIA liquids shall not be 
dispensed by applying pressure to tanks or containers. Listed 
pumps that take suction through the top of the tank or con- 
tainer or listed self-closing faucets shall be used. [30A:9.2.4.2] 

42.2.7.2.5 Basic Fire Control. 

42.2.7.2.5.1 Sources of Ignition. Smoking materials, includ- 
ing matches and lighters, shall not be used within 20 ft (6 m) 
of areas used for fueling, servicing fuel systems of internal 
combustion engines, or receiving or dispensing of Class I and 
Class II liquids. The motors of all equipment being fueled 
shall be shut off during the fueling operation except for emer- 
gency generators, pumps, and so forth, where continuing of)- 
eration is essential. [30A;9.2.5.1] 

42.2.7.2.5.2 Fine Extinguishers. Each motor fuel dispensing fa- 
cility or repair garage shall be provided with fire extinguishers 
installed, inspected, and maintained as required by Section 13.6. 
Extinguishers for outside motor fuel dispensing areas shall be 
provided according to the extra (high) hazard requirements for 
Class B hazards, except that the maximum travel distance to a 80 
B:C extinguisher shall be permitted to be 100 feet. [30A;9.2.5.2] 

42.2.7.2.5.3 Fire Suppression Systems. Where required, auto- 
matic fire suppression systems shall be installed in accordance 
with the appropriate NFPA standard, manufacturers' instruc- 
tions, and the listing requirements of the systems. [30A;9.2.5.3] 

42.2.7.2.5.4* Signs. Warning signs shall be conspicuously 
posted in the dispensing area and shall incorporate the follow- 
ing or equivalent wording: 

WARNING: 

It is unlawful and dangerous to dispense gasoline into unap- 
proved containers. 

No smoking. 

Stop motor. 

No filling of portable containers in or on a motor vehicle. 

Place container on ground before filling. 

Discharge your static electricity before fueling by touching a 
metal surface away from the nozzle. 

Do not re-enter your vehicle while gasoline is pumping. 

If a fire starts, do not remove nozzle — back away immediately. 

Do not allow individuals under licensed age to use the pump. 

[30A:9.2.5.4] 



42.2.7.2.6 Waste Handling. 

42.2.7.2.6.1 Crankcase drainings and waste liquids shall not 
be dumped into sewers, into streams, or on the ground. They 
shall be stored in approved tanks or containers outside any 
building, or in tanks installed in accordance with Chapter 4 
and Chapter 5 of NFPA30A, until removed from the premises. 

Exception: As provided for in 42.2.3.10.3. [30A:9.2.6.1] 

42.2.7.2.6.2 The contents of oil separators and traps of floor 
drainage systems shall be collected at sufficiendy frequent inter- 
vals to prevent oil from being carried into sewers. [30A:9.2.6.2] 

42.2.7.2.7 Housekeeping. The dispensing area and the area 
within any dike shall be kept free of vegetation, debris, and 
any other material that is not necessary to the proper opera- 
tion of the motor fuel dispensing facihty. [30A:9.2.7] 

42.2.7.2.8 Fire Doors. Fire doors shall be kept unobstructed 
at all times. Appropriate signs and markings shall be used. 
[30A:9.2.8] 

42.2.7.3 Operating Requirements for FuD-Service Motor Fuel 
Dispensing Facilities. Each motor fuel dispensing facility shall 
have an attendant or supervisor on duty whenever the facility 
is open for business. The attendant or supervisor shall dis- 
pense liquids into fuel tanks or into containers, except as cov- 
ered in 42.2.7.4 and 42.2.7.5. [30A:9.3] 

42.2.7.4 Operating Requirements for Attended Self-Service 
Motor Fuel Dispensing Facilities. 

42.2.7.4.1 Self-service motor fuel dispensing facility shall mean 
that portion of a property where liquids used as motor fuels are 
stored and dispensed from fixed, approved dispensing equif)- 
ment into the fuel tanks of rnotor vehicles by persons other than 
the fecility attendant and shall also include, where provided, fa- 
cilities for the sale of other retail products. [30A:9.4.1] 

42.2.7.4.2 There shall be at least one attendant on duty while 
the self-service facility is open for business. The attendant's 
primary function shall be to supervise, observe, and control 
the dispensing of Class I liquids while said liquids are actually 
being (dispensed. [30A:9.4.2] 

42.2.7.4.3 The responsibility of the attendant shall be as follows: 

(1) Prevent the dispensing of Class 1 liquids into portable 
containers not in compliance writh 42.2.7.2.3.1 

(2) Prevent the use of hose nozzle valve latch-open devices 
that do not comply with 42.2.5.6.2 

(3) Control sources of ignition 

(4) Immediately activate emergency controls and notify the 
fire department of any fire or other emergency 

(5) Handle accidental spills and fire extinguishers if needed 
[30A:9.4.3] 

42.2.7.4.3.1 The attendant or supervisor on duty shall be men- 
tally and physicEilly capable of peiforming the fvinctions and as- 
suming the responsibility prescribed in 42.2.7.4. [30A:9.4.3.1] 

42.2.7.4.4 Operating instructions shall be conspicuously posted 
in the dispensing area. [30A:9.4.4] 

42.2.7.5 Operating Requirememts for Unattended Self-Service 
Motor Fuel Dispensing Facilities. 

42.2.7.5.1 Unattended self-service facilities shall be permit- 
ted, where approved by the AHJ. [30A:9.5.1] 

42.2.7.5.2 Operating instrtictions shall be conspicuously posted 
in the dispensing area. The instructions shall include location of 



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UNIFORM FIRE CODE 



emergency controls and a requirement that the user stay outside 
of his/her vehicle and in view of the fueling nozzle during dis- 
pensing. [30A:9.5.2] 

42.2.7.5.3 In addition to the warning signs specified in 
42.2.7.2.5.4, emergency instructions shall be conspicuously 
posted in the dispenser area. The instructions shall incor- 
porate the following or equivalent wording: 

Emergency Instructions 
In case of fire or spill 

(1) Use emergency stop button. 

(2) Report accident by calling {specify heal fire 
number) on the phone. Report location. 
[30A:9.5.3] 

42.2.7.5.4 A listed, automatic-closing-type hose nozzle valve 
with latch-open device shall be provided. The hose nozzle 
valve shall meet the requirements of 42.2.5.6.3. [30A:9.5.4] 

42.2.7.5.5 A telephone or other approved, clearly identified 
means to notify the fire department shall be provided on the 
site in a location approved by the AHJ. [30A:9.5.5] 

42.2.7.5.6* Additional fire protection shall be provided where 
required by the AHJ. [30A:9.5.6] 

42.2.7.6 Refueling from Tank Vehicles. The dispensing of 
Class I and Class II liquids in the open from a tank vehicle to a 
motor vehicle located at commercial, industrial, governmen- 
tal, or manufacturing establishments and intended for fueling 
vehicles used in connection with their businesses shall be per- 
mitted only if all of the requirements of 42.2.7.6.1 through 
42.2.7.6.7 have been met. [30A:9.6] 

42.2.7.6.1 An inspection of the premises and operations shall 
be made and operations shall not be conducted unless ap- 
proved by the AHJ. [30A:9.6.1] 

42.2.7.6.2 The tank vehicle shall comply with the require- 
ments of NFPA 385. [30A:9.6.2] 

42.2.7.6.3 The dispensing hose shall not exceed 50 ft (15 m) 
in length. [30A:9.6.3] 

42.2.7.6.4 The dispensing nozzle shall be a listed, automatic- 
closing type without a latch-open device. [30A:9.6.4] 

42.2.7.6.5 Nightdme deliveries shall only be made in areas 
deemed adequately lighted by the AHJ. [30A:9.6.5] 

42.2.7.6.6 The tank vehicle flasher lights shall be in opera- 
tion while dispensing operations are in progress. [30A:9.6.6] 

42.2.7.6.7 Expansion space shall be left in each fuel tank to 
prevent overflow in the event of temperature increase. 

[30A:9.6.7] 

42.2.8 Additional Requirements for CNG, LNG, and LPG. 

42.2.8.1 Scope. Subsecdon 42.2.8 shall apply where CNG, 
LNG, or LP-Gas, or combinations of these, are dispensed as 
motor vehicle fuels along with Class I or Class II liquids that 
are also dispensed as motor vehicle fuels. [30A:12.1] 

42.2.8.2 General Requirements. 

42.2.8.2. 1 The installation and use of CNG systems shall meet 
the requirements of NFPA 52 except as modified by 42.2.8. 
The installation and use of LNG systems shall meet the re- 
quirements of NFPA 52 except as modified by 42.2.8. The in- 
stallation and use of LP-Gas systems shall meet the require- 
ments of NFPA 58 except as modified by 42.2.8. [30A: 12.2.1] 



42.2.8.2.2 A means shall be provided that connects to the dis- 
penser supply piping and that prevents flow in the event that the 
dispenser is displaced from its mounting. [30A:12.2.2] 

42.2.8.2.3 Dispensing devices for CNG, LNG, and LP-Gas shall 
be listed. [30A:12.2.3] 

42.2.8.2.4 Listed hose assemblies shall be used to dispense 
fuel. Hose length at automotive motor fuel dispensing facili- 
des shall not exceed 18 ft (5.5 m). [30A:12.2.4] 

42.2.8.3 Fuel Storage. 

42.2.8.3.1 Aboveground tanks storing CNG or LNG shall be 
separated from any adjacent property line that is or can be 
built upon, any public way, and the nearest important building 
on the same property by not less than the distances given in 
Section 4.4 of NFPA 52. [30A:12.3.1] 

42.2.8.3.2 Aboveground tanks storing LP-Gas shall be sepa- 
rated from any adjacent property line that is or can be built 
upon, any public way, and the nearest important building on 
the same property by not less than the distances given in 3.2.2 
ofNFPA58. [30A:12.3.2] 

42.2.8.3.3* Aboveground tanks storing CNG, LNG, or LP-Gas 
shall be separated from each other by at least 20 ft (6 m) and 
from dispensing devices that dispense liquid or gaseous motor 
vehicle fuels by at least 50 ft (15 m). 

Exception No. 1: This required separation shall not apply to tanks 
storing fuels that have the same chemical composition. 

Exception No. 2: When both the gaseous fuel storage and dispensing 
equipment are at least 50 ft (15 m)from any other aboveground motor 
fuel storage or dispensing equipment, the requirements of NFPA 52 or 
NFPA 58, whichever is applicable, shall apply. [30A:12.3.3] 

42.2.8.3.4 Aboveground storage tanks for the storage of 
CNG, LNG, or LP-Gas shall be provided with physical protec- 
tion in accordance with 42.2.3.8. [30A:12.3.4] 

42.2.8.3.5 Horizontal separation shall not be required be- 
tween aboveground tanks storing CNG, LNG, or LP-Gas and 
underground tanks containing Class I or Class II liquids, pro- 
vided the structural limitations of the underground tanks are 
not exceeded. [30A:12.3.5] 

42.2.8.4 Dispenser Installations Beneath Canopies. Where CNG 
or LNG dispensers are installed beneath a canopy or enclosure, 
either the canopy or enclosure shall be designed to prevent accu- 
mulation or entrapment of ignitable vapors or all electrical 
equipment installed beneath the canopy or enclosure shall be 
suitable for Class I, Division 2 hazardous (classified) locations. 
[30A:12.4] 

42.2.8.5 Specific Requirements for LP-Gas Dispensing Devices. 

42.2.8.5.1 Dispensing devices for LP-Gas shall meet all appli- 
cable requirements of Chapter 69 and shall incorporate a dis- 
pensingnozzle that releases not more than 0.12in.^ (2cm^) of 
liquid LP-Gas upon disconnection. [30A:12.5.1] 

42.2.8.5.2 Dispensing devices for LP-Gas shall be located not 
less than 5 ft (1.5 m) from any dispensing device for Class I 
liquids. [30A:12.5.2] 

42.2.8.6 Electrical Equipment. 

42.2.8.6.1 All electrical v«ring and electrical utilization 
equipment shall be of a type specified by, and shall be installed 
in accordance with, Section 11.1. [30A: 12.6.1] 



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42.2.8.6.2* Table 42.2.8.6.2 shall be used to delineate and clas- 
sify areas for the purpose of installation of electrical wiring 
and electrical utihzation equipment. [30A:12.6.2] 

42.3 Marine Fueling. 

42.3.1 Scope. 

42.3.1.1 Section 42.3 shall apply to that portion of a property 
where liquids used as fuels are stored, handled, and dispensed 
from equipment located on shore or from equipment located 
on piers, wharves, or floating docks into the fuel tanks of ma- 
rine craft, including incidental activity, except as covered else- 
where in NFPA30A or in other NFPA standards. [30A:1 1.1.1] 

42.3.1.2 Section 42.3 shall not apply to the following: 

(1) Bulk plant or terminal loading and unloading facilities 

(2) Transfer of liquids utilizing a flange-to-flange closed transfer 
piping system 

(3) Marine motor fuel dispensing facilities where liquids used 
as fuels are stored and dispensed into the fuel tanks of 
marine craft of 300 gross tons (272 metric tons) or more 
[30A:11.1.2] 

42.3.1.3 For the purpose of Secrion 42.3, the word pier shaU 
also mean dock, floating dock, and wharf. [3(JA:11.1.3] 

42.3.1.4 Permits. Permits, where required, shall comply with 
Section 1.12. 

42.3.2 Storage. 

42.3.2.1 Liquids shall be stored in tanks or containers com- 
plying with 42.2.3.3. [30A:11.2.1] 

42.3.2.2* Tanks that supply marine motor fuel dispensing fa- 
cilities shall be located on shore or on a pier of the solid-fill 
type. Pumps that are not integral with the dispensing device 
shall also be located on shore or on a pier of the solid-fill type. 

Exception: Tanks shall be permitted with the approval of the AH] to be 
located on a pier, provided the installation meets all applicable require- 
ments of Chapter 4 and Chapter 5 and 7.9.5 of NFPA 30 and the 
quantity stored does not exceed 1100 gal (4164 L) a^egate capacity. 
[30A:11.2.2] 



42.3.2.3 Where a tank is at an elevation that produces a grav- 
ity head on the dispensing device, the tank outlet shall be 
equipped with a device, such as a normally closed solenoid 
valve, that will prevent gravity flow from the tank to the dis- 
penser. This device shall be located adjacent to and down- 
stream of the outiet valve specified by 4.3.2.5.1 of NFPA 30. 
The device shall be installed and adjusted so that liquid can- 
not flow by gravity from the tank to the dispenser if the piping 
or hose fails when the dispenser is not in use. [30A:H.2.3] 

42.3.3 Piping Systems. : 

42.3.3.1 Piping shall be installed in accordance with all appli- 
cable requirements of Chapter 5 of NFPA30A. [30A:1 1.3.1] 

42.3.3.2 Piping systems shall be supported and protected 
against physical damage and stresses arising from impact, 
settlement, vibration, expansion, contraction, and tidal ac- 
tion. [30A:11.3.2] 

42.3.3.3 Means shall be provided to ensure flexibility of the 
piping system in the event of mo